Efficiency and precision in plant breeding can be enhanced by using diagnostic DNA-based markers for the selection of superior cultivars. This technique has been applied to many crops, including potatoes. The first generation of diagnostic DNA-based markers useful in potato breeding were enabled by several developments: genetic linkage maps based on DNA polymorphisms, linkage mapping of qualitative and quantitative agronomic traits, cloning and functional analysis of genes for pathogen resistance and genes controlling plant metabolism, and association genetics in collections of tetraploid varieties and advanced breeding clones. Although these have led to significant improvements in potato genetics, the prediction of most, if not all, natural variation in agronomic traits by diagnostic markers ultimately requires the identification of the causal genes and their allelic variants. This objective will be facilitated by new genomic tools, such as genomic resequencing and comparative profiling of the proteome, transcriptome, and metabolome in combination with phenotyping genetic materials relevant for variety development.