The molecular basis of plant osmosensing remains unknown. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Histidine Kinase1 (AHK1) can complement the osmosensitivity of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) osmosensor mutants lacking Synthetic Lethal of N-end rule1 and SH3-containing Osmosensor and has been proposed to act as a plant osmosensor. We found that ahk1 mutants in either the Arabidopsis Nossen-0 or Columbia-0 background had increased stomatal density and stomatal index consistent with greater transpirational water loss. However, the growth of ahk1 mutants was not more sensitive to controlled moderate low water potential (ψw) or to salt stress. Also, ahk1 mutants had increased, rather than reduced, solute accumulation across a range of low ψw severities. ahk1mutants had reduced low ψw induction of Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase1 (P5CS1) and 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase3, which encode rate-limiting enzymes in proline and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis, respectively. However, neither Pro nor ABA accumulation was reduced in ahk1 mutants at lowψw. P5CS1 protein level was not reduced in ahk1 mutants. This indicated that proline accumulation was regulated in part by posttranscriptional control of P5CS1 that was not affected by AHK1. Expression of AHK1 itself was reduced by low ψw, in contrast to previous reports. These results define a role of AHK1 in controlling stomatal density and the transcription of stress-responsive genes. These phenotypes may be mediated in part by reduced ABA sensitivity. More rapid transpiration and water depletion can also explain the previously reported sensitivity of ahk1 to uncontrolled soil drying. The unimpaired growth, ABA, proline, and solute accumulation of ahk1 mutants at low ψw suggest that AHK1 may not be the main plant osmosensor required for low ψw tolerance.