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Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security? - IOPscience

Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security? - IOPscience | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits.

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Raj Parmar's comment, August 8, 2013 1:07 PM
what do you think about mitigating climate change along with fighting food security, possible?
Plant Breeding and Genomics News's comment, August 8, 2013 2:55 PM
Raj, climate change and food security are inextricably connected. Agricultural activity is an enormous source of carbon pollution. Food systems must become more resilient and more sustainable. Plant breeding can go a long way toward the development of resilient sustainable agricultural systems, but of course food security is more complex than food production. I have hope in the possibilities.
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Agricultural innovation to protect the environment

The conclusion that emerges is that a radical rethink is needed in the orientation of agriculture. Research has to underpin innovations that will allow more food, fiber, and biofuel to be produced but in ways that alleviate rural poverty, improve diets and health, and allow increases in stocks of the environmental assets upon which all depends. Progress towards these four goals requires new ways of organizing research, new ways of setting priorities, and more subtle ways of assessing outcomes and impacts. The solutions will not be narrow sectoral or technical innovations but nested sets of innovations at the scale of the plant, the agronomic system, the landscape, and the institutional environment.

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Mineral Biofortification Strategies for Food Staples: The Example of Common Bean - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

Common bean is the most important directly consumed legume, especially in the least developed countries of Africa (e.g., Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda) and Latin America (e.g., Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador). Biofortification is the process of improving staple crops for mineral or vitamin content as a way to address malnutrition in developing countries. The main goals of mineral biofortification have been to increase the concentration of iron or zinc in certain major cereals and legumes. In humans, iron is essential for preventing anemia and for the proper functioning of many metabolic processes, whereas zinc is essential for adequate growth and for resistance to gastroenteric and respiratory infections, especially in children. This paper outlines the advantages and needs of mineral biofortification in common bean, starting with the steps of breeding for the trait such as germplasm screening, inheritance, physiological, or bioavailability studies and finishing with product development in the form of new biofortified varieties.

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Viviana Brun's curator insight, August 19, 2013 6:11 PM

La chimica del cibo: un fagiolo "mineralizzato" per combattere la malnutrizione

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Starved for Science by Louise O. Fresco - Project Syndicate

Starved for Science by Louise O. Fresco - Project Syndicate | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it
With global food demand set to rise by 40% by 2030, the need to increase agricultural output is becoming increasingly urgent.
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Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook from the FAO

Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook from the FAO | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

There has been a rapid uptake of the term Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) by the international community, national entities and local institutions, in the past years. However, implementing this approach is challenging, partly due to a lack of tools and experience. Climate-smart interventions are highly location-specific and knowledge-intensive. Considerable efforts are required to develop the knowledge and capacities to make CSA a reality.

 

The purpose of the sourcebook is to further elaborate the concept of CSA and demonstrate its potential, as well as its limitations. This sourcebook is a reference tool for planners, practitioners and policy makers working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at national and subnational levels, dealing with the effects of climate change.

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SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION IN AGRICULTURE: PREMISES AND POLICIES

T. Garnett, M. C. Appleby, A. Balmford, I. J. Bateman, T. G. Benton, P. Bloomer, B. Burlingame, M. Dawkins, L. Dolan, D. Fraser, M. Herrero, I. Hoffmann, P. Smith, P. K. Thornton, C. Toulmin, S. J. Vermeulen, H. C. J. Godfray 

Plant Breeding and Genomics News's insight:

Summary for those without access to Science. 

 

Demand for Food is Increasing

Population growthMore people eating resource-intensive dietsClimate change

 

Four Premises of Sustainable Intensification (SI) of Agriculture

Increase production while decreasing demand for resource-intensive foods.Increase production with higher yields, not by increasing agricultural lands.Drastically reduce the environmental impact of agriculture.Make evidence-based context-specific descisions.

 

Policy Goals

Integrate agriculture and conservation goals with “land sharing” and “land sparing” where appropriate.Animal welfare and environmental constraints prohibit some possible livestock yield increases, and limit the ability to meet projected demands for animal products.SI requires that nutritional quality and dietary diversity be ensured.SI requires that rural communities be strengthened.SI requires an investment in sustainable development and economic growth.Make evidence-based context-specific SI strategies research priorities.
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Upcoming Webinar: Fast Semi-Parallel Linear and Logistic Regression for Genome-Wide Association Studies - eXtension

Upcoming Webinar: Fast Semi-Parallel Linear and Logistic Regression for Genome-Wide Association Studies - eXtension | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

September 12, 2013 at 1:00 pm EDT

This webinar will describe an R based approach to considerably speed GWAS computation time on a notebook book computer. 

