plant cell genetics
Follow
Find
8.9K views | +1 today
 
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
onto plant cell genetics
Scoop.it!

Pinot blanc and Pinot gris arose as independent somatic mutations of Pinot noir

Pinot blanc and Pinot gris arose as independent somatic mutations of Pinot noir | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Somatic mutation is a natural mechanism which allows plant growers to develop new cultivars. As a source of variation within a uniform genetic background, it also represents an ideal tool for studying the genetic make-up of important traits and for establishing gene functions. Layer-specific molecular characterization of the Pinot family of grape cultivars was conducted to provide an evolutionary explanation for the somatic mutations that have affected the locus of berry colour. Through the study of the structural dynamics along chromosome 2, a very large deletion present in a single Pinot gris cell layer was identified and characterized. This mutation reveals that Pinot gris and Pinot blanc arose independently from the ancestral Pinot noir, suggesting a novel parallel evolutionary model. This proposed ‘Pinot-model’ represents a breakthrough towards the full understanding of the mechanisms behind the formation of white, grey, red, and pink grape cultivars, and eventually of their specific enological aptitude.

more...
No comment yet.

From around the web

plant cell genetics
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Speaking of food: Connecting basic and applied plant science

Speaking of food: Connecting basic and applied plant science | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science—historical and modern plant–human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

China's GMO Stockpile - MIT Technology Review

China's GMO Stockpile - MIT Technology Review | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
With its world-leading research investments and vast size, China will dominate the future of genetically modified food—despite the resistance of its population.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Exploration of Three Solanum Species for Improvement of Antioxidant Traits in Tomato

Exploration of Three Solanum Species for Improvement of Antioxidant Traits in Tomato | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Wild tomato species have been widely used for improvement of tomato disease resistance but have not been extensively explored for health-related traits. In this work, three interspecific populations derived from backcrosses between cultivated tomato and Solanum pimpinellifolium (LA1589), S. habrochaites (LA1223), and S. peruvianum (LA2172) were analyzed for water-soluble antioxidant activity, phenolic content, vitamin C content, and basic agronomic traits including fruit weight, shape, and color. The wild species accessions significantly exceeded S. lycopersicum for all three antioxidant traits with only one exception: vitamin C content in S. habrochaites LA1223. Several populations and traits showed transgressive segregation indicating that the backcross populations contained individuals with allele combinations that allowed antioxidant activity/content to exceed that of both parents. The S. habrochaites LA1223 population provided the best starting material for improvement of water-soluble antioxidant activity and phenolics content with 20% and 15% of the population, respectively, significantly exceeding the parental values for these traits. Moreover, the S. habrochaites population contained individuals that had nearly 2-fold more water-soluble antioxidant activity and phenolic content than cultivated tomato. The S. peruvianum LA2172 population was best for improvement of vitamin C content with 3-fold variation for the trait and individuals, which had twice as much vitamin C as cultivated tomato.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Genome-wide identification and characterisation of R2R3-MYB genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)

Genome-wide identification and characterisation of R2R3-MYB genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Background

The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, metabolite accumulation and defense responses. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, the R2R3-MYB genes in Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) as the first sequenced member of the order Caryophyllales, have not been analysed heretofore.

Results

We present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) which is the first species of the order Caryophyllales with a sequenced genome. A total of 70 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Also, organ specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-seq data. The R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised which led to the identification of a sugar beet-specific clade with an atypical amino acid composition in the R3 domain, putatively encoding betalain regulators. The functional classification was verified by experimental confirmation of the prediction that the R2R3-MYB gene Bv_iogq encodes a flavonol regulator.

Conclusions

This study provides the first step towards cloning and functional dissection of the role of MYB transcription factor genes in the nutritionally and evolutionarily interesting species B. vulgaris. In addition, it describes the flavonol regulator BvMYB12, being the first sugar beet R2R3-MYB with an experimentally proven function.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

RAD51B plays an essential role during somatic and meiotic recombination in Physcomitrella

