plant cell genetics
Follow
Find
8.3K views | +8 today
plant cell genetics
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Oomycete pathogens encode RNA silencing suppressors

Oomycete pathogens encode RNA silencing suppressors | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Effectors are essential virulence proteins produced by a broad range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, protozoa, insects and nematodes. Upon entry into host cells, pathogen effectors manipulate specific physiological processes or signaling pathways to subvert host immunity. Most effectors, especially those of eukaryotic pathogens, remain functionally uncharacterized. Here, we show that two effectors from the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae suppress RNA silencing in plants by inhibiting the biogenesis of small RNAs. Ectopic expression of these Phytophthora suppressors of RNA silencing enhances plant susceptibility to both a virus and Phytophthora, showing that some eukaryotic pathogens have evolved virulence proteins that target host RNA silencing processes to promote infection. These findings identify RNA silencing suppression as a common strategy used by pathogens across kingdoms to cause disease and are consistent with RNA silencing having key roles in host defense.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Transgenic Corn Rootworm Protection Increases Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use of Maize

Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) derived resistance to corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) are widely grown. Our hypothesis was that Bt hybrids exhibit increased N uptake, resulting in greater grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE) relative to their nonprotected counterparts. In 2008 and 2009, two transgenic corn rootworm resistant (Bt) hybrids with VT3 (YieldGard VT Triple) technology along with their near-isogenic non-Bt Roundup Ready Corn 2 (RR2) counterparts were evaluated at Champaign, IL, with supplemental N of 0, 67, 134, 201 or 268 kg N ha−1. Despite minimal corn rootworm feeding pressure on roots, the Bt hybrids produced an average of nearly 1.1 Mg ha−1 more grain than their RR2 counterparts. In the comparison of DKC61-72 RR2 and DKC61-69 VT3, Bt protection promoted increased grain yield at low N (+1.0 Mg ha−1; P ≤ 0.01) and a 31% greater response to fertilizer N. With adequate N, grain yields of the comparison DKC63-45 RR2 and DKC63-42 VT3 did not differ; however, the latter maximized its yield with an average of 38% less fertilizer N. Increases in NUE (+80%; P ≤ 0.10) and N uptake efficiency (NUpE) (+31%; P ≤ 0.10) at the N rates required to optimize grain yield of Bt hybrids were detected in 2008, but NUE and NUpE were not significantly different between isolines in 2009. We conclude that transgenic corn rootworm protection has supplemental agronomic benefits, with greater N uptake and NUE in some environments.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Increased mortality is predicted of Inachis io larvae caused by Bt-maize pollen in European farmland

Increased mortality is predicted of Inachis io larvae caused by Bt-maize pollen in European farmland | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

A potential environmental risk of the field cultivation of insect-resistant (Bt-toxin expressing) transgenic maize (Zea mays) is the consumption of Bt-containing pollen by herbivorous larvae of butterflies (Lepidoptera). Maize is wind-pollinated, and at flowering time large amounts of pollen can be deposited on various plants growing in the landscape, leading to inadvertent ingestion of toxic pollen with plant biomass consumed by these butterfly larvae. To examine the possible effect of this coincidence, we focused our study on the protected butterfly Inachis io and two regions of Europe. Using climatic records, maize and butterfly phenology data, we built a simulation model of the butterfly's annual life cycle, overlaid with the phenology of maize pollen deposition on the leaves of the food plant Urtica dioica, and linked these with the dose–response curve of I. io larvae to Bt-maize pollen (event MON810). The simulations indicated that in Northern Europe, where I. io is univoltine, Bt-maize pollen would not be present on the food plant at the same time as the I. io larvae. However, in Central and Southern Europe, where I. io is bivoltine, Bt-maize pollen and the second generation I. iolarvae would coincide, and an increased mortality of the larvae was predicted. This prediction differs from earlier studies which predicted negligible effect of field-grown Bt-maize on I. io larvae. Our model is an improvement over previous efforts since it is based on more detailed, empirical data, includes more biological detail, and provides explicit estimation of all model parameters. The model is open-source software and is available for re-use and for modelling the effects on other species or regions.

