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Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China - Online First - Springer

Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China - Online First - Springer | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

As a developing country with relatively limited arable land, China is making great efforts for development and use of genetically modified (GM) crops to boost agricultural productivity. Many GM crop varieties have been developed in China in recent years; in particular, China is playing a leading role in development of insect-resistant GM rice lines. To ensure the safe use of GM crops, biosafety risk assessments are required as an important part of the regulatory oversight of such products. With over 20 years of nationwide promotion of agricultural biotechnology, a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of GM plants has been developed that establishes a firm basis for safe use of GM crops. So far, a total of seven GM crops involving ten events have been approved for commercial planting, and 5 GM crops with a total of 37 events have been approved for import as processing material in China. However, currently only insect-resistant Btcotton and disease-resistant papaya have been commercially planted on a large scale. The planting of Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have provided efficient protection against cotton bollworms and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), respectively. As a consequence, chemical application to these crops has been significantly reduced, enhancing farm income while reducing human and non-target organism exposure to toxic chemicals. This article provides useful information for the colleagues, in particular for them whose mother tongue is not Chinese, to clearly understand the biosafety regulation and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

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Elevating crop disease resistance with cloned genes

Elevating crop disease resistance with cloned genes | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Essentially all plant species exhibit heritable genetic variation for resistance to a variety of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, oomycetes or viruses. Disease losses in crop monocultures are already significant, and would be greater but for applications of disease-controlling agrichemicals. For sustainable intensification of crop production, we argue that disease control should as far as possible be achieved using genetics rather than using costly recurrent chemical sprays. The latter imply CO2 emissions from diesel fuel and potential soil compaction from tractor journeys. Great progress has been made in the past 25 years in our understanding of the molecular basis of plant disease resistance mechanisms, and of how pathogens circumvent them. These insights can inform more sophisticated approaches to elevating disease resistance in crops that help us tip the evolutionary balance in favour of the crop and away from the pathogen. We illustrate this theme with an account of a genetically modified (GM) blight-resistant potato trial in Norwich, using the Rpi-vnt1.1 gene isolated from a wild relative of potato, Solanum venturii, and introduced by GM methods into the potato variety Desiree.

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Teosinte before domestication: Experimental study of growth and phenotypic variability in Late Pleistocene and early Holocene environments

Teosinte before domestication: Experimental study of growth and phenotypic variability in Late Pleistocene and early Holocene environments | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Agriculture arose during a period of profound global climatic and ecological change following the end of the Pleistocene. Yet, the role of phenotypic plasticity – an organism's ability to change its phenotype in response to the environment – and environmental influences in the dramatic phenotypic transformations that occurred during plant domestication are poorly understood. Another factor possibly influential in agricultural origins, the productivity of crop plant wild progenitors in Late Pleistocene vs. Holocene environments, has received increasing attention recently and merits further investigation. In this study, we examined phenotypic characteristics and productivity (biomass, seed yield) in the wild progenitor of maize, the teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis H.H. Iltis & Doebley, when it was first exploited and cultivated by growing it in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperatures characteristic of the late-glacial and early Holocene periods. Plants responded with a number of attributes uncharacteristic of teosinte in today's environments, including maize-type traits in vegetative architecture, inflorescence sexuality, and seed maturation. Teosinte productivity was significantly lower in late-glacial compared with early Holocene and modern environments. Our evidence indicates that: a) ancestral biological characteristics of crop plant progenitors aren't always predicted from living examples, b) some important maize phenotypic traits were present at initial human exploitation and selection, and c) Pleistocene plant productivity should be considered a significant factor in the chronology of food production origins.

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Rose scent in poplar trees? WSU turns to genetic engineering - The Seattle Times

Rose scent in poplar trees? WSU turns to genetic engineering - The Seattle Times | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Rose scent in poplar trees? WSU turns to genetic engineering The Seattle Times “We've been trying for many decades to understand how plants make these special chemicals that can be used in flavorings, fuels and medicinals, and that seemed like the...
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Predators delay pest resistance to Bt crops - Cornell Chronicle

Predators delay pest resistance to Bt crops - Cornell Chronicle | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Cornell Chronicle Predators delay pest resistance to Bt crops Cornell Chronicle Co-authors include Elizabeth Earle, Cornell professor emeritus of plant breeding and genetics, who developed the Bt broccoli; Richard Roush, a researcher at the...
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Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

