plant cell genetics
13.5K views | +0 today
Follow
plant cell genetics
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Evolution of crop species: genetics of domestication and diversification : Nature Reviews Genetics : Nature Publishing Group

Evolution of crop species: genetics of domestication and diversification : Nature Reviews Genetics : Nature Publishing Group | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Domestication is a good model for the study of evolutionary processes because of the recent evolution of crop species (<12,000 years ago), the key role of selection in their origins, and good archaeological and historical data on their spread and diversification. Recent studies, such as quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies and whole-genome resequencing studies, have identified genes that are associated with the initial domestication and subsequent diversification of crops. Together, these studies reveal the functions of genes that are involved in the evolution of crops that are under domestication, the types of mutations that occur during this process and the parallelism of mutations that occur in the same pathways and proteins, as well as the selective forces that are acting on these mutations and that are associated with geographical adaptation of crop species.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
Scoop.it!

Nature Biotech Editorial: Receptive to replication (& an article that is unable to replicate miRNA uptake study from Cell)

Nature Biotech Editorial: Receptive to replication (& an article that is unable to replicate miRNA uptake study from Cell) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Remember that paper from last year that implied that miRNAs from plant food accumulated and were active in the mice that ate the food? Here's a study that is unable to replicate those findings, and an editorial that explains why a "replication" study is suitable for publication in a top tier journal (Nature Biotech).

Study link: http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v31/n11/full/nbt.2737.html

Forbes talks about this paper as well, here http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucebooth/2013/11/08/science-being-studied-replication-publication-and-resource-allocation/


Via Mary Williams
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Studies on Nonenzymatic Oxidation Mechanisms in Neobetanin, Betanin, and Decarboxylated Betanins - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

Studies on Nonenzymatic Oxidation Mechanisms in Neobetanin, Betanin, and Decarboxylated Betanins - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

A comprehensive nonenzymatic oxidation mechanism in betanin plant pigment as well as its derivatives, 2-decarboxybetanin, 17-decarboxybetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin, and neobetanin, in the presence of ABTS cation radicals was investigated by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The main compounds formed during the first step of betanin and 2-decarboxybetanin oxidation are 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin and 2-decarboxyneobetanin, respectively. In contrast to betanin, the reaction mechanism for 2-decarboxybetanin includes more oxidation pathways. Parallel transformation of 2-decarboxybetanin quinone methide produces neoderivatives according to an alternative reaction that omits the presumably more stabile intermediate 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. The main oxidation product after the first reaction step for both 17-decarboxybetanin and 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin is 2,17-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. This product is formed through irreversible decarboxylation of the 17-decarboxybetanin quinone methide or by oxidation of 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin. Oxidation of neobetanin results primarily in a formation of 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydroneobetanin by a decarboxylative transformation of the formed neobetanin quinone methide. The elucidated reaction scheme will be useful in interpretation of redox activities of betalains in biological tissues and food preparations.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Entomological Society of America Effect of Bt Maize and Soil Insecticides on Yield, Injury, and Ro...

A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the effects on Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an insecticidal seed treatment (Poncho 1250, (AI)/clothianidin) and a granular insecticide (Aztec 2.1G, (AI)/tebupirimphos and cyfluthrin) alone and in combination with maize producing the insectidical toxin Cry3Bb1 derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Yields for Bt maize plots were significantly greater than for non-Bt maize; however, insecticides did not significantly affect yield. Insecticides significantly decreased root injury in non-Bt maize plots, but there were no significant differences in root injury between Bt maize with or without either insecticide. Maize producing the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 and the soil-applied insecticide Aztec significantly decreased survival of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), while only Bt maize significantly decreased survival of the northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence). For both species, Bt maize and each of the insecticides delayed emergence. In the absence of density-dependent mortality, Bt maize imposed 71 and 80% reduction in survival on the western corn rootworm and the northern corn rootworm, respectively. The data from this study do not support combining insecticide with Bt maize because the addition of insecticide did not increase yield or reduce root injury for Bt maize, and the level of rootworm mortality achieved with conventional insecticide was likely too low to delay the evolution of Bt resistance. In addition, delays in emergence from Bt maize combined with insecticides could promote assortative mating among Bt-selected individuals, which may hasten resistance evolution.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Genetic engineering of yellow betalain pigments beyond the species barrier : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained system in an anthocyanin-producing plant species. The combined expressions of a tyrosinase gene from shiitake mushroom and a DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase gene from the four-o'clock plant resulted in successful betalain production in cultured cells of tobacco BY2 and Arabidopsis T87. Transgenic tobacco BY2 cells were bright yellow because of the accumulation of betaxanthins. LC-TOF-MS analyses showed that proline-betaxanthin (Pro-Bx) accumulated as the major betaxanthin in these transgenic BY2 cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis T87 cells also produced betaxanthins, but produced lower levels than transgenic BY2 cells. These results illustrate the success of a novel genetic engineering strategy for betalain biosynthesis.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