Register now at http://www1.gotomeeting.com/register/237810425

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The First 50 Plant Genomes

The First 50 Plant Genomes | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Fifty-five plant genomes have been published to date representing 49 different species (Table 1 includes PubMed IDs for complete reference). What have we learned from the first wave of plant genomes? It has been said that plant genome papers (and genome papers in general) are dry and lack “biology” and that the days of high impact plant genome papers are drawing to a close unless they explore significant biology. However, with each new genome, earlier observations are refined and plant genome papers continue to reveal novel aspects of genome biology. For example, the tomato and banana genome papers refined current thinking on the whole genome duplications (WGD) that shaped dicot and monocot genome evolution (D’Hont et al., 2012; Tomato Genome Consortium, 2012). These observations were enabled not only by high quality genome assemblies but also by a greater number of genomes available for comparisons. In addition, the initial round of plant genomes enabled the first generation of functional genomics that helped to define the roles of hundreds of genes, provided unprecedented access to sequence-based markers for breeding, and provided glimpses into plant evolutionary history. More genomes, representing the diverse array of species in Viridiplantae are still required to gain a full understanding of plant genome structure, evolution, and complexity.

 

General Plant Genome Resources (accessed 24 July 2013)

http://www.phytozome.net/

http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/

http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/genomes.jsp

http://www.plantgdb.org/

http://pgn.cornell.edu/

http://www.gramene.org/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/PLANTS/PlantList.html

http://genomevolution.org/wiki/index.php/Sequenced_plant_genomes

 

 

Plant Specific (accessed 24 July 2013)

http://www.arabidopsis.org/

http://www.maizegdb.org/

http://www.maizesequence.org

http://solgenomics.net/

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Science/AAAS | Special Issue: Smarter Pest Control

Science/AAAS | Special Issue: Smarter Pest Control | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it
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PLOS ONE: Genome-Wide Expression of Transcriptomes and Their Co-Expression Pattern in Subtropical Maize (Zea mays L.) under Waterlogging Stress

PLOS ONE: Genome-Wide Expression of Transcriptomes and Their Co-Expression Pattern in Subtropical Maize (Zea mays L.) under Waterlogging Stress | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Waterlogging causes extensive damage to maize crops in tropical and subtropical regions. The identification of tolerance genes and their interactions at the molecular level will be helpful to engineer tolerant genotypes. A whole-genome transcriptome assay revealed the specific role of genes in response to waterlogging stress in susceptible and tolerant genotypes. Genes involved in the synthesis of ethylene and auxin, cell wall metabolism, activation of G-proteins and formation of aerenchyma and adventitious roots, were upregulated in the tolerant genotype. Many transcription factors, particularly ERFs, MYB, HSPs, MAPK, and LOB-domain protein were involved in regulation of these traits. Genes responsible for scavenging of ROS generated under stress were expressed along with those involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The physical locations of 21 genes expressed in the tolerant genotype were found to correspond with the marker intervals of known QTLs responsible for development of adaptive traits. Among the candidate genes, most showed synteny with genes of sorghum and foxtail millet. Co-expression analysis of 528 microarray samples including 16 samples from the present study generated seven functional modules each in the two genotypes, with differing characteristics. In the tolerant genotype, stress genes were co-expressed along with peroxidase and fermentation pathway genes.

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PLOS ONE: FmMDb: A Versatile Database of Foxtail Millet Markers for Millets and Bioenergy Grasses Research

PLOS ONE: FmMDb: A Versatile Database of Foxtail Millet Markers for Millets and Bioenergy Grasses Research | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html), a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity.

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Food Safety: Importance of Composition for Assessing Genetically Modified Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

Food Safety: Importance of Composition for Assessing Genetically Modified Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven “history of safe use”. This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a “worst case” of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the “best available knowledge”. We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

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The agony of choice: how plants balance growth and survival under water-limiting conditions

When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors. The perspectives to engineer or breed crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, but are still able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed.

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Portable search engine for registered crop germplasm: a new concept for enhancing access to information on plant genetic resources

Portable search engine for registered crop germplasm: a new concept for enhancing access to information on plant genetic resources | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

The National Bureau of Plant genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi carries out the registration of unique crop germplasm in order to protect the intrinsic intellectual property as well as to facilitate greater utilization of germplasm in crop improvement programmes. It is therefore imperative to enhance access to information on registered crop germplasm. Here, we present a concept of a search engine that can suffice dual functions of a Web-based and portable search application. The concept entails converting raw data through a series of transformations from a Microsoft-Excel to eXtensible Markup Language (XML) data format. XML data initialized on compatible Web browsers are then queried for the search term based on a looping regular expression matching. The results are then loaded onto the browser in a tabulated output. The concept is implemented in the form of ‘Inventory of Registered Crop Germplasm’ on the Web as well as on a portable memory (compact disk or flash drive). The portable search engine works with minimal hardware and software requirements to enable its widespread utility to ensure greater access to information on registered crop germplasm. The portable search engine can be obtained from the NBPGR, New Delhi and the Web-based search engine can be accessed at

