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What Does Horticulture Scholarship Look Like in the Digital Age?: ASHS HortTalks Presentations

What Does Horticulture Scholarship Look Like in the Digital Age?: ASHS HortTalks Presentations | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Dr. David Francis, Ohio State University, speaking about Plant Breeding and Genomics Community of Practice on eXtension.

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Plants as Biofactories: Glyphosate-Induced Production of Shikimic Acid and Phenolic Antioxidants in Wounded Carrot Tissue - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

"The present project evaluated the feasibility of producing shikimic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds (PC) in wounded carrots (Daucus carota) treated with glyphosate. The spray application of a concentrated glyphosate solution on wounded carrot tissue increased the concentrations of SA and chlorogenic acid by 1735 and 5700%, respectively."

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Comparative analysis of syntenic genes in gras... [Plant Physiol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"Cycles of whole genome duplication (WGD) and diploidization are hallmarks of eukaryotic genome evolution and speciation. Polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) has had a massive increase in genome size largely due to recent WGDs. How these processes may impact the dynamics of gene evolution was studied by comparing the patterns of gene structure changes, alternative splicing (AS), and codon substitution rates among wheat and the model grass genomes."

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TALENs enable efficient plant genome engineering. [Plant Physiol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"Here we describe methods for the targeted modification of plant genomes using transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs)."

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Phenotypic diversity and association mapping for fruit quality traits in cultivated tomato and related species

"The number of associations detected per trait varied, according to the way the structure was taken into account, with 0–41 associations detected per trait in the whole collection and a maximum of four associations in the S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. A total of 40 associations (30 %) were co-localized with previously identified quantitative trait loci. This study thus showed the potential and limits of using association mapping in tomato populations."

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Construction of gene regulatory networks mediated by vegetative and reproductive stage-specific small RNAs in rice (Oryza sativa) - Meng - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Construction of gene regulatory networks mediated by vegetative and reproductive stage-specific small RNAs in rice (Oryza sativa) - Meng - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"A set of rice stage-specific sRNAs along with the regulatory cascades, which have great potential in regulating specific developmental stages, were provided for further investigation."

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ScienceInsider: ScienceInsider | Science and the 2012 U.S. Elections

ScienceInsider: ScienceInsider | Science and the 2012 U.S. Elections | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Check out some of the scientific issues important in this US election.

 

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The Archaic Diet in Mesoamerica: Incentive for Milpa Development and Species Domestication - Springer

"One of the central questions in the development of Mesoamerican civilization is how the alimentary, agronomic, and ecological complementarities were achieved within the milpa agroecosystem, which is one of its more important and distinctive cultural elements."

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PLOS ONE: The Altmetrics Collection

Apparently we are a pellet of peer recognition.

 

"Altmetrics may support finer-grained maps of science, broader and more equitable evaluations, and improvements to the peer-review system [24]. On the other hand, the use and development of altmetrics should be pursued with appropriate scientific caution. Altmetrics may face attempts at manipulation similar to what Google must deal with in web search ranking. Addressing such manipulation may, in-turn, impact the transparency of altmetrics. New and complex measures may distort our picture of the science system if not rigorously assessed and correctly understood. Finally, altmetrics may promote an evaluation system for scholarship that many argue has become overly focused on metrics."

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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Sequencing of the needle transcriptome from Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst L.) reveals lower substitution rates, but similar selective constraints in gymnosperms and ang...

"Our study yielded a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as estimates of gene expression on transcriptome scale. In agreement with a recent study we find that the synonymous substitution rate per year (0.6 x 10-09 and 1.1 x 10-09) is an order of magnitude smaller than values reported for angiosperm herbs. However, if one takes generation time into account, most of this difference disappears. The estimates of the dN/dS ratio (non-synonymous over synonymous divergence) reported here are in general much lower than 1 and only a few genes showed a ratio larger than 1."

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Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to suppression of rust diseases on wheat - Panwar - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to suppression of rust diseases on wheat - Panwar - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis and could potentially be utilized as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi."

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BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | Dissecting tocopherols content in maize (Zea mays L.), using two segregating populations and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers

"These results demonstrate that a few QTLs with major effects and several QTLs with medium to minor effects might contribute to the natural variation of tocopherols in maize grain. The high-density markers will help to fine map and identify the QTLs with major effects even in the preliminary segregating populations. Furthermore, this study provides a simple guide line for the breeders to improve traits that minimize the risk of malnutrition, especially in developing countries."

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PLOS ONE: A Drought Resistance-Promoting Microbiome Is Selected by Root System under Desert Farming

PLOS ONE: A Drought Resistance-Promoting Microbiome Is Selected by Root System under Desert Farming | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit."

