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A Conifer ABI3-Interacting Protein Plays Impor... [Plant Physiol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"ABI3 (ABscisic acid Insensitive 3), a transcription factor of the ABA signal transduction pathway, plays a major role during seed development, dormancy inception and dormancy maintenance. This protein appears to also function in meristematic and vegetative plant tissues, and under certain stress conditions. We have isolated the ABI3 gene ortholog (CnABI3) from yellow-cedar and found that it was functionally similar to other ABI3 genes of angiosperms. Here we report that using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have identified another protein of yellow-cedar (CnAIP2) that physically interacts with CnABI3. Functional analyses revealed that CnAIP2 plays important roles during key transitions in the plant lifecycle: (1) CnAIP2 impaired seed development and reduced seed dormancy; (2) CnAIP2 promoted root development, particularly the initiation of lateral roots, and the CnAIP2 gene promoter was exquisitely auxin-sensitive. (3) CnAIP2 promoted the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive initiation, i.e. flowering. The nature of the effects of CnAIP2 on these processes and other evidence places CnAIP2 in the category of a 'global' regulator, whose actions are antagonistic to those of ABI3."

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Mapping genetic loci for tolerance to lime-induced iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevine rootstocks (Vitis sp.) - Online First - Springer

Mapping genetic loci for tolerance to lime-induced iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevine rootstocks (Vitis sp.) - Online First - Springer | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"The aim of the experiment was to characterize the genetic basis of grapevine chlorosis tolerance under lime stress conditions."

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Potential Effects of Climate Change on Crop Pollination

Potential Effects of Climate Change  on Crop Pollination | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"Climate change has the potential to severely impact ecosystem services such as pollination. As with any change, both challenges and opportunities can be expected. Recognizing that the interactions between climate, crops and biodiversity are complex and not always well understood, the Plant Production and Protection Division of FAO has coordinated this review of the potential effects of climate change on crop pollination."

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BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | Functional characterization of a tomato COBRA-like gene functioning in fruit development and ripening

Extensive studies have demonstrated that the COBRA gene is critical for biosynthesis of cell wall constituents comprising structural tissues of roots, stalks, leaves and other vegetative organs, however, its role in fruit development and ripening...
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Volatile isoprenoid emissions from plastid to planet - Harrison - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Volatile isoprenoid emissions from plastid to planet - Harrison - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"Approximately 1–2% of net primary production by land plants is re-emitted to the atmosphere as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions play major roles in atmospheric chemistry and air pollution–climate interactions. Phenomenological models have been developed to predict their emission rates, but limited understanding of the function and regulation of these emissions has led to large uncertainties in model projections of air quality and greenhouse gas concentrations. We synthesize recent advances in diverse fields, from cell physiology to atmospheric remote sensing, and use this information to propose a simple conceptual model of volatile isoprenoid emission based on regulation of metabolism in the chloroplast. This may provide a robust foundation for scaling up emissions from the cellular to the global scale."

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Crop Prospects and Food Situation - No. 3 Oct. 2012

Crop Prospects and Food Situation - No. 3 Oct. 2012 | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it
Latest indications confirm a decline in world cereal production in 2012 from the record in 2011.
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Cell - Daddy Issues: Paternal Effects on Phenotype

The title is enough to make this article interesting.

 

"The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects."

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BMC Genetics | Abstract | Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) meta-analysis and comparative genomics for candidate gene prediction in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

"Functional markers are valuable for QTL meta-analysis and comparative genomics. Enrichment of such genetic markers may permit further detailed characterisation of QTLs. The outcomes of QTL meta-analysis and comparative genomics studies may be useful for accelerated development of novel perennial ryegrass cultivars with desirable traits."

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Peach Fruit: Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Varieties with Different Resistances to Insect Attacks by NMR Spectroscopy - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

"The metabolite profile of aqueous extracts of two peach varieties, Percoca Romagnola 7 and Flaminia, with different susceptibilities to Ceratitis capitata attack was investigated by means of 1D and 2D high-field NMR spectroscopy."

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Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen - Łukasik - 2012 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library

Unrelated facultative endosymbionts protect aphids against a fungal pathogen - Łukasik - 2012 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"Pea aphids thus obtain protection from natural enemies through association with a wider range of microbial associates than has previously been thought. Providing resistance against natural enemies appears to be a particularly common way for facultative endosymbionts to increase in frequency within host populations."

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PLOS Genetics: The Covariate's Dilemma

PLOS Genetics: The Covariate's Dilemma | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"An important step in analyzing genetic association study data is deciding whether to adjust for covariates—those variables ancillary to the variants of interest. In particular, when testing for novel associations, should the statistical model also include known genetic or nongenetic covariates that are predictors of the trait (e.g., body mass index when studying type 2 diabetes)? Yes, if the covariates are also correlated with the primary variants but do not mediate their effects, because they may confound the genetic associations. Including them helps control bias and prevent false discoveries (Figure 1a). But the answer is less clear-cut if the covariates are not confounders."

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Interaction of Tannins and Other Sorghum Phenolic Compounds with Starch and Effects on in Vitro Starch Digestibility - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

"This study investigated interactions of sorghum proanthocyanidins (PAs) with starch molecules and the effect on in vitro starch digestibility. High tannin (predominant in PA), black (monomeric polyphenols), and white (low in polyphenols) sorghum phenolic extracts were mixed and cooked with starches varying in amylose content. Starch pasting properties, polyphenol profile, and resistant starch (RS) were determined."

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iRootHair

"The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe: Genes, Processes of root hair formation, root hair Mutants and available References. The database integrates bioinformatics Tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated and expandable database that is freely available at: http://www.iroothair.org."

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Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping - Online First - Springer

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping - Online First - Springer | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program."

