six homologous auxin receptors (TIR1 and 5 AFBs), 29 Aux/IAA proteins, and two types of active auxins, IAA and phenylacetic acid. Therefore, a large number of possible combinations between these three factors may contribute to the creation of complex auxin responses. Using a yeast heterologous reconstitution system, we investigated auxin-dependent degradation of all Arabidopsis Aux/IAAs in combination with every TIR or AFB receptor component. We found that TIR1 and AFB2 were effective in mediating Aux/IAA degradation. We confirmed that the Aux/IAA domain II, which binds TIR1, is essential for degradation. IAA and other natural auxins, 4-Cl-IAA and phenylacetic acid, induced Aux/IAA degradation; and IAA and 4-Cl-IAA had higher activity than PAA. Effective auxin concentrations for Aux/IAA degradation depended on both Aux/IAAs and TIR1 or AFB2 receptors, which is consistent with the Aux/IAA–TIR1/AFB co-receptor concept.
initial processes of Arabidopsis thaliana axillary meristem initiation. Using reporter gene expression analysis, we find that axillary meristems initiate from leaf axil cells with low auxin through stereotypical stages. Consistent with this, ectopic overproduction of auxin in the leaf axil efficiently inhibits axillary meristem initiation. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that auxin efflux is required for the leaf axil auxin minimum and axillary meristem initiation. After lowering of auxin levels, a subsequent cytokinin signaling pulse is observed prior to axillary meristem initiation. Genetic analysis suggests that cytokinin perception and signaling are both required for axillary meristem initiation. Finally, we show that cytokinin overproduction in the leaf axil partially rescue axillary meristem initiation-deficient mutants. These results define a mechanistic framework for understanding axillary meristem initiation.
the knockout plants showed increased levels of the N 6-isopentenyladenine (iP)- andtrans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins, considered to provide active forms, while cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins were reduced. The data provide evidence for an additional and unexpected tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthetic pathway in moss. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates a diversification of tRNA-IPT-like genes in bryophytes probably related to additional functions.
Cytokinin enhances the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transporter depletion at specific polar domains, thus rearranging the cellular PIN polarities and directly regulating the auxin flow direction. This selective cytokinin sensitivity correlates with the PIN protein phosphorylation degree. PIN1 phosphomimicking mutations, as well as enhanced phosphorylation in plants with modulated activities of PIN-specific kinases and phosphatases, desensitize PIN1 to cytokinin. Our results reveal conceptually novel, cytokinin-driven polarization mechanism that operates in developmental processes involving rapid auxin stream redirection, such as lateral root organogenesis, in which a gradual PIN polarity switch defines the growth axis of the newly formed organ.
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coordination between two types of epidermal root cells, hair and nonhair cells, establishes root sensitivity to the plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs). While expression of the BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) in hair cells promotes cell elongation in all tissues, its high relative expression in nonhair cells is inhibitory. Elevated ethylene and deposition of crystalline cellulose underlie the inhibitory effect of BRI1. We propose that the relative spatial distribution of BRI1, and not its absolute level, fine-tunes growth.
Phyllotaxis, the spatio-temporal pattern of organogenesis at the shoot apical meristem, emerges in large part from inhibitory fields consisting in auxin-depleted areas centered on organs. We recently demonstrated the existence of an additional hormone-based inhibitory field generated by Arabidopsis Histidine Phosphotransfer Protein 6 (AHP6), an inhibitor of cytokinin signaling. We have shown that the spatio-temporal distribution of AHP6 in the meristem is essential for optimizing the rhythmicity of organ initiation. Here, we further analyzed AHP6 expression using fluorescent whole mount mRNA in situ hybridization and demonstrate a precise control of AHP6 level and expression domain over time. While we previously showed a regulation of AHP6 directly downstream of auxin, we show here that AHP6 transcription is unlikely influenced by cytokinin distribution in the meristem. Finally, we provide evidence that cytokinins and auxin might act synergistically during organ initiation, providing a plausible explanation for how AHP6 regulates phyllotaxis.
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TMK) receptor-like kinases interact with ABP1 and transduce auxin signal to activate plasma membrane-associated ROPs [Rho-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPase) from plants], leading to changes in the cytoskeleton and the shape of leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis. The interaction between ABP1 and TMK at the cell surface is induced by auxin and requires ABP1 sensing of auxin.
L. japonicus contains a small family of four cytokinin receptor genes, which all respond to M. lotiinfection. We show that within the root cortex, LHK1 performs an essential role but also works partially redundantly with LHK1A and LHK3 to mediate cell divisions for nodule primordium formation. The LHK1 receptor is also presumed to partake in mediating a feedback mechanism that negatively regulates bacterial infections at the root epidermis. Interestingly, the Arabidopsis thaliana AHK4receptor gene can functionally replace Lhk1 in mediating nodule organogenesis, indicating that the ability to perform this developmental process is not determined by unique, legume-specific properties of LHK1.