RAD51B plays an essential role during somatic and meiotic recombination in Physcomitrella | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The eukaryotic RecA homologue Rad51 is a key factor in homologous recombination and recombinational repair. Rad51-like proteins have been identified in yeast (Rad55, Rad57 and Dmc1), plants and vertebrates (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3 and DMC1). RAD51 and DMC1 are the strand-exchange proteins forming a nucleofilament for strand invasion, however, the function of the paralogues in the process of homologous recombination is less clear. In yeast the two Rad51 paralogues, Rad55 and Rad57, have been shown to be involved in somatic and meiotic HR and they are essential to the formation of the Rad51/DNA nucleofilament counterbalancing the anti-recombinase activity of the SRS2 helicase. Here, we examined the role of RAD51B in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Mutant analysis shows that RAD51B is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity, for resistance to DNA damaging agents and for gene targeting. Furthermore, we set up methods to investigate meiosis in Physcomitrella and we demonstrate that the RAD51B protein is essential for meiotic homologous recombination. Finally, we show that all these functions are independent of the SRS2 anti-recombinase protein, which is in striking contrast to what is found in budding yeast where the RAD51 paralogues are fully dependent on the SRS2 anti-recombinase function.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

Scientific Reports: Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa: can it be a plant pathogen? (2014)

Scientific Reports: Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa: can it be a plant pathogen? (2014) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Plant material features responsible for bamboo's excellent mechanical performance: a comparison of tensile properties of bamboo and spruce at the tissue, fibre and cell wall levels

Plant material features responsible for bamboo's excellent mechanical performance: a comparison of tensile properties of bamboo and spruce at the tissue, fibre and cell wall levels | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The superior tensile properties of bamboo fibres and fibre bundles are mainly a result of amplified cell wall formation, leading to a densely packed tissue, rather than being based on specific cell wall properties. The material optimization towards extremely compact fibres with a multi-lamellar cell wall in bamboo might be a result of a plant growth strategy that compensates for the lack of secondary thickening growth at the tissue level, which is not only favourable for the biomechanics of the plant but is also increasingly utilized in terms of engineering products made from bamboo culms.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Functional–structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies

Functional–structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional–structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

The Art of Being Flexible: How to Escape from Shade, Salt, and Drought

The Art of Being Flexible: How to Escape from Shade, Salt, and Drought | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Environmental stresses, such as shading of the shoot, drought, and soil salinity, threaten plant growth, yield, and survival. Plants can alleviate the impact of these stresses through various modes of phenotypic plasticity, such as shade avoidance and halotropism. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that control plant developmental responses to shade, salt, and drought stress. We discuss plant hormones and cellular signaling pathways that control shoot branching and elongation responses to shade and root architecture modulation in response to drought and salinity. Because belowground stresses also result in aboveground changes and vice versa, we then outline how a wider palette of plant phenotypic traits is affected by the individual stresses. Consequently, we argue for a research agenda that integrates multiple plant organs, responses, and stresses. This will generate the scientific understanding needed for future crop improvement programs aiming at crops that can maintain yields under variable and suboptimal conditions.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Genetic system found in all land plants controls the development of structures ... - Phys.Org

Genetic system found in all land plants controls the development of structures ... - Phys.Org | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Phys.Org
Genetic system found in all land plants controls the development of structures ...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Betanin – a food colorant with biological activity - Esatbeyoglu - Molecular Nutrition & Food Research - Wiley Online Library

Betanin – a food colorant with biological activity - Esatbeyoglu - Molecular Nutrition & Food Research - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments which are subdivided in red-violet betacyanins and yellow-orange betaxanthins. Due to glycosylation and acylation betalains exhibit a huge structural diversity. Betanin (betanidin-5-O-β-glucoside) is the most common betacyanin in the plant kingdom. According to the regulation on food additives betanin is permitted quantum satis as a natural red food colorant (E162). Moreover, betanin is used as colorant in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Recently, potential health benefits of betalains and betalain-rich foods (e.g., red beet, Opuntia sp.) have been discussed. Betanin is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and exhibits gene-regulatory activity partly via Nrf2-dependent signaling pathways. Betanin may induce phase II enzymes and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Furthermore, betanin possibly prevents LDL oxidation and DNA damage. Potential blood pressure lowering effects of red beet seem to be mainly mediated by dietary nitrate rather than by betanin per se.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) is required for three-dimensional growth in Physcomitrella patens - Perroud - 2014 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) is required for three-dimensional growth in Physcomitrella patens - Perroud - 2014 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Orientation of cell division is critical for plant morphogenesis. This is evident in the formation and function of meristems and for morphogenetic transitions. Mosses undergo such transitions: from two-dimensional tip-growing filaments (protonema) to the generation of three-dimensional leaf-like structures (gametophores).The Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) protein plays a key role in the perception of and/or response to positional cues that specify the formation and function of the epidermal layer in developing seeds of flowering plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens contains the highly conserved DEK1 gene.Using efficient gene targeting, we generated a precise PpDEK1 deletion (∆dek1), which resulted in normal filamentous growth of protonema. Two distinct mutant phenotypes were observed: an excess of buds on the protonema, and abnormal cell divisions in the emerging buds resulting in developmental arrest and the absence of three-dimensional growth. Overexpression of a complete PpDEK1 cDNA, or the calpain domain of PpDEK1 alone, successfully complements both phenotypes.These results in P. patens demonstrate the morphogenetic importance of the DEK1 protein in the control of oriented cell divisions. As it is not for protonema, it will allow dissection of the structure/function relationships of the different domains of DEK1 using gene targeting in null mutant background.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Transposon-mediated mutation of CYP76AD3 affects betalain synthesis and produces variegated flowers in four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa)