Highlights
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Commercialized transgenic traits, maize productivity and yield risk

Maize expressing different versions of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins (Bt), 5 enolphyruvylshikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyl transferase alone or in combination are part of the current wave of agricultural technological change. We analyzed grain yield data from annual field experiments during 1990–2010 in Wisconsin to test hypotheses that maize expressing these transgenic traits alone or in combination (stacked) has greater productivity (as measured by the mean harvested yield) and lower production risk (as measured by the variance, skewness and kurtosis of harvested yield). Compared with conventional hybrids, the impact of transgenic traits (both single and stacked traits) on mean yield ranges from −12.2 to +6.5 bushels per acre. This shows that reducing yield risk is an important source of benefits of transgenic technology, especially for stacked traits. These benefits are estimated to be equivalent to a yield increase of 0.8–4.2 bushels per acre. We found evidence for gene interactions ('yield drag' and 'event lag' effects) that can reduce yield.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Trends in Plant Science - Biosynthesis of betalains: yellow and violet plant pigments

Trends in Plant Science - Biosynthesis of betalains: yellow and violet plant pigments | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Betalains are the yellow and violet pigments that substitute anthocyanins in plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales. These pigments have attracted much attention because of their bioactivities, which range from an antioxidant capacity to the chemoprevention of cancer. However, the biosynthetic pathway of betalains remains under discussion; the main steps have been characterized in recent years, but multiple side reactions are possible. The key enzymes involved have only recently been described, providing clues about the regulation of betalain biosynthesis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive view of the biosynthetic scheme of betalains and discuss the different reactions that have been demonstrated experimentally or proposed in the literature.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Trends in Biotechnology - Invoking ideology in the promotion of ecological risk assessment for GM crops

Two environmental risk-assessment approaches, often in contentious conflict, have been proposed and advocated by different groups for assessing the risks to non-target organisms (NTOs) posed by the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops. These two approaches are commonly referred to as the ‘ecotoxicological’ and ‘ecological’ approaches [1]. The premise for the ecotoxicological approach is that the gene product (most often a protein) can be evaluated in high-dose laboratory experiments with surrogate test organisms, and only if a hazard is detected are further laboratory or field studies required to evaluate plausible risks. The ecological approach also advocates high-dose laboratory studies with the gene product, but regardless of results, recommends that field studies be conducted. The basic assumption underlying the different approaches is predicated on the likelihood of unexpected adverse environmental effects. Those that ascribe to the ecotoxicological approach believe that unintended effects can be anticipated based on knowledge of the gene products and the genetic mechanisms known to affect the crop phenotype, whereas those that ascribe to the ecological approach do not believe that unintended effects can be predicted with sufficient confidence to forego field evaluations.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | Genetic structure in cultivated grapevines is linked to geography and human selection

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important and ancient horticultural plants in the world. Domesticated about 8--10,000 years ago in the Eurasian region, grapevine evolved from its wild relative (V.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Oomycete pathogens encode RNA silencing suppressors

Oomycete pathogens encode RNA silencing suppressors | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Effectors are essential virulence proteins produced by a broad range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, protozoa, insects and nematodes. Upon entry into host cells, pathogen effectors manipulate specific physiological processes or signaling pathways to subvert host immunity. Most effectors, especially those of eukaryotic pathogens, remain functionally uncharacterized. Here, we show that two effectors from the oomycete plant pathogenPhytophthora sojae suppress RNA silencing in plants by inhibiting the biogenesis of small RNAs. Ectopic expression of these Phytophthora suppressors of RNA silencing enhances plant susceptibility to both a virus and Phytophthora, showing that some eukaryotic pathogens have evolved virulence proteins that target host RNA silencing processes to promote infection. These findings identify RNA silencing suppression as a common strategy used by pathogens across kingdoms to cause disease and are consistent with RNA silencing having key roles in host defense.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from AnnBot
Scoop.it!

Seeing the woods — statistics for the very young - Education - Significance Magazine

Seeing the woods — statistics for the very young - Education - Significance Magazine | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Looking for some very basic resources for teaching statistics, I found this excellent article from "Significance", the magazine of the Royal Statistics Society. It's a terrific plant biology exercise for 9 year olds - which leaves are bigger, those in the sun or the shade?


