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Cambridge Journals Online - Environment and Development Economics - Abstract - The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

Cambridge Journals Online - Environment and Development Economics - Abstract - The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the technology to explain the delay in approval. We develop a real option model including irreversibility and uncertainty about perceived costs and arrival of new information to explain a delay in approval. The model has been applied to the case of India. Results show the annual perceived costs have to be at least US$199 million per year approximately for the last decade to explain the delay in approval of the technology. This is an indicator of the economic power of the opposition towards Golden Rice resulting in about 1.4 million life years lost over the past decade in India.
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Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.

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Eight types of stem cells in the life cycle of the moss Physcomitrella patens

Eight types of stem cells in the life cycle of the moss Physcomitrella patens | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Stem cells self-renew and produce cells that differentiate to become the source of the plant body. The moss Physcomitrella patens forms eight types of stem cells during its life cycle and serves as a useful model in which to explore the evolution of such cells. The common ancestor of land plants is inferred to have been haplontic and to have formed stem cells only in the gametophyte generation. A single stem cell would have been maintained in the ancestral gametophyte meristem, as occurs in extant basal land plants. During land plant evolution, stem cells diverged in the gametophyte generation to form different types of body parts, including the protonema and rhizoid filaments, leafy-shoot and thalloid gametophores, and gametangia formed in moss. A simplex meristem with a single stem cell was acquired in the sporophyte generation early in land plant evolution. Subsequently, sporophyte stem cells became multiple in the meristem and were elaborated further in seed plant lineages, although the evolutionary origin of niche cells, which maintain stem cells is unknown. Comparisons of gene regulatory networks are expected to give insights into the general mechanisms of stem cell formation and maintenance in land plants and provide information about their evolution. P. patens develops at least seven types of simplex meristem in the gametophyte and at least one type in the sporophyte generation and is a good material for regulatory network comparisons. In this review, we summarize recently revealed molecular mechanisms of stem cell initiation and maintenance in the moss.

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AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE proteins: hubs in a plethora of networks

AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE proteins: hubs in a plethora of networks | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Highlights

 

Various gene networks involve AIL genes to steer plant development.

AILs regulate embryogenesis, meristem development, organ initiation and growth.

AILs interact with auxin pathways at multiple levels throughout plant development.

AIL proteins exert their functions in a dosage-dependent manner.

 

Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) family of APETALA 2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) domain transcription factors are expressed in all dividing tissues in the plant, where they have central roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, stem cell niche specification, meristem maintenance, organ positioning, and growth. When overexpressed, AIL proteins induce adventitious growth, including somatic embryogenesis and ectopic organ formation. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains eight AIL genes, including AINTEGUMENTA, BABY BOOM, and the PLETHORA genes. Studies on these transcription factors have revealed their intricate relationship with auxin as well as their involvement in an increasing number of gene regulatory networks, in which extensive crosstalk and feedback loops have a major role.


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Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens - McArt - 2014 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library

Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens - McArt - 2014 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology.

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Regulating genetic modification - The Hindu

Regulating genetic modification - The Hindu | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
The Hindu Regulating genetic modification The Hindu This gives the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), the...
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Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China - Online First - Springer

Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China - Online First - Springer | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

As a developing country with relatively limited arable land, China is making great efforts for development and use of genetically modified (GM) crops to boost agricultural productivity. Many GM crop varieties have been developed in China in recent years; in particular, China is playing a leading role in development of insect-resistant GM rice lines. To ensure the safe use of GM crops, biosafety risk assessments are required as an important part of the regulatory oversight of such products. With over 20 years of nationwide promotion of agricultural biotechnology, a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of GM plants has been developed that establishes a firm basis for safe use of GM crops. So far, a total of seven GM crops involving ten events have been approved for commercial planting, and 5 GM crops with a total of 37 events have been approved for import as processing material in China. However, currently only insect-resistant Btcotton and disease-resistant papaya have been commercially planted on a large scale. The planting of Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have provided efficient protection against cotton bollworms and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), respectively. As a consequence, chemical application to these crops has been significantly reduced, enhancing farm income while reducing human and non-target organism exposure to toxic chemicals. This article provides useful information for the colleagues, in particular for them whose mother tongue is not Chinese, to clearly understand the biosafety regulation and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

