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Current Biology - Cytokinins Control Endocycle Onset by Promoting the Expression of an APC/C Activator in Arabidopsis Roots

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cytokinin-activated ARR2 directly upregulates the expression of CCS52A1, which encodes an activator of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) [6], thereby promoting the onset of the endocycle and restricting meristem size. Our genetic data revealed that CCS52A1 function is independent of SHY2-mediated control of auxin signaling, indicating that downregulation of auxin signaling and APC/C-mediated degradation of cell-cycle regulators cooperatively promote endocycle onset, and thus fine tune root growth.

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Nitrogen-dependent regulation of de novo cytokinin biosynthesis in rice: the role of glutamine metabolism as an additional signal

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IPT3, is regulated by inorganic nitrogen sources in a nitrate-specific manner. In this study, we have identified another regulatory system of cytokinin de novo biosynthesis in response to nitrogen status. In rice, OsIPT4, OsIPT5, OsIPT7, and OsIPT8 were up-regulated in response to exogenously applied nitrate and ammonium with accompanying accumulation of cytokinins. Pretreatment of roots with L-methionine sulfoximine, a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, abolished the nitrate- and ammonium-dependent induction of OsIPT4 and OsIPT5, while glutamine application induced their expression. Thus, neither nitrate nor ammonium but glutamine or a related metabolite is essential for the induction of these IPTs in rice. On the other hand, glutamine-dependent induction of IPT3 occurs in Arabidopsis, at least to some extent. In transgenic lines repressing the expression of OsIPT4, which is the dominant IPT in rice roots, the nitrogen-dependent increase of cytokinin in the xylem sap was significantly reduced, and seedling shoot growth was retarded despite sufficient nitrogen.

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Macro Timelapse

Kamera und Schnitt: Daniel Csobot www.danic.me www.novalapse.com Technik: Canon 7D Kessler CineSlider Canon EF 100mm Macro Canon 15-85mm Fotozelt Tageslichtlampen Lizenzierung…

Via Mary Williams, ROOTSPROUT
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Plant Physiology: Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants

Plant Physiology: Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants | plant developments | Scoop.it

Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens and cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of 56 genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein SAP54 that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen, and reports the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Ali Taheri, ROOTSPROUT
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A Role for APETALA1/FRUITFULL Transcription Factors in Tomato Leaf Development

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AP1/FUL) MADS box genes are involved in tomato leaf development and are repressed by LA. AP1/FUL expression is correlated negatively with LA activity and positively with the organogenic activity of the leaf margin. LA binds to the promoters of the AP1/FUL genes MBP20 and TM4. Overexpression of MBP20 suppressed the simple-leaf phenotype resulting from upregulation of LA activity or from downregulation of class I knotted like homeobox (KNOXI) activity. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of MBP20 led to leaf simplification and partly suppressed the increased leaf complexity of plants with reduced LA activity or increased KNOXI activity. Tomato plants overexpressing miR319, a negative regulator of several CIN-TCP genes including LA, flower with fewer leaves via an SFT-dependent pathway, suggesting that miR319-sensitive CIN-TCPs delay flowering in tomato. These results identify a role for AP1/FUL genes in vegetative development and show that leaf and plant maturation are regulated via partially independent mechanisms.

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Arabidopsis MSI1 connects LHP1 to PRC2 complexes : Abstract : The EMBO Journal

Arabidopsis MSI1 connects LHP1 to PRC2 complexes : Abstract : The EMBO Journal | plant developments | Scoop.it
The EMBO Journal encourages and publishes articles that report novel findings of wide biological significance in the areas of development, immunology, neuroscience, plant biology, structural biology, genomic & computational biology, genome...
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MSI1 was required for the functions of the EMBRYONIC FLOWER and the VERNALIZATION PRC2 complexes including trimethylation of histone H3 Lys27 (H3K27) at the target chromatin, as well as gene repression and establishment of competence to flower. We found that MSI1 serves to link PRC2 to LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), a protein that binds H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo and is required for a functional plant PcG system. The LHP1–MSI1 interaction forms a positive feedback loop to recruit PRC2 to chromatin that carries H3K27me3. Consequently, this can provide a mechanism for the faithful inheritance of local epigenetic information through replication.