Transposon-mediated mutation of CYP76AD3 affects betalain synthesis and produces variegated flowers in four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa) | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The variegated flower colors of many plant species have been shown to result from the insertion or excision of transposable elements into genes that encode enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis. To date, however, it has not been established whether this phenomenon is responsible for the variegation produced by other pigments such as betalains. During betalain synthesis in red beet, the enzyme CYP76AD1 catalyzes the conversion of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to cyclo-DOPA. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis indicated that the homologous gene in four o’clock (Mirabilis jalapa) is CYP76AD3. Here, we show that in four o’clock with red perianths, the CYP76AD3 gene consists of one intron and two exons; however, in a mutant with a perianth showing red variegation on a yellow background, a transposable element, dTmj1, had been excised from the intron. This is the first report that a transposition event affecting a gene encoding an enzyme for betalain synthesis can result in a variegated flower phenotype.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Building a bridge from basic botany to applied agriculture - Phys.Org

Building a bridge from basic botany to applied agriculture - Phys.Org | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
One of the planet's leading questions is how to produce enough food to feed the world in an increasingly variable climate.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd from Plant roots and rhizosphere
Scoop.it!

Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes -

Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes - | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
Some plant species are able to distinguish between neighbours of different genetic identity and attempt to pre-empt resources through root proliferation in the presence of unrelated competitors, but avoid competition with kin. However, studies on neighbour recognition have met with some scepticism because the mechanisms by which plants identify their neighbours have remained unclear.
In order to test whether root exudates could mediate neighbour recognition in plants, we performed a glasshouse experiment in which plants of Deschampsia caespitosa were subjected to root exudates collected from potential neighbours of different genetic identities, including siblings and individuals belonging to the same or a different population or species.
Our results show that root exudates can carry specific information about the genetic relatedness, population origin and species identity of neighbours, and trigger different responses at the whole root system level and at the level of individual roots in direct contact with locally applied exudates. Increased root density was mainly achieved through changes in morphology rather than biomass allocation, suggesting that plants are able to limit the energetic cost of selfish behaviour.
This study reveals a new level of complexity in the ability of plants to interpret and react to their surroundings.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Genetic Analysis of DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 Loop Function in Three-Dimensional Body Patterning in Physcomitrella patens

Genetic Analysis of DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 Loop Function in Three-Dimensional Body Patterning in Physcomitrella patens | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
In this article, we continue to explore the separate DEK1 domains, focusing on the Loop region. First, using homologous recombination, we create a P. patens Loop deletion mutant, dek1Δloop. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of Loop sequences from Charophyta and land plant species, we use Loop coding regions from Marchantia polymorpha, maize, and Arabidopsis to complement the dek1Δloop mutant in P. patens in order to study the functional conservation of Loop sequences from land plants. Bioinformatics analysis is used to re-examine the structure of DEK1 MEM in order to identify homologous proteins or protein domains that help elucidate the MEM function. Next, in order to develop a better understanding of the global role of DEK1, we use RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) differential expression analysis to study the effect of DEK1 on the transcriptome of P. patens by comparing wild-type and Δdek1 protonemata before and after bud initiation. Finally, we use novel data to identify the last charophycean species of green algae that possessed multiple calpain forms before retention of DEK1 as the single calpain of land plants.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

RAD51B plays an essential role during somatic and meiotic recombination in Physcomitrella