The Irrational Fear of GM Food - Van Montagu (2013) - World Food Prize

The Irrational Fear of GM Food - Van Montagu (2013) - World Food Prize | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Farmers can now produce more crops in an environmentally sustainable way at a lower cost thanks to the efforts of hundreds of scientists over the past half-century. Seeds are developed in a laboratory and then field tested to enhance nutritional value or resistance to drought, disease and herbicides. Genetically modified crops are now planted on nearly a quarter of the world's farm land by some 17.3 million farmers. More than 90% of those farmers are smallholders who harvest a few acres in developing countries.

 

Society, the economy and the environment have benefited enormously from GM crops. India has flipped from cotton importer to exporter because of insect-resistant cotton. Herbicide-tolerant GM crops have stimulated no-tillage farming, reducing soil erosion and greenhouse gas emissions. Insect-resistant GM crops have cut insecticide sprayings by more than 25%—and as much as sevenfold in some parts of India. In developing countries, GM crops have helped ensure food security and bolster incomes for farmers, allowing parents to focus more resources on other priorities, such as educating their children.

 

Such remarkable achievements are only the beginning. Dozens of better GM crops are in the pipeline from companies, universities and public agencies around the world. Crops in development include virus-resistant cassava, a starchy root otherwise known as tapioca; nutritionally enriched rice that can help prevent blindness and early death among children; nitrogen-efficient crops that reduce fertilizer runoff; and many more...

 

These advancements are particularly timely given the environmental and demographic state of the 21st century. Between now and 2050, global population will rise by about one-third, to 9.6 billion from 7.2 billion, reducing arable land per capita... during a period of greater climate volatility, which may place dramatic new stresses on agriculture. The question of how to nourish two billion more people in a changing climate will prove one of the greatest challenges in human history. To meet it, we should embrace an agricultural approach that combines the best features of traditional farming with the latest technology.

 

Biotechnology offers an unparalleled safety record and demonstrated commercial success. Remarkably, however, biotechnology might not reach its full potential. In part, that's because outspoken opponents of GM crops in the U.S. ... In much of Europe, farmers are barred from growing genetically modified crops. Even in Africa, anti-biotechnology sentiment has blocked its application... 

 

Opponents of GM crops have been extremely effective at spreading misinformation. GM crops don't... cause cancer or other diseases. GM cotton isn't responsible for suicides among Indian farmers... In fact, people have consumed billions of meals containing GM foods in the 17 years since they were first commercialized, and not one problem has been documented... Every respected scientific organization... has found GM crops... safe...

 

Nearly everything humans have eaten though the millennia has been genetically altered by human intervention. Mankind has been breeding crops—and thereby genetically altering them—since the dawn of agriculture... Resistance to biotechnology seems all the more unbelievable considering that much of it comes from the same thoughtful people who tend to dismiss climate-change skeptics as "anti-science."

 

It seems to me that much of the resistance to GM foods isn't based on science, but may be ideological and political, based on fears of "corporate profiteering" and "Western colonialism." To note one irony: The extreme opposition to genetic modification has led to hyper-regulation of GM crops, which has raised the cost of bringing them to market. Now only multinational companies and large research entities can afford to comply with the rules. Smaller enterprises in developing countries are ultimately hurt much more than large conglomerates.