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QTL for spot blotch resistance in bread wheat line Saar co-locate to the biotrophic disease resistance loci Lr34 and Lr46 - Online First - Springer

QTL for spot blotch resistance in bread wheat line Saar co-locate to the biotrophic disease resistance loci Lr34 and Lr46 - Online First - Springer | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"A major implication for wheat breeding is that Lr34 and Lr46, which are widely used in wheat breeding to improve resistance to rust diseases and powdery mildew, also have a beneficial effect on spot blotch."

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Expression dynamics of the Medicago truncatula... [Plant Physiol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

"We also inferred 23,165 putative transcript isoforms from 6,587 genes and measured the abundance of transcripts for each isoform, which suggests an important role for alternative splicing in the generation of proteome diversity in M. truncatula. Finally, we carried out a differential expression analysis, which provided a comprehensive view of transcriptional reprogramming during nodulation. In particular, depletion of nitric oxide in roots inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti greatly increased our understanding of the role of this reactive species in the optimal establishment of the symbiotic interaction, in revealing differential patterns of expression for 2,030 genes and, in pointing to the inhibition of the expression of defense genes."

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Effects of Genetics and Environment on the Metabolome of Commercial Maize Hybrids: A Multisite Study - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

"The findings from this study demonstrate that the combination of GC/TOF-MS metabolomics and comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis is a powerful approach to identify the sources of natural variation contributed by the environment and genotype."

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BMC Plant Biology | Abstract | Basal and herbivory-induced defense trade-offs are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in the native tobacco, Nicotiana at...

"Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels."

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FAO: The State of Food Insecurity in the World

FAO: The State of Food Insecurity in the World | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Plant Breeding Advancements = Food

 

"With almost 870 million people chronically undernourished in 2010–12, the number of hungry people in the world remains unacceptably high. The vast majority live in developing countries, where about 850 million people, or slightly fewer than 15 per cent of the population, are estimated to be undernourished."

 

"To accelerate hunger reduction, economic growth needs to be accompanied by purposeful and decisive public action. Public policies and programmes must create a conducive environment for pro-poor long-term economic growth. Key elements of enabling environments include provision of public goods and services for the development of the productive sectors, equitable access to resources by the poor, empowerment of women, and design and implementation of social protection systems. An improved governance system, based on transparency, participation, accountability, rule of law and human rights, is essential for the effectiveness of such policies and programmes."

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FEMS Microbiol Letters: Ramularia collo-cygni: the biology of an emerging pathogen of barley (2007)

FEMS Microbiol Letters: Ramularia collo-cygni: the biology of an emerging pathogen of barley (2007) | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Ramularia collo-cygni is now recognized as an important pathogen of barley in Northern Europe and New Zealand. It induces necrotic spotting and premature leaf senescence, leading to loss of green leaf area in crops, and can result in substantial yield losses. The fungus produces a number of anthraquinone toxins called rubellins, which act as host nonspecific toxins with photodynamic activity. These toxins induce lipid peroxidation and are possibly the cause of the chlorosis and necrosis observed in leaves infected with R. collo-cygni. The fact that the fungus can remain latent in barley plants until flowering, coupled with its very slow growth in vitro, makes it difficult to detect in crops. As a result, the epidemiology of this pathogen remains poorly understood. However, the recent development of rapid and reliable PCR methods for specific detection of R. collo-cygni offers the prospect of increased understanding of its epidemiology and improved disease control.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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BMC Genomics | Abstract | High-throughput novel microsatellite marker of faba bean via next generation sequencing

"Large scale SSR marker development was successfully achieved using next generation sequencing of the V. faba genome. These novel markers are valuable for constructing genetic linkage maps, future QTL mapping, and marker-assisted trait selection in faba bean breeding efforts."

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Plant evolutionary ecology: molecular genetics, global warming and invasions, and the novel approaches we are using to study adaptations - Campitelli - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Plant evolutionary ecology: molecular genetics, global warming and invasions, and the novel approaches we are using to study adaptations - Campitelli - 2012 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"The 1st Joint Congress on Evolutionary Biology was an international meeting hosted jointly by the University of Ottawa and Carleton University (Ontario, Canada), that brought together nearly 2400 delegates from 45 countries representing the five major societies for evolutionary biology. As one might imagine, there was a very rich variety of research presented in all systems, asking a wide range of interesting questions in evolutionary ecology. Although there were abundant talks and posters (c. 1300 and 650, respectively), several exciting areas of plant research stood out, including studies on the molecular genetics of complex traits, ecological responses to climate change, evolution in invasive plants, and species interactions. Collectively, the sheer breadth of plant research at the meeting – which we cannot cover fully here – highlights the progress being made in plant evolutionary biology and ecology."

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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Root transcriptional responses of two melon genotypes with contrasting resistance to Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack et Uecker) infection

"As a result of this study we have identified for the first time a set of candidate genes involved in the root response to the infection of the pathogen causing melon vine decline. This information is useful for understanding the disease progression and resistance mechanisms few days after inoculation."

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Contrasting Patterns of X/Y Polymorphism Distinguish Carica papaya from Other Sex Chromosome Systems

"In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity."

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ScienceDirect.com - Plant Science - Hypothesis: Nitro-fatty acids play a role in plant metabolism

ScienceDirect.com - Plant Science - Hypothesis: Nitro-fatty acids play a role in plant metabolism | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

"► Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are new signal molecules which mediate important activities in animal systems. ► In higher plants, the presence of nitro-fatty acids has not yet been experimentally demonstrated. ► Plants are natural sources of fatty acids and have a very active NO metabolism, ► It can be hypothesized that plants contain NO2-FAs, as has been demonstrated in relation to animals."

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