Via Mary Williams, Annals of Botany: Plant Science Research
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Quantitative variation in maize kernel row number is controlled by the FASCIATED EAR2 locus

Quantitative variation in maize kernel row number is controlled by the FASCIATED EAR2 locus | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Domestication of cereal crops, such as maize, wheat and rice, had a profound influence on agriculture and the establishment of human civilizations. One major improvement was an increase in seed number per inflorescence, which enhanced yield and simplified harvesting and storage1, 2. The ancestor of maize, teosinte, makes 2 rows of kernels, and modern varieties make ~8–20 rows3. Kernel rows are initiated by the inflorescence shoot meristem, and shoot meristem size is controlled by a feedback loop involving the CLAVATA signaling proteins and the WUSCHEL transcription factor4, 5. We present a hypothesis that variation in inflorescence meristem size affects kernel row number (KRN), with the potential to increase yield. We also show that variation in the CLAVATA receptor–like protein FASCIATED EAR2 leads to increased inflorescence meristem size and KRN. These findings indicate that modulation of fundamental stem cell proliferation control pathways has the potential to enhance crop yields

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Supergene Family in Physcomitrella patens Reveals Complex Patterns of Large Gene Family Evolution in Land Plants

Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Supergene Family in Physcomitrella patens Reveals Complex Patterns of Large Gene Family Evolution in Land Plants | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis ofGSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different classGSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Global Nutrition
Scoop.it!

Soy protein can be replaced by rapeseed protein - ScienceDaily (2013)

Soy protein can be replaced by rapeseed protein - ScienceDaily (2013) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Today, more than 500 million people are suffering from a lack of adequate protein in their diet... providing enough food, particularly sufficient protein for the increasing populace is a challenging task for societies all over the world... a progressively smaller proportion of human protein requirement can be provided by animal proteins such as meat, eggs, and milk. "However, by feeding valuable plant protein to animals, almost two third of it is wasted as it is transformed into animal protein"... 

 

Rapeseed oil with its high nutritional value due to significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids has gained a strong place in the human diet in recent years... "Annually, 60 million tons of rapeseed are harvested worldwide, corresponding to about 15 million tons of rapeseed protein which is fed only to animals. We are taking a keen interest in making this important protein source available for human consumption." The research team at Jena University has now conducted the first human study worldwide on the use of rapeseed protein for human nutrition... 

 

"Our findings have shown that there is no difference in the bioavailability between these two protein sources. Thus, soy, mostly cultivated in South and North America, and diversely used in the production of foods, can be fully replaced by rapeseed protein harvested in Europe." Currently, legislation in Europe prevents the use of rapeseed protein for human nutrition. It requires registration as a "novel food" by the European Union. Ireland has already agreed to its use. In Germany, producers capable of isolating rapeseed protein are already waiting in the wings... 


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Functional stacking of three resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans in potato - Springer

Functional stacking of three resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans in potato - Springer | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Functional stacking of broad spectrum resistance (R) genes could potentially be an effective strategy for more durable disease resistance, for example, to potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi). For this reason, three broad spectrum potato R genes (Rpi), Rpi-sto1 (Solanum stoloniferum), Rpi-vnt1.1 (S. venturii) and Rpi-blb3 (S. bulbocastanum) were selected, combined into a single binary vector pBINPLUS and transformed into the susceptible cultivar Desiree. Among the 550 kanamycin resistant regenerants, 28 were further investigated by gene specific PCRs. All regenerants were positive for the nptII gene and 23 of them contained the three Rpi genes, referred to as triple Rpi gene transformants. Detached leaf assay and agro-infiltration of avirulence (Avr) genes showed that the 23 triple Rpi gene transformants were resistant to the selected isolates and showed HR with the three Avr effectors indicating functional stacking of all the three Rpi genes. It is concluded that Avr genes, corresponding to the R genes to be stacked, must be available in order to assay for functionality of each stack component. No indications were found for silencing or any other negative effects affecting the function of the inserted Rpi genes. The resistance spectrum of these 23 triple Rpi gene transformants was, as expected, a sum of the spectra from the three individual Rpigenes. This is the first example of a one-step approach for the simultaneous domestication of three natural R genes against a single disease by genetic transformation.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

MPMI: Oomycete Plant Pathogens Use Electric Fields to Target Roots (2002)

MPMI: Oomycete Plant Pathogens Use Electric Fields to Target Roots (2002) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Plant roots generate electrical currents and associated electrical fields as a consequence of electrogenic ion transport at the root surface. Here we demonstrate that the attraction of swimming zoospores of oomycete plant pathogens to plant roots is mediated in part by electrotaxis in natural root-generated electric fields. The zones of accumulation of anode- or cathode-seeking zoospores adjacent to intact and wounded root surfaces correlated with their in vitro electrotactic behavior. Manipulation of the root electrical field was reflected in changes in the pattern of zoospore accumulation and imposed focal electrical fields were capable of overriding endogenous signals at the root surface. The overall pattern of zoospore accumulation around roots was not affected by the presence of amino acids at concentrations expected within the rhizosphere, although higher concentrations induced encystment and reduced root targeting. The data suggest that electrical signals can augment or override chemical ones in mediating short-range tactic responses of oomycete zoospores at root surfaces.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
Scoop.it!