 

Anyone who cares about alleviating hunger and protecting the environment should work quickly to remove the bias against GM crops... These innovations have too much potential... to be thwarted by falsehoods and fear-mongering. 

 

http://www.worldfoodprize.org/index.cfm/24667/26198/wall_street_journal_column_the_irrational_fear_of_gm_food


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
AckerbauHalle's curator insight, October 30, 2013 12:50 AM

Some remarks on GMOs and why they are safe to use from MARC VAN MONTAGU, 2013 World Food Prize Laureate.

 
Rico Randall's curator insight, October 30, 2013 10:42 AM

A great contribution to the fight for common sense. To sum up, being anti-GM is being anti-human.

Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Morphological Analysis of Cell Growth Mutants in Physcomitrella - Springer

Morphological Analysis of Cell Growth Mutants in Physcomitrella - Springer | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

This protocol describes a quantitative analysis of the morphology of small plants from the moss Physcomitrella patens. The protocol can be used for the analysis of growth phenotypes produced by transient RNA interference or for the analysis of stable mutant plants. Information is presented to guide the investigator in the choice of vectors and basic conditions to perform transient RNA interference in moss. Detailed directions and examples for fluorescence image acquisition of small regenerating moss plants are provided. Instructions for the use of an ImageJ-based macro for quantitative morphological analysis of these plants are also provided.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Synthetic nucleases for genome engineering in plants: prospects for a bright future - Puchta - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Synthetic nucleases for genome engineering in plants: prospects for a bright future - Puchta - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

By inducing double-strand breaks (DSB), it is possible to initiate DNA recombination. For a long time, it was not possible to use DSB induction for efficient genome engineering due to the lack of a way to target DSBs to specific sites. With the development of modified meganucleases and synthetic DNA binding domains, this limitation was overcome. Domains derived from zinc finger transcription factors or transcription activator-like effectors can be designed to recognise almost any DNA sequence. By fusing these domains to the endonuclease domains of a class II restriction enzyme, an active endonuclease dimer can be formed that introduces a site-specific DSB. Recent studies demonstrate that gene knock-outs via nonhomologous end joining or gene modification via homologous recombination are becoming routine in many plant species. By setting a single genomic DSB, the complete knock-out of a gene, the sequence-specific integration of foreign DNA, or the subtle modification of individual amino acids in a specific protein domain can be achieved. The induction of two or more DSBs allows for complex genomic rearrangements such as deletions, inversions, or the exchange of chromosome arms. The potential of controlled genome engineering in plants is tremendous. The recently discovered RNA-based CRISPR/Cas9 system as new tool to induce multiple DSBs or sophisticated technical applications, such as the in planta gene targeting system, are further steps in this development. At the moment, the focus still lies on the engineering of single genes; in the future, the engineering of whole genomes will become an option.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

Genetically modified crops in Africa - Falck-Zepeda &al (2013) - IFPRI

Genetically modified crops in Africa - Falck-Zepeda &al (2013) - IFPRI | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. 

 

Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops.

 

The authors gather together studies on GMcrops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects.

 

Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them.

 

These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

 

http://www.ifpri.org/publication/genetically-modified-crops-africa


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Molecular characterization of cisgenic lines of apple ‘Gala’ carrying the Rvi6 scab resistance gene - Vanblaere - 2013 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley Online Library