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Elevating crop disease resistance with cloned genes

Elevating crop disease resistance with cloned genes | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Essentially all plant species exhibit heritable genetic variation for resistance to a variety of plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, oomycetes or viruses. Disease losses in crop monocultures are already significant, and would be greater but for applications of disease-controlling agrichemicals. For sustainable intensification of crop production, we argue that disease control should as far as possible be achieved using genetics rather than using costly recurrent chemical sprays. The latter imply CO2 emissions from diesel fuel and potential soil compaction from tractor journeys. Great progress has been made in the past 25 years in our understanding of the molecular basis of plant disease resistance mechanisms, and of how pathogens circumvent them. These insights can inform more sophisticated approaches to elevating disease resistance in crops that help us tip the evolutionary balance in favour of the crop and away from the pathogen. We illustrate this theme with an account of a genetically modified (GM) blight-resistant potato trial in Norwich, using the Rpi-vnt1.1 gene isolated from a wild relative of potato, Solanum venturii, and introduced by GM methods into the potato variety Desiree.

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Teosinte before domestication: Experimental study of growth and phenotypic variability in Late Pleistocene and early Holocene environments

Teosinte before domestication: Experimental study of growth and phenotypic variability in Late Pleistocene and early Holocene environments | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Agriculture arose during a period of profound global climatic and ecological change following the end of the Pleistocene. Yet, the role of phenotypic plasticity – an organism's ability to change its phenotype in response to the environment – and environmental influences in the dramatic phenotypic transformations that occurred during plant domestication are poorly understood. Another factor possibly influential in agricultural origins, the productivity of crop plant wild progenitors in Late Pleistocene vs. Holocene environments, has received increasing attention recently and merits further investigation. In this study, we examined phenotypic characteristics and productivity (biomass, seed yield) in the wild progenitor of maize, the teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis H.H. Iltis & Doebley, when it was first exploited and cultivated by growing it in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperatures characteristic of the late-glacial and early Holocene periods. Plants responded with a number of attributes uncharacteristic of teosinte in today's environments, including maize-type traits in vegetative architecture, inflorescence sexuality, and seed maturation. Teosinte productivity was significantly lower in late-glacial compared with early Holocene and modern environments. Our evidence indicates that: a) ancestral biological characteristics of crop plant progenitors aren't always predicted from living examples, b) some important maize phenotypic traits were present at initial human exploitation and selection, and c) Pleistocene plant productivity should be considered a significant factor in the chronology of food production origins.

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Rose scent in poplar trees? WSU turns to genetic engineering - The Seattle Times

Rose scent in poplar trees? WSU turns to genetic engineering - The Seattle Times | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Rose scent in poplar trees? WSU turns to genetic engineering The Seattle Times “We've been trying for many decades to understand how plants make these special chemicals that can be used in flavorings, fuels and medicinals, and that seemed like the...
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Predators delay pest resistance to Bt crops - Cornell Chronicle

Predators delay pest resistance to Bt crops - Cornell Chronicle | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Cornell Chronicle Predators delay pest resistance to Bt crops Cornell Chronicle Co-authors include Elizabeth Earle, Cornell professor emeritus of plant breeding and genetics, who developed the Bt broccoli; Richard Roush, a researcher at the...
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Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

While the extent and impact of horizontal transfers in prokaryotes are widely acknowledged, their importance to the eukaryotic kingdom is unclear and thought by many to be anecdotal. Here we report multiple recent transfers of a huge genomic island between Penicillium spp. found in the food environment. Sequencing of the two leading filamentous fungi used in cheese making, P. roquefortiand P. camemberti, and comparison with the penicillin producer P. rubens reveals a 575 kb long genomic island in P. roqueforti—called Wallaby—present as identical fragments at non-homologous loci in P. camemberti and P. rubens. Wallaby is detected in Penicillium collections exclusively in strains from food environments. Wallaby encompasses about 250 predicted genes, some of which are probably involved in competition with microorganisms. The occurrence of multiple recent eukaryotic transfers in the food environment provides strong evidence for the importance of this understudied and probably underestimated phenomenon in eukaryotes.