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Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group - Genome

Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group - Genome | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

" The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance."

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Gateway vectors for transformation of cereals. [Trends Plant Sci. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"Until now, the availability of vectors for transgenic research in cereal crops has been rather limited. We present a novel collection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary T-DNA vectors compatible with Gateway recombinational cloning that facilitate the modular assembly of genes of interest together with new regulatory sequences, such as strong constitutive or endosperm-specific Brachypodium distachyon promoters. This resource aims at streamlining the creation of vectors and transgenes designed to explore gene functions in vital monocotyledonous crops"

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Loose Plant Architecture 1, an INDETERMINATE D... [Plant Physiol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"This study not only facilitates to the understanding of gravitropism mechanisms, but also generates a useful genetic material for rice breeding."

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QTL mapping in three tropical maize populations reveals a set of constitutive and adaptive genomic regions for drought tolerance

"High throughput assays were developed for SNPs that delimit the physical intervals of these mQTL. At most of the QTL, almost equal number of favorable alleles was donated by either of the parents within each cross, thereby demonstrating the potential of drought tolerant × drought tolerant crosses to identify QTL under contrasting water regimes."

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Violence Against Women is an Agriculture and Economic Issue

Violence Against Women is an Agriculture and Economic Issue | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"Gender-based violence (GBV) transcends borders, social status, wealth ranking, socio-cultural background, religion, level of education, and age. It exists in every society and in every country in the world. Many of us working in international development consider GBV to be solely a health issue. Unfortunately, this is a dangerous assumption."

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Plant Methods | Abstract | PhenoPhyte: a flexible affordable method to quantify 2D phenotypes from imagery

"PhenoPhyte is a new cost-effective web-application for semi-automated quantification of two-dimensional traits from digital imagery using an easy imaging protocol. This tool's usefulness is demonstrated for a variety of traits in multiple species. We show that digital phenotyping can reduce human subjectivity in trait quantification, thereby increasing accuracy and improving precision, which are crucial for differentiating and quantifying subtle phenotypic variation and understanding gene function and/or treatment effects."

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Primer on Plant/Soil-Microbe Interactions

Professor Giles Oldroyd of the John Innes Centre explains how plant roots form beneficial interactions with microbes in the soil. Almost all plants associate...
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Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures

Mixtures of genetically modified wheat lines outperform monocultures | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"We conclude that combining genetic modification with mixed cropping techniques could be a promising approach to increase sustainability and productivity in agricultural systems, as the fitness cost of stacking transgenes within individuals may thus be avoided.

Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-0876.1"

 

 

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Epistasis in tomato color mutations... [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"Results presented here indicate that allele r(2997) of yellow-flesh eliminates transcription of PSY1 in fruits. In a genetic background of tangerine, transcription of PSY1 is partially restored to a level sufficient for producing phytoene and downstream carotenoids. Our results revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the epistasis of t over r and suggest the involvement of cis-carotenoid metabolites in a feedback regulation of PSY1 gene expression."

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Selecting Sprouts of Brassicaceae for Optimum Phytochemical Composition - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

"The glucosinolates in seeds were significantly higher than in sprouts, and day 8 of germination was considered the optimum for consumption. The sprouts with higher concentrations of glucosinolates in 8-day-old sprouts were white mustard, turnip, and kohlrabi (815, 766, and 653 mg 100 g–1 FW, respectively). Red cabbage and radish presented great total glucosinolates content (516 and 297 mg 100 g–1 FW, respectively, in 8-day-old sprouts) and also higher total phenolic contents, biomass, and antioxidant capacity. The selection of the best performers in terms of germination quality and phytochemical composition is the key to optimize new fresh foods enriched in health-bioactive compounds."

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BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | Hordeum chilense genome, a useful tool to investigate the endosperm yellow pigment content in the Triticeae

"The results obtained are consistent with previous findings in wheat and suggest that Ggpps1, Zds and Hyd3 on chromosome 2Hch may be considered candidate genes in wheat for further studies in YPC improvement. Considering the syntenic location of carotenoid genes in H. chilense, we have concluded that the Hch genome may constitute a valuable tool for YPC studies in the Triticeae."

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Webinar Recording Now Available

Webinar Recording Now Available | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Introduction to the rrBLUP Package in R for Genomewide Selection Webinar | PBGworks

 

This webinar focuses on genomic selection in R using the rrBLUP package. Through this webinar you will learn to generate a training population, impute missing markers, estimate marker effects and determine the correlation accuracy.

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