While the extent and impact of horizontal transfers in prokaryotes are widely acknowledged, their importance to the eukaryotic kingdom is unclear and thought by many to be anecdotal. Here we report multiple recent transfers of a huge genomic island between Penicillium spp. found in the food environment. Sequencing of the two leading filamentous fungi used in cheese making, P. roquefortiand P. camemberti, and comparison with the penicillin producer P. rubens reveals a 575 kb long genomic island in P. roqueforti—called Wallaby—present as identical fragments at non-homologous loci in P. camemberti and P. rubens. Wallaby is detected in Penicillium collections exclusively in strains from food environments. Wallaby encompasses about 250 predicted genes, some of which are probably involved in competition with microorganisms. The occurrence of multiple recent eukaryotic transfers in the food environment provides strong evidence for the importance of this understudied and probably underestimated phenomenon in eukaryotes.

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Water deficits uncouple growth from photosynthesis, increase C content, and modify the relationships between C and growth in sink organs

Water deficits uncouple growth from photosynthesis, increase C content, and modify the relationships between C and growth in sink organs | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

In plants, carbon (C) molecules provide building blocks for biomass production, fuel for energy, and exert signalling roles to shape development and metabolism. Accordingly, plant growth is well correlated with light interception and energy conversion through photosynthesis. Because water deficits close stomata and thus reduce C entry, it has been hypothesised that droughted plants are under C starvation and their growth under C limitation. In this review, these points are questioned by combining literature review with experimental and modelling illustrations in various plant organs and species. First, converging evidence is gathered from the literature that water deficit generally increases C concentration in plant organs. The hypothesis is raised that this could be due to organ expansion (as a major C sink) being affected earlier and more intensively than photosynthesis (C source) and metabolism. How such an increase is likely to interact with C signalling is not known. Hence, the literature is reviewed for possible links between C and stress signalling that could take part in this interaction. Finally, the possible impact of water deficit-induced C accumulation on growth is questioned for various sink organs of several species by combining published as well as new experimental data or data generated using a modelling approach. To this aim, robust correlations between C availability and sink organ growth are reported in the absence of water deficit. Under water deficit, relationships weaken or are modified suggesting release of the influence of C availability on sink organ growth. These results are interpreted as the signature of a transition from source to sink growth limitation under water deficit.

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eLife: A secreted Ustilago maydis effector promotes virulence by targeting anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize (2014)

eLife: A secreted Ustilago maydis effector promotes virulence by targeting anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize (2014) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize with characteristic tumor formation and anthocyanin induction. Here, we show that anthocyanin biosynthesis is induced by the virulence promoting secreted effector protein Tin2. Tin2 protein functions inside plant cells where it interacts with maize protein kinase ZmTTK1. Tin2 masks a ubiquitin–proteasome degradation motif in ZmTTK1, thus stabilizing the active kinase. Active ZmTTK1 controls activation of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Without Tin2, enhanced lignin biosynthesis is observed in infected tissue and vascular bundles show strong lignification. This is presumably limiting access of fungal hyphae to nutrients needed for massive proliferation. Consistent with this assertion, we observe that maize brown midrib mutants affected in lignin biosynthesis are hypersensitive to U. maydis infection. We speculate that Tin2 rewires metabolites into the anthocyanin pathway to lower their availability for other defense responses. - See more at: http://elife.elifesciences.org/content/3/e01355#sthash.iLxIM1Ig.dpuf


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Synthetic nucleases for genome engineering in plants: prospects for a bright future (hopefully !!!)