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Transcriptional repression of BODENLOS by HD-ZIP transcription factor HB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana

Transcriptional repression of BODENLOS by HD-ZIP transcription factor HB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited high CKX activity in the roots under control conditions. Under stress, the activity of the WRKY6 promoter was down-regulated and the concomitantly reduced cytokinin degradation coincided with raised bioactive cytokinin levels during the early phase of the stress response, which might contribute to enhanced stress tolerance of this genotype. Constitutive expression of CKX1 resulted in an enlarged root system, a stunted, dwarf shoot phenotype, and a low basal level of expression of the dehydration marker gene ERD10B. The high drought tolerance of this genotype was associated with a relatively moderate drop in leaf water potential and a significant decrease in leaf osmotic potential. Basal expression of the proline biosynthetic gene P5CSA was raised. Both wild-type and WRKY6:CKX1 plants responded to heat stress by transient elevation of stomatal conductance, which correlated with an enhanced abscisic acid catabolism. 35S:CKX1 transgenic plants exhibited a small and delayed stomatal response. Nevertheless, they maintained a lower leaf temperature than the other genotypes. Heat shock applied to drought-stressed plants exaggerated the negative stress effects, probably due to the additional water loss caused by a transient stimulation of transpiration. The results indicate that modulation of cytokinin levels may positively affect plant responses to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological mechanisms.

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Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by non-proteolytic GA signaling

Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by non-proteolytic GA signaling | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

Although DELLA cannot be destroyed in the sly1-2 F-box mutant, long dry after-ripening and GID1 overexpression can relieve the strong sly1-2 seed dormancy phenotype. It appears that sly1-2 seed dormancy results from ABA signaling downstream of DELLA since dormant sly1-2 seeds accumulate high levels of ABA hormone and loss of ABA sensitivity rescues sly1-2 seed germination. DELLA positively regulates the expression of XERICO, an inducer of ABA biosynthesis. GID1b overexpression rescues sly1-2 germination through proteolysis-independent DELLA down-regulation associated with increased expression of GA-inducible genes and decreased ABA accumulation, apparently as a result of decreased XERICO mRNA levels. Higher levels of GID1 overexpression are associated with more efficient sly1 germination and increased GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation, suggesting that GID1 downregulates DELLA through protein binding. After-ripening results in increased GA accumulation and GID1a-dependent GA signaling, suggesting that after-ripening triggers GA-stimulated GID1-GA-DELLA protein complex formation which in turn blocks DELLA transcriptional activation of the XERICO inhibitor of seed germination.

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Differential Effects of the Peptides Stomagen, EPF1 and EPF2 on Activation of MAP Kinase MPK6 and the SPCH Protein Level

Differential Effects of the Peptides Stomagen, EPF1 and EPF2 on Activation of MAP Kinase MPK6 and the SPCH Protein Level | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

EPF1 and EPF2 are able to activate the MAP kinase MPK6, and that both EPF1 and EPF2 are able to decrease the SPCH level, whereas stomagen is able to increase it. Our data also suggest that EPF1 can be recognized by TMM together with any ER family receptor kinase, whereas EPF2 can be recognized by TMM together with ERL1 or ERL2, but not by TMM together with ER.

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M. truncatula histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein: structural and biochemical insights into cytokinin transduction pathway in plants - Ruszkowski - FEBS Journal - Wiley Online Library

M. truncatula histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein: structural and biochemical insights into cytokinin transduction pathway in plants - Ruszkowski - FEBS Journal - Wiley Online Library | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

The structure reveals a solvent-exposed side chain of His79, which is the phosphorylation site, as demonstrated by autoradiography combined with site-directed mutation. It is surrounded by highly conserved residues present in all plant HPts. These residues form a putative docking interface for either the receiver domain of the sensory kinase, or for the response regulator. The biological activity of MtHPt1 was tested by autoradiography. It demonstrated phosphorylation by the intracellular kinase domain of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1. Complex formation between MtHPt1 and the intracellular fragment of MtCRE1 was confirmed by thermophoresis, with a dissociation constant Kd of 14 μM