Molecular characterization of cisgenic lines of apple ‘Gala’ carrying the Rvi6 scab resistance gene - Vanblaere - 2013 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Using resistance genes from a crossable donor to obtain cultivars resistant to diseases and the use of such cultivars in production appears an economically and environmentally advantageous approach. In apple, introgression of resistance genes by classical breeding results in new cultivars, while introducing cisgenes by biotechnological methods maintains the original cultivar characteristics. Recently, plants of the popular apple ‘Gala’ were genetically modified by inserting the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) under control of its own regulatory sequences. This gene is derived from the scab-resistant apple ‘Florina’ (originally from the wild apple accession Malus floribunda821). The vector used for genetic modification allowed a postselection marker gene elimination to achieve cisgenesis. In this work, three cisgenic lines were analysed to assess copy number, integration site, expression level and resistance to apple scab. For two of these lines, a single insertion was observed and, despite a very low expression of 0.07- and 0.002-fold compared with the natural expression of ‘Florina’, this was sufficient to induce plant reaction and reduce fungal growth by 80% compared with the scab-susceptible ‘Gala’. Similar results for resistance and expression analysis were obtained also for the third line, although it was impossible to determine the copy number and TDNA integration site–such molecular characterization is requested by the (EC) Regulation No. 1829/2003, but may become unnecessary if cisgenic crops become exempt from GMO regulation.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Plant breeding: Discovery in a dry spell : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Plant breeding: Discovery in a dry spell : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Improved crops have helped farmers maintain yields in times of drought. But as climate change looms, will the gains keep coming?
Jean-Pierre Zryd's insight:

It' urgent to deregulate all genetic technologies including all types of transgenic methods

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Frontiers | Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management | Frontiers in Crop Science and Horticulture

Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Dominant resistance to Bt cotton and minor cross-resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in cotton bollworm from China - Jin - 2013 - Evolutionary Applications - Wiley Online Library

Dominant resistance to Bt cotton and minor cross-resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in cotton bollworm from China - Jin - 2013 - Evolutionary Applications - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Evolution of resistance by insect pests threatens the long-term benefits of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Previous work has detected increases in the frequency of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in populations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively for more than a decade. Confirming that trend, we report evidence from 2011 showing that the percentage of individuals resistant to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was significantly higher in two populations from different provinces of northern China (1.4% and 2.3%) compared with previously tested susceptible field populations (0%). We isolated two resistant strains: one from each of the two field-selected populations. Relative to a susceptible strain, the two strains had 460- and 1200-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, respectively. Both strains had dominant resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac in diet and to Bt cotton leaves containing Cry1Ac. Both strains had low, but significant cross-resistance to Cry2Ab (4.2- and 5.9-fold), which is used widely as the second toxin in two-toxin Bt cotton. Compared with resistance in other strains of H. armigera, the resistance in the two strains characterized here may be especially difficult to suppress.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds

Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Several weeds worldwide have evolved resistance in response to intense herbicide use.

Single-locus mutations and complex multigenic stress responses underlie resistance.

Large population sizes and standing genetic variation likely cause rapid evolution.

Future research should integrate genomic data, evolutionary ecology, and modeling.

Resistance to herbicides in arable weeds is increasing rapidly worldwide and threatening global food security. Resistance has now been reported to all major herbicide modes of action despite the development of resistance management strategies in the 1990s. We review here recent advances in understanding the genetic bases and evolutionary drivers of herbicide resistance that highlight the complex nature of selection for this adaptive trait. Whereas early studied cases of resistance were highly herbicide-specific and largely under monogenic control, cases of greatest concern today generally involve resistance to multiple modes of action, are under polygenic control, and are derived from pre-existing stress response pathways. Although ‘omics’ approaches should enable unraveling the genetic bases of complex resistances, the appearance, selection, and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations can only be fully elucidated by focusing on evolutionary dynamics and implementing integrative modeling efforts.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Functional traits predict relationship between plant abundance dynamic and long-term climate warming

Predicting climate change impact on ecosystem structure and services is one of the most important challenges in ecology. Until now, plant species response to climate change has been described at the level of fixed plant functional types, an approach limited by its inflexibility as there is much interspecific functional variation within plant functional types. Considering a plant species as a set of functional traits greatly increases our possibilities for analysis of ecosystem functioning and carbon and nutrient fluxes associated therewith. Moreover, recently assembled large-scale databases hold comprehensive per-species data on plant functional traits, allowing a detailed functional description of many plant communities on Earth. Here, we show that plant functional traits can be used as predictors of vegetation response to climate warming, accounting in our test ecosystem (the species-rich alpine belt of Caucasus mountains, Russia) for 59% of variability in the per-species abundance relation to temperature. In this mountain belt, traits that promote conservative leaf water economy (higher leaf mass per area, thicker leaves) and large investments in belowground reserves to support next year’s shoot buds (root carbon content) were the best predictors of the species increase in abundance along with temperature increase. This finding demonstrates that plant functional traits constitute a highly useful concept for forecasting changes in plant communities, and their associated ecosystem services, in response to climate change.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Purification and characterization of a betanidin glucosyltransferase from Amaranthus tricolor L catalyzing non-specific biotransformation of flavonoids