Synthetic nucleases for genome engineering in plants: prospects for a bright future (hopefully !!!) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

By inducing double-strand breaks (DSB), it is possible to initiate DNA recombination. For a long time, it was not possible to use DSB induction for efficient genome engineering due to the lack of a means to target DSBs to specific sites. This limitation was overcome by development of modified meganucleases and synthetic DNA-binding domains. Domains derived from zinc-finger transcription factors or transcription activator-like effectors may be designed to recognize almost any DNA sequence. By fusing these domains to the endonuclease domains of a class II restriction enzyme, an active endonuclease dimer may be formed that introduces a site-specific DSB. Recent studies demonstrate that gene knockouts via non-homologous end joining or gene modification via homologous recombination are becoming routine in many plant species. By creating a single genomic DSB, complete knockout of a gene, sequence-specific integration of foreign DNA or subtle modification of individual amino acids in a specific protein domain may be achieved. The induction of two or more DSBs allows complex genomic rearrangements such as deletions, inversions or the exchange of chromosome arms. The potential for controlled genome engineering in plants is tremendous. The recently discovered RNA-based CRISPR/Cas system, a new tool to induce multiple DSBs, and sophisticated technical applications, such as the in planta gene targeting system, are further steps in this development. At present, the focus remains on engineering of single genes; in the future, engineering of whole genomes will become an option.

 
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A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic enzymatic pathway : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic enzymatic pathway : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

High-energy-density, green, safe batteries are highly desirable for meeting the rapidly growing needs of portable electronics. The incomplete oxidation of sugars mediated by one or a few enzymes in enzymatic fuel cells suffers from low energy densities and slow reaction rates. Here we show that nearly 24 electrons per glucose unit of maltodextrin can be produced through a synthetic catabolic pathway that comprises 13 enzymes in an air-breathing enzymatic fuel cell. This enzymatic fuel cell is based on non-immobilized enzymes that exhibit a maximum power output of 0.8 mW cm−2and a maximum current density of 6 mA cm−2, which are far higher than the values for systems based on immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic fuel cells containing a 15% (wt/v) maltodextrin solution have an energy-storage density of 596 Ah kg−1, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of lithium-ion batteries. Sugar-powered biobatteries could serve as next-generation green power sources, particularly for portable electronics.

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New discovery could stimulate plant growth and increase crop yields, researchers say

New discovery could stimulate plant growth and increase crop yields, researchers say | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Scientists have discovered a natural mechanism in plants that could stimulate their growth even under stress and potentially lead to better crop yields.
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A Spatial Accommodation by Neighboring Cells Is Required for Organ Initiation in Arabidopsis

A Spatial Accommodation by Neighboring Cells Is Required for Organ Initiation in Arabidopsis | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Lateral root formation in plants can be studied as the process of interaction between chemical signals and physical forces during development. Lateral root primordia grow through overlying cell layers that must accommodate this incursion. Here, we analyze responses of the endodermis, the immediate neighbor to an initiating lateral root. Endodermal cells overlying lateral root primordia lose volume, change shape, and relinquish their tight junction–like diffusion barrier to make way for the emerging lateral root primordium. Endodermal feedback is absolutely required for initiation and growth of lateral roots, and we provide evidence that this is mediated by controlled volume loss in the endodermis. We propose that turgidity and rigid cell walls, typical of plants, impose constraints that are specifically modified for a given developmental process.

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The potential of Physcomitrella patens as a platform for the production of plant-based vaccines, Expert Review of Vaccines, Informa Healthcare

The potential of Physcomitrella patens as a platform for the production of plant-based vaccines, Expert Review of Vaccines, Informa Healthcare | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The moss Physcomitrella patens has a number of advantages for the production of biopharmaceuticals, including: i) availability of standardized conditions for cultivation in bioreactors; ii) not being part of the food chain; iii) high biosafety; iv) availability of highly efficient transformation methods; v) a haploid, fully sequenced genome providing genetic stability and uniform expression; vi) efficient gene targeting at the nuclear level allows for the generation of mutants with specific post-translational modifications (e.g., glycosylation patterns); and vii) oral formulations are a viable approach as no toxic effects are attributed to ingestion of this moss. In the light of this panorama, this opinion paper analyzes the possibilities of using P. patens for the production of oral vaccines and presents some specific cases where its use may represent significant progress in the field of plant-based vaccine development. The advantages represented by putative adjuvant effects of endogenous secondary metabolites and producing specific glycosylation patterns are highlighted

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Ghana's GMO debates: beyond the sticking points (3) - GhanaWeb

Ghana's GMO debates: beyond the sticking points (3) GhanaWeb The foregoing explains why some scientists argue that the assumption that conventionally-bred crops are necessarily safer than GM crops is overly simplistic, especially when...
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Betalain and Betaine Composition of Greenhouse- or Field-Produced Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and Inhibition of HepG2 Cell Proliferation

