Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite involved in numerous anabolic and catabolic pathways, as well as in protein acetylation. Beyond histones, a large number of metabolic enzymes are acetylated in both animal and bacteria, and the protein acetylome is now emerging in plants. Protein acetylation is influenced by the cellular level of both acetyl-CoA and NAD+, and regulates the activity of several enzymes. Acetyl-CoA is thus ideally placed to act as a key molecule linking the energy balance of the cell to the regulation of gene expression and metabolic pathways via the control of protein acetylation. Better knowledge over how to influence acetyl-CoA levels and the acetylation process promises to be an invaluable tool to control metabolic pathways.