Purification and characterization of a betanidin glucosyltransferase from Amaranthus tricolor L catalyzing non-specific biotransformation of flavonoids | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Betacyanins are the major pigments present in Amaranthus tricolor, a leafy vegetable consumed globally. The terminal glycosyltaion of the aglycone betanidin is an important step in the biosynthesis of this natural red antioxidant pigment. A betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (BGT) was fully purified to 134 folds (specific activity, 265.2 nkat mg−1) from the red amaranth by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Homogeneity of the purified protein was confirmed by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). The molecular weight of the enzyme determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was found to be 62.8 kDa. Furthermore, the enzyme glycosylated flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin) but not anthocyanidins, presence of which is mutually exclusive to betacyanin accumulating plants. The apparent Km (344 ± 2.34 μM) and Vmax (17.24 μM min−1) of the enzyme were determined by LC–MS/MS. Peptide mass fingerprinting of the purified protein showed 38.4% coverage of peptide masses with anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Zea mays. Study on this purified enzyme, for the first time, revealed its role of glycosylation in biosynthesis of betacyanin in A. tricolor and indicates promiscuous substrate-specificity

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Diversity in plant red pigments: anthocyanins and betacyanins - Online First - Springer

Diversity in plant red pigments: anthocyanins and betacyanins - Online First - Springer | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Plant pigments are of interest for research into questions of basic biology as well as for purposes of applied biology. Red colors in flowers are mainly produced by two types of pigments: anthocyanins and betacyanins. Though anthocyanins are broadly distributed among plants, betacyanins have replaced anthocyanins in the Caryophyllales. Red plant pigments are good indicator metabolites for evolutionary studies of plant diversity as well as for metabolic studies of plant cell growth and differentiation. In this review, we focus on the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and betacyanins and the possible mechanisms underlying the mutual exclusion of betalains and anthocyanins based on the regulation of the biosynthesis of these red pigments.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

JCI - Rice-based oral antibody fragment prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection

JCI - Rice-based oral antibody fragment prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals and in children in developing countries. We have developed a system for prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus disease using transgenic rice expressing the neutralizing variable domain of a rotavirus-specific llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (MucoRice-ARP1). MucoRice-ARP1 was produced at high levels in rice seeds using an overexpression system and RNAi technology to suppress the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins. Orally administered MucoRice-ARP1 markedly decreased the viral load in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. The antibody retained in vitro neutralizing activity after long-term storage (>1 yr) and boiling and conferred protection in mice even after heat treatment at 94°C for 30 minutes. High-yield, water-soluble, and purification-free MucoRice-ARP1 thus forms the basis for orally administered prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infections.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

What Can We Learn From Bryophyte Photosynthesis? - Springer

What Can We Learn From Bryophyte Photosynthesis? - Springer | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Bryophytes have been evolving in terrestrial and aquatic environments longer than any other group of land plants, surviving and thriving through an incredible range of climatic and environmental variation. Several of the bryophyte growth forms we find today closely resemble those found in ancient fossils whereas many of the other early land plant forms lack modern representatives. What is it about bryophyte growth form and physiology that has allowed them to persist through time and radiate into every terrestrial ecosystem, even dominating some of them? What can we learn from modern bryophytes to address this question and to predict how plants will respond to future environmental change? In this chapter, we briefly examine these questions as a preview to the volume as a whole.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Lab Life: The Anatomy of a Retraction - Scientific American (blog)

Lab Life: The Anatomy of a Retraction - Scientific American (blog) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Lab Life: The Anatomy of a Retraction
Scientific American (blog)
Pamela Ronald is a Professor at the University of California, Davis where she studies how genes affect the plant's response to environmental stress and disease.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