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Water deficits uncouple growth from photosynthesis, increase C content, and modify the relationships between C and growth in sink organs

Water deficits uncouple growth from photosynthesis, increase C content, and modify the relationships between C and growth in sink organs | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

In plants, carbon (C) molecules provide building blocks for biomass production, fuel for energy, and exert signalling roles to shape development and metabolism. Accordingly, plant growth is well correlated with light interception and energy conversion through photosynthesis. Because water deficits close stomata and thus reduce C entry, it has been hypothesised that droughted plants are under C starvation and their growth under C limitation. In this review, these points are questioned by combining literature review with experimental and modelling illustrations in various plant organs and species. First, converging evidence is gathered from the literature that water deficit generally increases C concentration in plant organs. The hypothesis is raised that this could be due to organ expansion (as a major C sink) being affected earlier and more intensively than photosynthesis (C source) and metabolism. How such an increase is likely to interact with C signalling is not known. Hence, the literature is reviewed for possible links between C and stress signalling that could take part in this interaction. Finally, the possible impact of water deficit-induced C accumulation on growth is questioned for various sink organs of several species by combining published as well as new experimental data or data generated using a modelling approach. To this aim, robust correlations between C availability and sink organ growth are reported in the absence of water deficit. Under water deficit, relationships weaken or are modified suggesting release of the influence of C availability on sink organ growth. These results are interpreted as the signature of a transition from source to sink growth limitation under water deficit.

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Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

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A new subfamily of putative cytokinin receptors is revealed by an analysis of the evolution of the two-component signaling system of plants

A new subfamily of putative cytokinin receptors is revealed by an analysis of the evolution of the two-component signaling system of plants | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The two-component signaling system (TCS) - the major signaling pathway of bacteria – is found among higher eukaryotes only in plants where it regulates diverse processes such as the signaling of the phytohormone cytokinin. Cytokinin is perceived by a hybrid-histidine kinase receptor and the signal is transduced by a multi-step phospho-relay system of histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPT) and different classes of response regulators (RR). To shed light on the origin and evolution of TCS members in plants, we conducted a comprehensive domain-based phylogenetic study across the relevant kingdoms including charophyceae algae, the group of green algae giving rise to land plants. Surprisingly, we identified a novel subfamily of cytokinin receptors with members only from the early diverging land plants Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens and then experimentally characterized two members of this subfamily. HTPs of charophyceae seemed to be more closely related to those of land plants than to other groups of green algae. Further down the signaling pathway, the type-B RRs were found across all plant clades, but many members lack either the canonical Asp residue or the DNA-binding domain. In contrast, the type-A RRs seemed to be limited to land plants. Finally, the analysis provided hints that one additional group of RRs, the type-C RRs, might be degenerated receptors and thus evolutionary of a different origin than bona fide response regulators.

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Indian farmer suicides: Is GM cotton to blame? - Plewis - 2014 - Significance - Wiley Online Library

Indian farmer suicides: Is GM cotton to blame? - Plewis - 2014 - Significance - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

“Thousands of Indian farmers are committing suicide after growing GM crops.” It is no minor claim. Genetically modified crops revolutionise agriculture – but are controversial. They will feed the world, reduce the need for pesticides and fertilisers, and add health-protecting nutrients to those who consume them, say some. They are an ecological disaster in the making, say others, and impoverish the Third World farmers who grow them. Often quoted is the example of suicides among Indian farmers who grow GM crops. Ian Plewisexamines the data and the conclusion. 

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Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities

Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

"Here, we review recent progress in computational modelling as applied to plant photosynthesis, with attention to the requirements for CAM, and recent advances in synthetic biology tool development. Lastly, we discuss possible options for multigene pathway construction in plants with an emphasis on CAM-into-C3 engineering. "


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Mary Williams's curator insight, February 25, 2014 10:08 AM

This would be a fun paper to read with students - it's got a little bit of all the hot / cool topics!