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SCFKMD controls cytokinin signaling by regulating the degradation of type-B response regulators

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KISS ME DEADLY (KMD) family, targets type-B ARR proteins for degradation. KMD proteins form an S-PHASE KINASE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1 (SKP1)/Cullin/F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and directly interact with type-B ARR proteins. Loss-of-function KMD mutants stabilize type-B ARRs and exhibit an enhanced cytokinin response. In contrast, plants with elevated KMD expression destabilize type-B ARR proteins leading to cytokinin insensitivity. Our results support a model in which an SCFKMD complex negatively regulates cytokinin responses by controlling levels of a key family of transcription factors.

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Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase 1 is a Key Enzyme Catalyzing Cytokinin Conversion from Nucleobases to Nucleotides in Arabidopsis

Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase 1 is a Key Enzyme Catalyzing Cytokinin Conversion from Nucleobases to Nucleotides in Arabidopsis | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

APT1 catalyzes the cytokinin conversion from free bases to nucleotides, and is functionally predominant among the five members of the Arabidopsis Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase family. Loss of APT1 activity in plants leads to excess accumulation of cytokinin bases, thus evoking myriad cytokinin-regulated responses, such as delayed leaf senescence, anthocyanin accumulation, and downstream gene expression. Thus, our study defines APT1 as a key metabolic enzyme participating in the cytokinin inactivation by phosphoribosylation.

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Polar auxin transport: models and mechanisms

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Spatial patterns of the hormone auxin are important drivers of plant development. The observed feedback between the active, directed transport that generates auxin patterns and the auxin distribution that influences transport orientation has rendered this a popular subject for modelling studies. Here we propose a new mathematical framework for the analysis of polar auxin transport and present a detailed mathematical analysis of published models. We show that most models allow for self-organised patterning for similar biological assumptions, and find that the pattern generated is typically unidirectional, unless additional assumptions or mechanisms are incorporated. Our analysis thus suggests that current models cannot explain the bidirectional fountain-type patterns found in plant meristems in a fully self-organised manner, and we discuss future research directions to address the gaps in our understanding of auxin transport mechanisms.

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Lateral root formation and growth of Arabidopsis is redundantly regulated by cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes

Lateral root formation and growth of Arabidopsis is redundantly regulated by cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes | plant developments | Scoop.it
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Mutation of AHK2 and AHK3 caused increased auxin sensitivity of LR formation, corroborating the functional relevance of auxin–cytokinin interaction during LR formation. In contrast, LR development of cytokinin receptor mutants in response to other hormones was mostly similar to that of the wild type, which is consistent with separate response pathways. A noticeable exception was an increased sensitivity of LR elongation to brassinolide in ahk2 ahk3 mutants indicating antagonistic action of cytokinin and brassinosteroid.

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Developmental Cell - An Imprinted Gene Underlies Postzygotic Reproductive Isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Postzygotic reproductive isolation in response to interploidy hybridizations is a well-known phenomenon in plants that forms a major path for sympatric speciation. A main determinant for the failure of interploidy hybridizations is the endosperm, a nutritious tissue supporting embryo growth, similar to the functional role of the placenta in mammals. Although it has been suggested that deregulated imprinted genes underpin dosage sensitivity of the endosperm, the molecular basis for this phenomenon remained unknown. In a genetic screen for suppressors of triploid seed abortion, we have identified the paternally expressed imprinted gene ADMETOS (ADM). Here, we present evidence that increased dosage of ADM causes triploid seed arrest. A large body of theoretical work predicted that deregulated imprinted genes establish the barrier to interploidy hybridization. Our study thus provides evidence strongly supporting this hypothesis and generates the molecular basis for our understanding of postzygotic hybridization barriers in plants.