Betalain and Betaine Composition of Greenhouse- or Field-Produced Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and Inhibition of HepG2 Cell Proliferation | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied. Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by betanin and betaine was also tested. Four predominant betalains, two betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin) and two betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I and miraxanthin V), were isolated and quantified. Betanin and vulgaxanthin I were the major compounds in red and yellow beetroot extracts, respectively, and they comprised >90% of the betalain content in the tested cultivars. The total betalain content of beetroots produced from the field was between 650 and 800 μg/g fresh weight, approximately 25% higher than those from the greenhouse. The betaine content of the beetroot grown in the field was between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/g fresh weight, approximately 20% higher than in plants from the greenhouse. There was great variation among the cultivars with respect to their contents of betalains and betaine. In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells after exposure to betanin and betaine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 μg/mL and from 0 to 800 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Betanin resulted in a 49% inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation at 200 μg/mL, and betaine yielded a 25% inhibition at 800 μg/mL, implying a higher cytotoxicity of betanin compared with betaine. The results indicated that the contents of health-beneficial compounds in beetroots, betalains and betaine, could be increased by modifying the growing conditions and that betanin and betaine extracted from beetroots had some anticancer effects against HepG2 cells.

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The Arabidopsis Book: Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vernalization

The Arabidopsis Book: Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vernalization | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Dong-Hwan Kim and Sibum Sung (2014) Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vernalization. The Arabidopsis Book: Vol. , No. , pp. null. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1199/tab.0171

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Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody

Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Infectious Disease Medical Article: Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody (Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies...
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ingentaconnect Comparative Diversity of Arthropods on Bt Maize and Non-Bt Maize ...

The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing‐sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

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Five fabulous photobiology reviews from The Plant Cell

Five fabulous photobiology reviews from The Plant Cell | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Five fabulous photobiology reviews from The Plant Cell!

And an overview by Nan Eckardt

www.plantcell.org/content/early/2014/01/29/tpc.114.123026.full.pdf

PIFs: Systems Integrators in Plant Development
Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling
Phototropism: Growing towards an Understanding of Plant Movement
The UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8: From Structure to Physiology
Multiple Layers of Posttranslational Regulation Refine Circadian Clock Activity in Arabidopsis


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Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014)

Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

A growing imbalance between phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer use in Africa could lead to crop yield reductions of nearly 30% by 2050... Underuse of phosphorus-based fertilizers in Africa currently contributes to a growing yield gap—the difference between how much crops could produce in ideal circumstances compared to actual yields... 

 

“This research shows that the imbalance between nitrogen and phosphorus applications has the potential to further limit food production for a growing population in Africa” says Marijn van der Velde, a researcher now at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, who led the study while working at IIASA.

 

While nitrogen-based fertilizers can be produced by a process that extracts the element from the air, phosphorus must be mined from rock—and reserves are limited. That makes phosphorus fertilizers expensive, especially in the longer term.

 

“Farmers with limited money are more likely to buy and have access to cheaper nitrogen-based fertilizers,” says van der Velde. “While this might work in the short term, in the longer term it has a negative effect on crop growth as soil nutrients become more imbalanced.” ... 

 

But fertilizer use remains very low in Africa, and to increase crop production, it is widely recognized that farmers must increase their fertilizer use. And while nitrogen-based fertilizer usage has begun to increase in Africa in the last 10 years, the application of phosphorus to cropland has not kept pace... increases in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs must happen in a way that provides crops with the balanced nutrient input they need... 

 

But because of the cost of phosphorus, that remains a challenge. ”While much of the remaining phosphorus reserves are found in Morocco, on the African continent, we need to find better ways for African farmers to access this precious resource” says van der Velde...

 

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/about/news/20140128-phosphorus-africa.html

 

Original article:  
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12481

 


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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, January 29, 2014 7:04 AM

Fertilizer nutrient imbalance to limit food production in Africa - IIASA (2014)

Mew's curator insight, February 9, 2014 4:35 AM

      This article is about how a continental study of soil in Africa found that fertilizer usage is imbalanced, currently causing reductions in crop yields of around 10% compared to optimal circumstances. Farmers in Africa generally do not have money to buy expensive phosphorus-based fertilizer, so instead they only use nitrogen-based fertilizer. Using solely nitrogen-based fertilizer in the short term is acceptable, but over time it changes the nutrient balance causing less fertile land; both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer need to be used.