ABA as a Universal Plant Hormone - Springer

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene known to regulate environmental stress responses in angiosperms, such as water-loss-induced stomatal closure, development of seed desiccation tolerance during maturation, and salt-, desiccation-, and freezing-stress tolerance of vegetative tissues. An ABA-induced increase in stress tolerance is also reported in other land plant lineages, including nonvascular bryophytes that diverged from vascular plants more than 420 million years ago. Thus, it is hypothesized that acquisition of sensing and response mechanisms for ABA by land plant ancestors was critical for invasion of and adaptation to land. Because bryophytes are key organisms in plant evolution, clarification of their ABA-dependent processes is important for understanding land plant evolutionary adaptation. Based on past and current studies on ABA in non-seed plants and phylogenetic analysis of genome information from various plant species, we discuss the evolution of ABA function and biosynthesis, transport, and signaling network pathways as well as calcium signaling because of its importance in ABA signaling in angiosperms. Future directions of ABA research in the evo-devo field are also discussed.

Jean-Pierre Zryd's insight:

The importance of understanding Bryophyte biology

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

PLOS ONE: System for Stable β-Estradiol-Inducible Gene Expression in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

PLOS ONE: System for Stable β-Estradiol-Inducible Gene Expression in the Moss Physcomitrella patens | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Inducible transgene expression provides a useful tool to analyze gene function. The mossPhyscomitrella patens is a model basal land plant with well-developed research tools, including a high efficiency of gene targeting and substantial genomics resources. However, current systems for controlled transgene expression remain limited. Here we report the development of an estrogen receptor mediated inducible gene expression system, based on the system used in flowering plants. After identifying the appropriate promoters to drive the chimeric transducer, we succeeded in inducing transcription over 1,000-fold after 24 h incubation with β-estradiol. The P. patens system was also effective for high-level long-term induction of gene expression; transcript levels of the activated gene were maintained for at least seven days on medium containing β-estradiol. We also established two potentially neutral targeting sites and a set of vectors for reproducible expression of two transgenes. This β-estradiol-dependent system will be useful to test genes individually or in combination, allowing stable, inducible transgenic expression in P.patens.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development - Holme - 2013 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley Online Library

Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development - Holme - 2013 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

One of the major concerns of the general public about transgenic crops relates to the mixing of genetic materials between species that cannot hybridize by natural means. To meet this concern, the two transformation concepts cisgenesis and intragenesis were developed as alternatives to transgenesis. Both concepts imply that plants must only be transformed with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. Intragenesis differs from cisgenesis by allowing use of new gene combinations created by in vitro rearrangements of functional genetic elements. Several surveys show higher public acceptance of intragenic/cisgenic crops compared to transgenic crops. Thus, although the intragenic and cisgenic concepts were introduced internationally only 9 and 7 years ago, several different traits in a variety of crops have currently been modified according to these concepts. Five of these crops are now in field trials and two have pending applications for deregulation. Currently, intragenic/cisgenic plants are regulated as transgenic plants worldwide. However, as the gene pool exploited by intragenesis and cisgenesis are identical to the gene pool available for conventional breeding, less comprehensive regulatory measures are expected. The regulation of intragenic/cisgenic crops is presently under evaluation in the EU and in the US regulators are considering if a subgroup of these crops should be exempted from regulation. It is accordingly possible that the intragenic/cisgenic route will be of major significance for future plant breeding

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research - Nicolia &al (2013) - Critical Rev Biotechnol

An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research - Nicolia &al (2013) - Critical Rev Biotechnol | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide.

 

The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture…

 

The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work. The literature produced over the years on GE crop safety is large (31 848 records up to 2006…) and it started to accumulate even before the introduction of the first GE crop in 1996. The dilution of research reports with a large number of commentary papers, their publication in journals with low impact factor and their multidisciplinary nature have been regarded as negative factors affecting the visibility of GE crop safety research…

 

We built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers on GE crop safety and analyzed the distribution and composition of the literature published from 2002 to October 2012. The online databases PubMed and ISI Web of Science were interrogated to retrieve the pertinent scientific records… We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops. The 1783 scientific records collected are provided in .xls and .ris file formats accessible through the common worksheet programs… Beyond a numerical analysis of the literature, we provide a short explanatory summary of each issue.  