RAD51B plays an essential role during somatic and meiotic recombination in Physcomitrella | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The eukaryotic RecA homologue Rad51 is a key factor in homologous recombination and recombinational repair. Rad51-like proteins have been identified in yeast (Rad55, Rad57 and Dmc1), plants and vertebrates (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3 and DMC1). RAD51 and DMC1 are the strand-exchange proteins forming a nucleofilament for strand invasion, however, the function of the paralogues in the process of homologous recombination is less clear. In yeast the two Rad51 paralogues, Rad55 and Rad57, have been shown to be involved in somatic and meiotic HR and they are essential to the formation of the Rad51/DNA nucleofilament counterbalancing the anti-recombinase activity of the SRS2 helicase. Here, we examined the role of RAD51B in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Mutant analysis shows that RAD51B is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity, for resistance to DNA damaging agents and for gene targeting. Furthermore, we set up methods to investigate meiosis in Physcomitrella and we demonstrate that the RAD51B protein is essential for meiotic homologous recombination. Finally, we show that all these functions are independent of the SRS2 anti-recombinase protein, which is in striking contrast to what is found in budding yeast where the RAD51 paralogues are fully dependent on the SRS2 anti-recombinase function.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera

Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Emerging and reemerging diseases that result from pathogen host shifts are a threat to the health of humans and their domesticates. RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates and thus represent a significant source of these infectious diseases. In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera, resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. Additionally, we showed that TRSV-infected individuals were continually present in some monitored colonies. While intracellular life cycle, species-level genetic variation, and pathogenesis of the virus in honeybee hosts remain to be determined, the increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses from spring toward winter in infected colonies was associated with gradual decline of host populations and winter colony collapse, suggesting the negative impact of the virus on colony survival. Furthermore, we showed that TRSV was also found in ectoparasitic Varroa mites that feed on bee hemolymph, but in those instances the virus was restricted to the gastric cecum of Varroa mites, suggesting that Varroa mites may facilitate the spread of TRSV in bees but do not experience systemic invasion. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRSV isolates from bees, bee pollen, and Varroa mites clustered together, forming a monophyletic clade. The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. This study represents a unique example of viruses with host ranges spanning both the plant and animal kingdoms.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Insights from the cold transcriptome of Physcomitrella patens: global specialization pattern of conserved transcriptional regulators and identification of orphan genes involved in cold acclimation ...

Insights from the cold transcriptome of Physcomitrella patens: global specialization pattern of conserved transcriptional regulators and identification of orphan genes involved in cold acclimation ... | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
The whole-genome transcriptomic cold stress response of the moss Physcomitrella patens was analyzed and correlated with phenotypic and metabolic changes.Based on time-series microarray experiments and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we characterized the transcriptomic changes related to early stress signaling and the initiation of cold acclimation. Transcription-associated protein (TAP)-encoding genes of P. patens and Arabidopsis thaliana were classified using generalized linear models. Physiological responses were monitored with pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and targeted high-performance mass spectrometry.The transcript levels of 3220 genes were significantly affected by cold. Comparative classification revealed a global specialization of TAP families, a transcript accumulation of transcriptional regulators of the stimulus/stress response and a transcript decline of developmental regulators.Although transcripts of the intermediate to later response are from evolutionarily conserved genes, the early response is dominated by species-specific genes. These orphan genes may encode as yet unknown acclimation processes.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

A plant cell division algorithm based on cell biomechanics and ellipse-fitting

A plant cell division algorithm based on cell biomechanics and ellipse-fitting | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

The generic plant cell division algorithm has been implemented successfully. It can handle both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells coupled with isotropic and anisotropic growth modes. Development of the algorithm highlighted the importance of ellipse-fitting to produce randomness (biological variability) even in symmetrically dividing cells. Unlike previous models, a differential equation is formulated for the resting length of the cell wall to simulate actual biological growth and is solved simultaneously with the position and velocity of the vertices.

Conclusions The algorithm presented can produce different tissues varying in topological and geometrical properties. This flexibility to produce different tissue types gives the model great potential for use in investigations of plant cell division and growth in silico.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway - Walla...

Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway - Walla... | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it
The early evolution of plants required the acquisition of a number of key adaptations to overcome physiological difficulties associated with survival on land. One of these was a tough sporopollenin wall that enclosed reproductive propagules and provided protection from desiccation and UV-B radiation. All land plants possess such walled spores (or their derived homologue, pollen).We took a reverse genetics approach, consisting of knock-out and complementation experiments to test the functional conservation of the sporopollenin-associated gene MALE STERILTY 2 (which is essential for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana) in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens.Knock-outs of a putative moss homologue of the A. thaliana MS2 gene, which is highly expressed in the moss sporophyte, led to spores with highly defective walls comparable to that observed in the A. thaliana ms2 mutant, and extremely compromised germination. Conversely, the moss MS2 gene could not rescue the A. thaliana ms2 phenotype.The results presented here suggest that a core component of the biochemical and developmental pathway required for angiosperm pollen wall development was recruited early in land plant evolution but the continued increase in pollen wall complexity observed in angiosperms has been accompanied by divergence in MS2 gene function.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine ... - Science Careers Blog