      This article helps me to understand Africa because the textbook only talks about the impact of water accessibility on agriculture. It is widely accepted that fertilizer helps to bolster crop growth. Before, I was not aware that there were two types of plant fertilizer. This study is extremely important to Africans because most Africans are farmers. Farming is the most important economic activity in Africa so this find helps to justify spending upon phosphorus fertilizer as well.

      My opinion is that this study is useful for all farmers. Before, local and national surveys were conducted but this is the first continental study. Perhaps, because most of the phosphorus mined in Africa originates from Morocco, the country of Morocco could collaborate with other countries that rely upon agriculture. Government spending on behalf of the farmers would be well justified because this effect will continue to compound if no more phosphorus-based fertilizer were used along with nitrogen fertilizer.

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Plant Cell: Geminivirus Vectors Deliver Reagents for Plant Genome Engineering (2014)

Plant Cell: Geminivirus Vectors Deliver Reagents for Plant Genome Engineering (2014) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Jennifer Mach commentary http://www.plantcell.org/content/early/2014/01/16/tpc.114.122606.full.pdf+html

 

Baltes et al. article http://www.plantcell.org/content/early/2014/01/16/tpc.113.119792.abstract


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Environment and Development Economics - The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

Environment and Development Economics -  The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country.
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Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera

Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. Here we provide evidence that a pollen-borne plant virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), also replicates in honeybees and that the virus systemically invades and replicates in different body parts. In addition, the virus was detected inside the body of parasitic Varroa mites, which consume bee hemolymph, suggesting that Varroa mites may play a role in facilitating the spread of the virus in bee colonies. This study represents the first evidence that honeybees exposed to virus-contaminated pollen could also be infected and raises awareness of potential risks of new viral disease emergence due to host shift events. About 5% of known plant viruses are pollen transmitted, and these are potential sources of future host-jumping viruses. The findings from this study showcase the need for increased surveillance for potential host-jumping events as an integrated part of insect pollinator management programs.

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Cell Reports - Hyperacidification of Vacuoles by the Combined Action of Two Different P-ATPases in the Tonoplast Determines Flower Color

Cell Reports - Hyperacidification of Vacuoles by the Combined Action of Two Different P-ATPases in the Tonoplast Determines Flower Color | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
HighlightsHyperacidification of vacuoles involves a mechanism independent from V-ATPasesTwo different of P-ATPases combined can transport protons against a steep gradientOne of these P-ATPases belongs to a subfamily so far known only in bacteriaPetal pigmented cells are acidified by this mechanismSummary

The acidification of endomembrane compartments is essential for enzyme activities, sorting, trafficking, and trans-membrane transport of various compounds. Vacuoles are mildly acidic in most plant cells because of the action of V-ATPase and/or pyrophosphatase proton pumps but are hyperacidified in specific cells by mechanisms that remained unclear. Here, we show that the blue petal color of petunia ph mutants is due to a failure to hyperacidify vacuoles. We report that PH1 encodes a P3B-ATPase, hitherto known as Mg2+ transporters in bacteria only, that resides in the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and genetic data show that PH1 is required and, together with the tonoplast H+ P3A-ATPase PH5, sufficient to hyperacidify vacuoles. PH1 has no H+ transport activity on its own but can physically interact with PH5 and boost PH5 H+ transport activity. Hence, the hyperacidification of vacuoles in petals, and possibly other tissues, relies on a heteromeric P-ATPase pump.


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The rate of drying determines the extent of desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

The rate of drying determines the extent of desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The effect of differential drying rates on desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. is examined. In order to provide more evidence as to the status of desiccation tolerance in P. patens, a system was designed that allowed alteration of the rate of water loss within a specific relative humidity. An artificial substrate consisting of layers of wetted filter paper was used to slow the drying process to as long as 284 h, a significant increase over the commonly used method of exposure (saturated salt solution). By slowing the rate of drying, survival rates and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters improved, and tissue regeneration time was faster. These results indicate a trend where the capacity for desiccation tolerance increases with slower drying, and reveal a much stronger capacity for desiccation tolerance in P. patens than was previously known.

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