Detection of cycline B1 by GUS staining of a promoter-reporter construct revealed that low B led to a reduced zone of cell division. The expression of CRE1/WOL/AHK4, encoding an integral membrane protein with histidine kinase domain that mediates cytokinin signaling and root xylem differentiation, was inhibited under B deficiency resulting in arrested xylem development at the protoxylem stage. Because the transition from cell division to cell differentiation in apical root meristems is controlled by cytokinins, this result support the hypothesis that signaling mechanisms during cell differentiation and organogenesis are highly sensitive to B deficiency, and together with previous reports that link the micronutrient with auxin or ethylene control of root architecture, suggests that B could play a role in regulation of hormone mediated early plant development signaling.
ytokinin signaling increases the abundance of ARR1, a ubiquitously expressed RRB, by preventing its degradation by the 26S proteasome. We also show that the RRAs act to suppress ARR1 accumulation, thus providing an explanation for their inhibitory action in cytokinin signaling. Collectively, our results reveal an additional regulatory mechanism in the cytokinin response pathway that involves the cytokinin–dependent stability control of a major RRB response activator.
ERECTA (ER) pathway as a second receptor kinase signaling pathway that regulates WUS expression, and therefore shoot apical and floral meristem size, independently of the CLV pathway. We demonstrate that reduction in class III HD-ZIP and ER function together leads to a significant increase in WUS expression, resulting in extremely enlarged shoot meristems and a switch from spiral to whorled vegetative phyllotaxy. We further show that strong upregulation of WUS in the inflorescence meristem leads to ectopic expression of the AGAMOUS homeotic gene to a level that switches cell fate from floral meristem founder cell to carpel founder cell, suggesting an indirect role for ER in regulating floral meristem identity. This work illustrates the delicate balance between stem cell specification and differentiation in the meristem and shows that a shift in this balance leads to abnormal phyllotaxy and to altered reproductive cell fate.
the apical-basal patterning of gynoecia is also sensitive to exogenous cytokinin (BAP) application in a similar way as to NPA. BAP and NPA treatments were performed in different mutant backgrounds where either cytokinin perception or auxin transport and perception were affected. We observed that cytokinin and auxin signaling mutants are hypersensitive to NPA treatment, and auxin transport and signaling mutants are hypersensitive to BAP treatment. BAP effects in apical-basal gynoecium patterning are very similar to the effects of NPA, therefore, it is possible that BAP affects auxin transport in the gynoecium. Indeed, not only the cytokinin-response TCS::GFP marker, but also the auxin efflux carrier PIN1 (PIN1::PIN1:GFP) were both affected in BAP-induced valveless gynoecia, suggesting that the BAP treatment producing the morphological changes has an impact on both in the response pattern to cytokinin and on auxin transport.In summary, we show that cytokinin affects proper apical-basal gynoecium patterning in Arabidopsis in a similar way to the inhibition of polar auxin transport, and that auxin and cytokinin mutants and markers suggest a relation between both hormones in this process.
shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement.microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, which leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis.
pCKX7:GUS expression was detected in the vasculature, the transmitting tissue and the mature embryo sac. A CKX7–GFP fusion protein localized to the cytosol, which is unique among all CKX family members.35S:CKX7-expressing plants developed short, early terminating primary roots with smaller apical meristems, contrasting with plants overexpressing other CKX genes. The vascular bundles of 35S:CKX7 primary roots contained only protoxylem elements, thus resembling the wol mutant of the CRE1/AHK4 receptor gene. We show that CRE1/AHK4 activity is required to establish the CKX7 overexpression phenotype. Several cytokinin metabolites, in particular cis-zeatin (cZ) and N-glucoside cytokinins, were depleted stronger in 35S:CKX7plants compared with plants overexpressing other CKX genes. Interestingly, enhanced protoxylem formation together with reduced primary root growth was also found in the cZ-deficient tRNA isopentenyltransferase mutant ipt2,9. However, different cytokinins were similarly efficient in suppressing 35S:CKX7 and ipt2,9 vascular phenotypes. Therefore, we hypothesize that the pool of cytosolic cytokinins is particularly relevant in the root procambium where it mediates the differentiation of vascular tissues through CRE1/AHK4. Taken together, the distinct consequences of CKX7 overexpression indicate that the cellular compartmentalization of cytokinin degradation and substrate preference of CKX isoforms are relevant parameters that define the activities of the hormone.