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JExpBot: Gated communities: apoplastic and symplastic signals converge at plasmodesmata to control cell fates

JExpBot: Gated communities: apoplastic and symplastic signals converge at plasmodesmata to control cell fates | plant developments | Scoop.it

"This review focuses on developmental decisions that are coordinated by short- and long-distance communication of cells via plasmodesmatas (PD). We propose a model combining both apoplastic and symplastic signalling events via secreted ligands and their PD-localized receptor kinases which gate the symplastic transport of information molecules through PDs. Cell communities can thus coordinate cell-fate decisions non-cell autonomously by connecting or disconnecting symplastic subdomains."


Via Mary Williams, ROOTSPROUT
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Frontiers | Arabidopsis HD-Zip II transcription factors control apical embryo development and meristem function.

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progressive loss of HAT3, ATHB4 and ATHB2 activity causes developmental defects from embryogenesis onwards in white light. Cotyledon development and number are altered in hat3 athb4 embryos, and these defects correlate with changes in auxin distribution and response. athb2 gain-of-function mutation and ATHB2 expression driven by its promoter in hat3 athb4 result in significant attenuation of phenotypes, thus demonstrating that ATHB2 is functionally redundant to HAT3 and ATHB4. In analogy to loss-of-function mutations in HD-Zip III genes, loss of HAT3 and ATHB4 results in organ polarity defects, whereas triple hat3 athb4 athb2 mutants develop one or two radialized cotyledons and lack an active shoot apical meristem (SAM). Consistent with overlapping expression pattern of HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III gene family members, bilateral symmetry and SAM defects are enhanced when hat3 athb4 is combined with mutations in PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) or REVOLUTA (REV). Finally, we show that ATHB2 is part of a complex regulatory circuit directly involving both HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III proteins. Taken together, our study provides evidence that a genetic system consisting of HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III genes cooperates in establishing bilateral symmetry and patterning along the adaxial-abaxial axis in the embryo as well as in controlling SAM activity.

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Symplastic Intercellular Connectivity Regulates Lateral Root Patterning

Symplastic Intercellular Connectivity Regulates Lateral Root Patterning | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

role of plasmodesmata (PD)-mediated transport in this process has not been investigated. Here, we show that changes in symplastic connectivity accompany and regulate lateral root organogenesis in Arabidopsis. This connectivity is dependent upon callose deposition around PD affecting molecular flux through the channel. Two plasmodesmal-localized β-1,3 glucanases (PdBGs) were identified that regulate callose accumulation and the number and distribution of lateral roots. The fundamental role of PD-associated callose in this process was illustrated by the induction of similar phenotypes in lines with altered callose turnover. Our results show that regulation of callose and cell-to-cell connectivity is critical in determining the pattern of lateral root formation, which influences root architecture and optimal plant performance.

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Developmental Cell - Symplastic Intercellular Connectivity Regulates Lateral Root Patterning

PMG's insight:

changes in symplastic connectivity accompany and regulate lateral root organogenesis in Arabidopsis. This connectivity is dependent upon callose deposition around PD affecting molecular flux through the channel. Two plasmodesmal-localized β-1,3 glucanases (PdBGs) were identified that regulate callose accumulation and the number and distribution of lateral roots. The fundamental role of PD-associated callose in this process was illustrated by the induction of similar phenotypes in lines with altered callose turnover. Our results show that regulation of callose and cell-to-cell connectivity is critical in determining the pattern of lateral root formation, which influences root architecture and optimal plant performance.

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Enhanced drought and heat stress tolerance of tobacco plants with ectopically enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene expression