The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine ...
Science Careers Blog
13Center for Biotechnology, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 27, D-33615 Bielefeld, Germany.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Suspension Culture of Plant Cells Under Phototrophic Conditions - Industrial Scale Suspension Culture of Living Cells - Niederkrüger - Wiley Online Library

The use of plant (cell) suspension cultures in phototrophic mode on an industrially relevant scale is limited to two systems worldwide. These are the moss-based BryoTechnology™ and the duckweed-based SYNLEX™ production systems being developed by greenovation biotech GmbH and Synthon, respectively. Both production platforms make use of intact plants, rather than isolated cells, which are grown in simple salt media to manufacture recombinant, high value pharmaceutical proteins. They exploit unique features of plants like homogenous N-glycosylation, absolute genetic stability, and pathogen safety to create biopharmaceuticals of outstanding quality. On the equipment side, both processes build on single use, disposable solutions bringing about high flexibility and regulatory safety. Despite sharing all of the above-mentioned aspects, these two systems differ remarkably in several details. Physcomitrella patens, the moss behind BryoTechnology™, is unique in its potential for genetic engineering. Resembling yeast systems in that aspect, it allows for rapid generation of product-tailored production platforms. The SYNLEX™-system on the other hand, with Lemna minor as producing organism has a very basic process setup with few controls and good scale-up potential. This chapter discusses strengths and weaknesses of both systems side-by-side, describes their current technological development status, and gives a short future outlook.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Genetic analysis of DEK1 Loop function in three-dimensional body patterning in Physcomitrella patens

Genetic analysis of DEK1 Loop function in three-dimensional body patterning in Physcomitrella patens | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

DEK1 of higher plants plays an essential role in position dependent signaling and consists of a large transmembrane domain (MEM) linked to a protease catalytic domain (CysPc) and a regulatory domain (C2L). Here we show that the postulated sensory Loop of the MEM domain plays an important role in the developmental regulation of DEK1 activity in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Compared with P. patens lacking DEK1 (∆dek1), the dek1∆loop mutant correctly positions the division plane in the bud apical cell. In contrast to an early developmental arrest of ∆dek1 buds, dek1∆loop develops aberrant gametophores lacking expanded phyllids resulting from mis-regulation of mitotic activity. In contrast to the highly conserved sequence of the catalytic CysPc domain, the Loop is highly variable in land plants. Functionally, the sequence from Marchantia polymorpha fully complements the dek1∆loop phenotype, whereas sequences from Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana give phenotypes with retarded growth and affected phyllid development. New bioinformatic analysis identifies MEM as a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, membrane transporters reacting to stimuli from the external environment. Transcriptome analysis comparing WT and ∆dek1 tissues identifies an effect of two groups of transcripts connected to dek1 mutant phenotypes, i.e. transcripts related to cell wall remodeling and regulation of the APB2 and APB3 transcription factors known to regulate bud initiation. Finally, new sequence data support the hypothesis that the advanced charophyte algae that evolved into ancestral land plants lost cytosolic calpains, retaining DEK1 as the sole calpain in the evolving land plant lineage.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jean-Pierre Zryd
Scoop.it!

Microencapsulated beetroot juice as a potential source of betalain

Microencapsulated beetroot juice as a potential source of betalain | plant cell genetics | Scoop.it

Red beet is a rich source of betalain pigments, which can protect against age-related diseases. Betalain pigment can be used as a natural additive for food, cosmetics and drugs in the form of beet juice as well as beet powder. Processing stability in food is the most important issue nowadays. Microencapsulation of pigments creates stable powders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carrier type on stability of beetroot pigments. Raw material used in the study was 100% beetroot juice. Low-crystallised maltodextrin, Arabic gum and a mixture of both (1:1) were used as carriers. Drying was carried out in a spray-drier at a disc speed of 39,000 rpm and a solution flux rate of 0.3 and 0.8 × 10− 6 m3 s− 1. The inlet air temperature was 160 °C. In powders physical properties such as hygroscopicity, dry matter solubility and size, which can influence future application, were tested. The highest violet pigment content was observed in powders based on Arabic gum, but the content of yellow pigment was low. Reverse results were seen for microparticles with maltodextrin. Moreover, for a longer period of time microcapsules of Arabic gum and beetroot pigments were stable, because of their lower hygroscopicity in comparison to maltodextrin. Nevertheless, the authors recommend beetroot pigments obtained with maltodextrin as natural food pigments for food supplements.

more...
No comment yet.