Molecular interactions between plants

Molecular interactions between plants | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The next Teaching Tool looks at how plants interact with each other, from molecules to ecosystems. For example, roots interact differently with "strangers" than "kin" or "self", as described further here in this new paper from the Benfey lab (http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/24/1222821110.abstract).

 

We all know that shoots grow taller to compete for light, or do they? Some shade tolerant plants don't try to compete with their much taller neighbors, instead they adapt to life in the dim lane. You can read more about that in this new TIPS article from the Pierik goup (http://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/abstract/S1360-1385%2812%2900215-4), and more about how plants detect and respond to their neighbors in their recent article in Functional Ecology (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12010/abstract).

 

Although plant-to-plant interactions have been studied by ecologists for decades, we're only recently learning about these interactions at the molecular scale. As our Teaching Tool describes, the applications of this knowledge range from forestry management to mitigating the challenges of invasive species, and the design of better agroecosystems. Look for it in March.


Via Mary Williams
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

The Contribution of Genetic Modification to Changes in Corn Yield in the United States

The Contribution of Genetic Modification to Changes in Corn Yield in the United States | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

We use a large, rich dataset compiled from results of university extension trials to estimate the contribution of genetic modification (GM) to changes in corn yield in the United States from timeA to timeB. Through repeated experimental trials, we obtain consistent estimates of the effect of these traits by using both the Hausman-Taylor estimator and a comparison of fixed effects estimates analogous to the agronomic practice of comparing near-isolines. Our results suggest that GM traits had a positive impact on yield, but that gains associated with combining several GM traits in one hybrid are not necessarily additive.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Nutritional assessment of transgenic lysine-rich maize compared with conventional quality protein maize

Nutritional assessment of transgenic lysine-rich maize compared with conventional quality protein maize | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The gene sb401 encoding a lysine-rich protein has been successfully integrated into the genome of maize (Zea mays), its expression showing as increased levels of lysine and total protein in maize seeds. As part of a nutritional assessment of transgenic maize, nutritional composition, especially unintended changes in key nutrients such as proximates, amino acids, minerals and vitamins as well as in antinutrient (phytate phosphorus), and protein nutritional quality were compared between transgenic maize (inbred line 642 and hybrid line Y642) and conventional quality protein maize (QPM) Nongda 108.

more...
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

Jean-Pierre Zryd's insight:

TMV is very stable, you imject it and you find it 3 days later. This is of absolutely no interest and definitely not new. 

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

Request for a serious reconsideration of the paper by Seralini &al - Wager &al (2013) - Food Chem Toxicol

As you are undoubtedly aware, the use of molecular methods to improve crop plants, now known as GMOs, continues to be a highly controversial subject globally despite the absence of evidence, to date, of human, animal or environment harm. The paper by Seralini et al. makes claims that contradict a large body of literature on the subject, reviewed recently in your journal by Snell et al. (2012). This review, analyses by serious scientific bodies, including the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society, as well as the European Union’s recent overview of 25 years of biosafety research on GMOs, all conclude that there are no negative health impacts specifically attributable to the use of molecular methods of crop improvement. Moreover, the herbicide glyphosate, which affects an enzyme present in plants, but not animals, has a short residence time in the environment and a long history of safe use, as does the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, from which the so-called “Bt” gene was transferred to a number of crops to render them resistant to certain kinds of insect pests.

 

Seralini et al. make the extraordinary claim that rats fed GM corn, with or without added glyphosate, develop tumors earlier in life and die prematurely compared with controls, attributing enhanced morbidity and mortality to consumption of the GM corn and herbicide. Such extraordinary claims must be based on sound and extensive evidence, as they are guaranteed to cause – and indeed, have caused – widespread alarm. As detailed below, this study does not provide sound evidence to support its claims. Indeed, the flaws in the study are so obvious that the paper should never have passed review. This appears to be a case of blatant misrepresentation and misinterpretation of data to advance an anti-GMO agenda by an investigator with a clear vested interest. We find it appalling that a journal with the substantial reputation of FCT published such “junk” science so clearly intended to alarm and mislead...