Enhanced drought and heat stress tolerance of tobacco plants with ectopically enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene expression | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited high CKX activity in the roots under control conditions. Under stress, the activity of the WRKY6 promoter was down-regulated and the concomitantly reduced cytokinin degradation coincided with raised bioactive cytokinin levels during the early phase of the stress response, which might contribute to enhanced stress tolerance of this genotype. Constitutive expression of CKX1 resulted in an enlarged root system, a stunted, dwarf shoot phenotype, and a low basal level of expression of the dehydration marker gene ERD10B. The high drought tolerance of this genotype was associated with a relatively moderate drop in leaf water potential and a significant decrease in leaf osmotic potential. Basal expression of the proline biosynthetic gene P5CSA was raised. Both wild-type and WRKY6:CKX1 plants responded to heat stress by transient elevation of stomatal conductance, which correlated with an enhanced abscisic acid catabolism. 35S:CKX1 transgenic plants exhibited a small and delayed stomatal response. Nevertheless, they maintained a lower leaf temperature than the other genotypes. Heat shock applied to drought-stressed plants exaggerated the negative stress effects, probably due to the additional water loss caused by a transient stimulation of transpiration. The results indicate that modulation of cytokinin levels may positively affect plant responses to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological mechanisms.

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Endogenous cytokinin in developing kiwifruit is implicated in maintaining fruit flesh chlorophyll levels

Endogenous cytokinin in developing kiwifruit is implicated in maintaining fruit flesh chlorophyll levels | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

levels of cytokinin increase markedly during fruit ripening, and that cytokinin metabolism is differentially regulated in the fruit of the green and gold species. However, the causal factor(s) associated with the maintenance or loss of chlorophyll in kiwifruit during ripening remains obscure.

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In Planta Analysis of a cis-Regulatory Cytokinin Response Motif in Arabidopsis and Identification of a Novel Enhancer Sequence

In Planta Analysis of a cis-Regulatory Cytokinin Response Motif in Arabidopsis and Identification of a Novel Enhancer Sequence | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5′-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3′ or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5′-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3′. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between −220 and −193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes.

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Current Biology - Phyllotaxis and Rhizotaxis in Arabidopsis Are Modified by Three PLETHORA Transcription Factors

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PLETHORA3 (PLT3), PLT5, and PLT7, are expressed in incipient lateral root primordia where they are required for primordium development and lateral root emergence. Furthermore, all three PLT proteins prevent the formation of primordia close to one another, because, in their absence, successive lateral root primordia are frequently grouped in close longitudinal or radial clusters. The triple plt mutant phenotype is rescued by PLT-vYFP fusion proteins, which are expressed in the shoot meristem as well as the root, but not by expression of PLT7 in the shoot alone. Expression of all three PLT genes requires auxin response factors ARF7 and ARF19, and the reintroduction of PLT activity suffices to rescue lateral root formation in arf7,arf19.

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BRANCHED1 Interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to Repress the Floral Transition of the Axillary Meristems in Arabidopsis

BRANCHED1 Interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to Repress the Floral Transition of the Axillary Meristems in Arabidopsis | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

BRC1 interacts with the florigen proteins FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) but not with TERMINAL FLOWER1, a floral repressor. FT protein induced in leaves moves into the subtended bud, suggesting that FT protein also plays a role in promotion of the floral transition in the axillary meristem (AM). The brc1-2 mutant shows an earlier floral transition in the axillary shoots compared with the wild type, suggesting that BRC1 plays a role in delaying the floral transition of the AMs. Genetic and gene expression analyses suggest that BRC1 interferes with florigen (FT and TSF) function in the AMs. Consistent with this, BRC1 ectopically expressed in the shoot apical meristem delays the floral transition in the main shoot.

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Two WUSCHEL-related homeobox Genes, narrow leaf2 and narrow leaf3, Control Leaf Width in Rice

Two WUSCHEL-related homeobox Genes, narrow leaf2 and narrow leaf3, Control Leaf Width in Rice | plant developments | Scoop.it
PMG's insight:

narrow-leaf phenotype of FL90, a linkage tester line of rice (Oryza sativa). Light and scanning electron microscopic analyses of FL90 leaves revealed defects in the development of marginal regions and a reduction in the number of longitudinal veins. The narrow-leaf phenotype of FL90 shows a two-factor recessive inheritance and is caused by the loss of function of two WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes, NAL2 and NAL3 (NAL2/3), which are duplicate genes orthologous to maize NS1 and NS2 and to Arabidopsis PRS. The overexpression of NAL2/3 in transgenic rice plants results in wider leaves containing increased numbers of veins, suggesting that NAL2/3 expression regulates leaf width.

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