 

The technology to produce GE plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary… but the adoption of GE plants in the agricultural system has raised issues about environmental and food/feed safety. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety for the last 10 years that catches the scientific consensus matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide, and we can conclude that the scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazard directly connected with the use of GM crops… the public opposition to field trials, may have discouraged researchers, at least in the EU.

 

The literature about Biodiversity and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns… when dealing with ‘‘hot issues’’, researchers should take special care in following rigorous scientific standards, avoiding the publication of data not sufficiently peer reviewed by the scientific community.

 

In the EU, the regulatory burdens for GE crop approval are extremely heavy… de facto excluding the public sector and minor crops from the development of GE technology. As a result, the number of experimental releases of GE crops is rapidly decreasing… and even large companies are abandoning GE… This scenario is the result of the interaction of complex sociological and psychological factors, risk/benefit ratios, political aspects and an unbalanced scientific communication.

 

All these factors have to be considered globally and taken into account in a constructive debate on whether the GE crops represent a strategic resource for the future. An improvement in the efficacy of the scientific communication to stakeholders, as clearly demonstrated in the case of the recent case of GE wheat field trials in the UK… could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE.

 

We believe that genetic engineering and GE crops should be considered important options in the efforts toward sustainable agricultural production. Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed and balanced public perception on the hot issue of GE use in agriculture. 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2013.823595


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
Alexander J. Stein's curator insight, September 23, 2013 12:23 PM

"Declaration of interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest" – and they are from the public sector in rather GMO-cautious Italy.

Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

Enough known to prove GM foods are safe, claims Glover - The Courier (2013)

Enough known to prove GM foods are safe, claims Glover - The Courier (2013) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Describing the rejection of GM foods as a “form of madness I don’t understand,” the European Commission’s chief scientific adviser, Professor Anne Glover, used the issue as a prime example of evidence not being properly considered...

 

Appointed last year... the first ever EC chief scientific adviser... spoke of the challenges of bringing 28 member states to a point of consensus. She stressed that she was not a politician, but spent much of her time presenting MEP’s and European commissioners with scientific evidence. 

 

“I tend to get a good audience in the Commission but less so in the European Parliament, where the views are often more philosophical”.

 

Few subjects were as influenced in this way as the production of GM foods. “I think we need to be more aggressive when people say there is not enough evidence to support GM. “People need to be more transparent and say why they are rejecting the evidence,” she said.

 

“I have a clear scientific view on GM and have used the technology in my own research work,” said Professor Glover, who also holds the chair of molecular biology at Aberdeen University. “The point about GM is that no other range of products or foodstuffs has been so thoroughly researched, with not one single piece of evidence emerging that would show GM as being more risky than conventional plant breeding methods.

 

“There has been a lot in the media over the last 15 years about possible dangers, and it is fair and right to be curious or cautious — but we have now spent so much time gathering evidence to the contrary, it is time to say we know enough to prove GM foods are safe... I would rather eat GM food produced with less intervention than is used in conventional crops in terms of fertilisers and crop chemicals”... Apart from anything else, the production of these conventional inputs required a huge amount of energy. 

 

Asserting she was “pro-evidence”, Professor Glover did admit there was a need to explain the issues more to those who had ethical objections to GM production. In her view many of the objections stemmed not so much from concerns about the technology but the way in which it was delivered. For instance there were concerns about seed companies exerting too much control to the detriment of producers.

 

However, these objections should not be allowed to stop GM technology being adopted. As an example she cited the production of GM ‘golden rice’.

This new crop had enhanced vitamin levels and, if adopted, could save countless cases of blindness in the developing world. “Who are we to say that people cannot have access to golden rice?” she asked.

 

The media bore some responsibility... although 99.99% of scientists now agreed there was no food safety danger associated with GM foods, it was possible for media sources to find the one or two scientists who thought otherwise and blow their concerns out of proportion.

 

http://www.thecourier.co.uk/business/farming-2.1263/news/enough-known-to-prove-gm-foods-are-safe-claims-glover-1.133175


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.