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering—better nutrition by design - Haslam - 2012 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley Online Library

The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering—better nutrition by design - Haslam - 2012 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

This article will focus on the modification of plant seed oils to enhance their nutritional composition. Such modifications will include C18 Δ6-desaturated fatty acids such as γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, as well as the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (often named ‘fish oils’) such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. We will consider how new technologies (such as synthetic biology, next-generation sequencing and lipidomics) can help speed up and direct the development of desired traits in transgenic oilseeds. We will also discuss how manipulating triacylglycerol structure can further enhance the nutritional value of ‘designer’ oils. We will also consider how advances in model systems have translated into crops and the potential end-users for such novel oils (e.g. aquaculture, animal feed, human nutrition).

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Plants cut the mustard for basic discoveries in metabolism - EurekAlert (press release)

Plants cut the mustard for basic discoveries in metabolism - EurekAlert (press release) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Plants cut the mustard for basic discoveries in metabolism EurekAlert (press release) While such details may seem abstract, these basic biochemical insights are fundamental to the development of better crops and therapies for disease, including the...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Agriculture nouvelle : l'atelier des curieux de l'agriculture.
Scoop.it!

Un micro-Lépidoptère invasif risque d'être le fléau de demain en pomme-de-terre, selon une étude de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech

Un micro-Lépidoptère invasif risque d'être le fléau de demain en pomme-de-terre, selon une étude de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the world. Tomato is regarded as the main host of T.absoluta, but the pest can also feed, develop and reproduce on other cultivated Solanaceae, such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L). In the present study, we examined the ability of T. absoluta to develop on four commonly cultivated varieties of potato, under laboratory conditions. The survival rate of T. absoluta did not differ between the five tested host plants (tomato: Solanum lycopersicumcv. Moneymaker; and potato: Solanum tuberosum cv. Spunta, Charlotte, Nicola, and Bintje), but its development time (egg to pupation) was significantly affected. Compared to tomato, development times were longer on Bintje and shorter on Nicola, Charlotte, and Spunta. These results show the high capacity of T. absoluta to develop on potato crops.


Via François Verheggen, Agriculture Nouvelle
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Plant scientists at CSHL demonstrate new means of boosting maize yields - EurekAlert (press release)

Plant scientists at CSHL demonstrate new means of boosting maize yields EurekAlert (press release) Cold Spring Harbor, NY – A team of plant geneticists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has successfully demonstrated what it describes as a...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Acquisition, Conservation, and Loss of Dual-Targeted Proteins in Land Plants

Acquisition, Conservation, and Loss of Dual-Targeted Proteins in Land Plants | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The dual-targeting ability of a variety of proteins from Physcomitrella patens, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was tested to determine when dual targeting arose and to what extent it was conserved in land plants. Overall, the targeting ability of over 80 different proteins from rice and P. patens, representing 42 dual-targeted proteins in Arabidopsis, was tested. We found that dual targeting arose early in land plant evolution, as it was evident in many cases with P. patens proteins that were conserved in rice and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we found that the acquisition of dual-targeting ability is still occurring, evident inP. patens as well as rice and Arabidopsis. The loss of dual-targeting ability appears to be rare, but does occur. Ascorbate peroxidase represents such an example. After gene duplication in rice, individual genes encode proteins that are targeted to a single organelle. Although we found that dual targeting was generally conserved, the ability to detect dual-targeted proteins differed depending on the cell types used. Furthermore, it appears that small changes in the targeting signal can result in a loss (or gain) of dual-targeting ability. Overall, examination of the targeting signals within this study did not reveal any clear patterns that would predict dual-targeting ability. The acquisition of dual-targeting ability also appears to be coordinated between proteins. Mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly protein40, a protein involved in oxidative folding in mitochondria and peroxisomes, provides an example where acquisition of dual targeting is accompanied by the dual targeting of substrate proteins.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
Scoop.it!

Maps - climate change impacts, from PLOS ONE and NOAA

Maps - climate change impacts, from PLOS ONE and NOAA | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Check out both of these - here are some global maps of threatened areas: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0054839

 

and here is what NOAA shows as threatened areas of the US:

http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2013/20130125_coastalclimateimpacts.html

 

(no wonder the inland "red states" don't care!)


Via Mary Williams
more...
Karen Johnson's curator insight, January 30, 2013 6:14 AM

Interesting information from PLoS and NOAA.  Thanks for the link Mary, you have some great scoops on your site :)

Mary Williams's comment, January 31, 2013 10:06 AM
Thanks Karen!