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Comparative Diversity of Arthropods on Bt Maize and Non-Bt Maize in two Different Cropping Systems in South Africa

Comparative Diversity of Arthropods on Bt Maize and Non-Bt Maize in two Different Cropping Systems in South Africa | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

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Prenylation is required for polar cell elongation, cell adhesion, and differentiation in Physcomitrella patens - Thole - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Prenylation is required for polar cell elongation, cell adhesion, and differentiation in Physcomitrella patens - Thole - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Protein prenylation is required for a variety of growth and developmental processes in flowering plants. Here we report the consequences of loss of function of all known prenylation subunits in the moss Physcomitrella patens. As in Arabidopsis, protein farnesyltransferase and protein genanylgeranyltransferase type I are not required for viability. However, protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I activity is required for cell adhesion, polar cell elongation, and cell differentiation. Loss of protein geranylgeranyltransferase activity results in colonies of round, single-celled organisms that resemble unicellular algae. The loss of protein farnesylation is not as severe but also results in polar cell elongation and differentiation defects. The complete loss of Rab-geranylgeranyltransferase activity appears to be lethal in P. patens. Labeling with antibodies to cell wall components support the lack of polarity establishment and the undifferentiated state of geranylgeranyltransferase type I mutant plants. Our results show that prenylated proteins play key roles in P. patens development and differentiation processes.

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Ghana's GMO debates: beyond the sticking points (3) - GhanaWeb

Ghana's GMO debates: beyond the sticking points (3) GhanaWeb The foregoing explains why some scientists argue that the assumption that conventionally-bred crops are necessarily safer than GM crops is overly simplistic, especially when...
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Betalain and Betaine Composition of Greenhouse- or Field-Produced Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and Inhibition of HepG2 Cell Proliferation

Betalain and Betaine Composition of Greenhouse- or Field-Produced Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) and Inhibition of HepG2 Cell Proliferation | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied. Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by betanin and betaine was also tested. Four predominant betalains, two betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin) and two betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I and miraxanthin V), were isolated and quantified. Betanin and vulgaxanthin I were the major compounds in red and yellow beetroot extracts, respectively, and they comprised >90% of the betalain content in the tested cultivars. The total betalain content of beetroots produced from the field was between 650 and 800 μg/g fresh weight, approximately 25% higher than those from the greenhouse. The betaine content of the beetroot grown in the field was between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/g fresh weight, approximately 20% higher than in plants from the greenhouse. There was great variation among the cultivars with respect to their contents of betalains and betaine. In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells after exposure to betanin and betaine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 μg/mL and from 0 to 800 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Betanin resulted in a 49% inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation at 200 μg/mL, and betaine yielded a 25% inhibition at 800 μg/mL, implying a higher cytotoxicity of betanin compared with betaine. The results indicated that the contents of health-beneficial compounds in beetroots, betalains and betaine, could be increased by modifying the growing conditions and that betanin and betaine extracted from beetroots had some anticancer effects against HepG2 cells.

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The Arabidopsis Book: Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vernalization

The Arabidopsis Book: Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vernalization | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Dong-Hwan Kim and Sibum Sung (2014) Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vernalization. The Arabidopsis Book: Vol. , No. , pp. null. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1199/tab.0171

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Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody

Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Infectious Disease Medical Article: Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody (Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of e559, a rabies...
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ingentaconnect Comparative Diversity of Arthropods on Bt Maize and Non-Bt Maize ...

The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing‐sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

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Five fabulous photobiology reviews from The Plant Cell

Five fabulous photobiology reviews from The Plant Cell | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Five fabulous photobiology reviews from The Plant Cell!

And an overview by Nan Eckardt

www.plantcell.org/content/early/2014/01/29/tpc.114.123026.full.pdf

PIFs: Systems Integrators in Plant Development
Mathematical Models Light Up Plant Signaling
Phototropism: Growing towards an Understanding of Plant Movement
The UV-B Photoreceptor UVR8: From Structure to Physiology
Multiple Layers of Posttranslational Regulation Refine Circadian Clock Activity in Arabidopsis


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