a complete 4D map of early Arabidopsis embryogenesis and used computational analysis to demonstrate that several divisions follow a rule that uses the smallest wall area going through the center of the cell. In other cases, however, cell division clearly deviates from this rule, which invariably leads to asymmetric cell division. By analyzing mutant embryos and through targeted genetic perturbation, we show that response to the hormone auxin triggers a deviation from the “shortest wall” rule. Our work demonstrates that a simple default rule couples division orientation to cell geometry in the embryo and that genetic regulation can create patterns by overriding the default rule.
chloroplast-bound IPT1 was almost exclusively responsible for the A37 prenylation of tRNA in Physcomitrella. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based cytokinin profiling demonstrated that the total amount of all free cytokinins in tissue was almost unaffected. However, the knockout plants showed increased levels of the N 6-isopentenyladenine (iP)- andtrans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins, considered to provide active forms, while cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins were reduced. The data provide evidence for an additional and unexpected tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthetic pathway in moss. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates a diversification of tRNA-IPT-like genes in bryophytes probably related to additional functions.
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The immobilisedZmCKX1 retained a high affinity for its preferred substrate N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), and gave the miniaturized biosensor a large linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 µM, a detection limit of 3.9 nM and a high sensitivity to iP of 603.3 µAmM−1cm−2 (n = 4, R2 = 0.9999). Excellent selectivity was displayed for several other aliphatic cytokinins and their ribosides, including N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenosine, cis-zeatin, trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside. Aromatic cytokinins and metabolites such as cytokinin glucosides were generally poor substrates.
the ZmHK1a2-OX transgenic line has the lowest germination rate in the dark, ZmHK1-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX can delay leaf senescence, and seed size of ZmHK1-OX, ZmHK1a2-OX, ZmHK2-OX, ZmHK3b-OX andZmHK2a2-OX was obviously reduced as compared to wild type. Additionally, ZmHK genes play opposite roles in shoot and root development; all ZmHK-OX transgenic lines display obvious shorter root length and reduced number of lateral roots, but enhanced shoot development compared with the wild type. Most notably, Arabidopsis response regulator ARR5 gene was up-regulated in ZmHK1-OX, ZmHK1a2-OX, ZmHK2-OX, ZmHK3b-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX as compared to wild type.
two rice authentic HPs (OsAHP1 and OsAHP2) were knocked down simultaneously via RNA interference (RNAi), and the transgenic OsAHPs-RNAi plants exhibited phenotypes expected for a deficiency in cytokinin signaling, including dwarfism with reduced internode lengths, enhanced lateral root growth, early leaf senescence, and reduced tiller numbers and fertility under natural conditions. The OsAHPs-RNAi seedlings were also hyposensitive to exogenous cytokinin.
pCKX7:GUS expression was detected in the vasculature, the transmitting tissue and the mature embryo sac. A CKX7-GFP fusion protein localized to the cytosol which is unique among all CKX family members. 35S:CKX7-expressing plants developed short, early-terminating primary roots with smaller apical meristems contrasting with plants overexpressing other CKX genes. The vascular bundles of 35S:CKX7 primary roots contained only protoxylem elements, thus resembling the wol mutant of the CRE1/AHK4receptor gene. We show that CRE1/AHK4 activity is required to establish the CKX7 overexpression phenotype. Several cytokinin metabolites, in particular cis-zeatin (cZ) and N-glucoside cytokinins, were depleted stronger in 35S:CKX7 plants compared to plants overexpressing other CKX genes. Interestingly, enhanced protoxylem formation together with reduced primary root growth was also found in the cZ-deficient tRNA isopentenyltransferase mutant ipt2,9, However, different cytokinins were similarly efficient in suppressing35S:CKX7 and ipt2,9 vascular phenotypes. Therefore, we hypothesize that the pool of cytosolic cytokinins is particularly relevant in the root procambium where it mediates vascular tissue differentiation through CRE1/AHK4. Taken together, the distinct consequences of CKX7overexpression indicate that the cellular compartmentation of cytokinin degradation and substrate preference of CKX isoforms are relevant parameters defining the activities of the hormone.
a novel subfamily of cytokinin receptors with members only from the early diverging land plants Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens and then experimentally characterized two members of this subfamily. HTPs of charophyceae seemed to be more closely related to those of land plants than to other groups of green algae. Further down the signaling pathway, the type-B RRs were found across all plant clades, but many members lack either the canonical Asp residue or the DNA-binding domain. In contrast, the type-A RRs seemed to be limited to land plants. Finally, the analysis provided hints that one additional group of RRs, the type-C RRs, might be degenerated receptors and thus evolutionary of a different origin than bona fide response regulators.