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Agriculture: Feeding the future

Susan McCouch, Gregory J. Baute, James Bradeen, Paula Bramel, Peter K. Bretting, Edward Buckler, John M. Burke, David Charest, Sylvie Cloutier, Glenn Cole, Hannes Dempewolf, Michael Dingkuhn,Catherine Feuillet, Paul Gepts, Dario Grattapaglia, Luigi Guarino, Scott Jackson, Sandra Knapp, Peter Langridge, Amy Lawton-Rauh, Qui Lijua, Charlotte Lusty, Todd Michael, Sean Myles, Ken Naito

Plant Breeding and Genomics News's insight:

Summary for those that do not have access to Nature.


Challenge

Food availability must double over next 25 year to keep pace with demand.  Crop biodiversity is essential to speed plant breeding and must be immediately conserved, characterized, and utilized to ensure food security.

 

Obstacles to Overcome

Population growthIncome growth – resource-intensive food demandClimate changeSoil degradationWater and land shortages

 

How to Apply Biodiversity to Food Security

Sample all non-duplicate genomes (~2million) in the world’s gene banks and immediately sequence all or some of these.  The costs associated with sequencing have decreased to such an extent that this is economically feasible.Analyze the phenotypes of gene bank accessions.  This is not entirely feasible, but the combination of genetic, phenotypic, geographic, and ecological information would vastly speed plant-breeding efforts, increasing genetic diversity available for high yielding varieties.Create an accessible catalog of the world’s seed diversity.

 

Estimated Costs

$200 Million/year

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The Commission as a model for the Committee on World Food Security - Olivier De Schutter

http://www.fao.org/nr/cgrfa/cgrfa-media/cgrfa-multimedia/en/ Olivier De Schutter, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, reflects on biodiversity for fo...
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PLOS ONE: WRINKLED1, A Ubiquitous Regulator in Oil Accumulating Tissues from Arabidopsis Embryos to Oil Palm Mesocarp

PLOS ONE: WRINKLED1, A Ubiquitous Regulator in Oil Accumulating Tissues from Arabidopsis Embryos to Oil Palm Mesocarp | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

WRINKLED1 (AtWRI1) is a key transcription factor in the regulation of plant oil synthesis in seed and non-seed tissues. The structural features of WRI1 important for its function are not well understood. Comparison of WRI1 orthologs across many diverse plant species revealed a conserved 9 bp exon encoding the amino acids “VYL”. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids within the ‘VYL’ exon ofAtWRI1 failed to restore the full oil content of wri1-1 seeds, providing direct evidence for an essential role of this small exon in AtWRI1 function. Arabidopsis WRI1 is predicted to have three alternative splice forms. To understand expression of these splice forms we performed RNASeq of Arabidopsis developing seeds and queried other EST and RNASeq databases from several tissues and plant species. In all cases, only one splice form was detected and VYL was observed in transcripts of all WRI1 orthologs investigated. We also characterized a phylogenetically distant WRI1 ortholog (EgWRI1) as an example of a non-seed isoform that is highly expressed in the mesocarp tissue of oil palm. The C-terminal region of EgWRI1 is over 90 amino acids shorter than AtWRI1 and has surprisingly low sequence conservation. Nevertheless, the EgWRI1 protein can restore multiple phenotypes of the Arabidopsis wri1-1 loss-of-function mutant, including reduced seed oil, the “wrinkled” seed coat, reduced seed germination, and impaired seedling establishment. Taken together, this study provides an example of combining phylogenetic analysis with mutagenesis, deep-sequencing technology and computational analysis to examine key elements of the structure and function of the WRI1 plant transcription factor.

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PLOS ONE: The Flavonoid Pathway in Tomato Seedlings: Transcript Abundance and the Modeling of Metabolite Dynamics

PLOS ONE: The Flavonoid Pathway in Tomato Seedlings: Transcript Abundance and the Modeling of Metabolite Dynamics | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Flavonoids are secondary metabolites present in all terrestrial plants. The flavonoid pathway has been extensively studied, and many of the involved genes and metabolites have been described in the literature. Despite this extensive knowledge, the functioning of the pathway in vivo is still poorly understood. Here, we study the flavonoid pathway using both experiments and mathematical models. We measured flavonoid metabolite dynamics in two tissues, hypocotyls and cotyledons, during tomato seedling development. Interestingly, the same backbone of interactions leads to very different accumulation patterns in the different tissues. Initially, we developed a mathematical model with constant enzyme concentrations that described the metabolic networks separately in both tissues. This model was unable to fit the measured flavonoid dynamics in the hypocotyls, even if we allowed unrealistic parameter values. This suggested us to investigate the effect of transcript abundance on flavonoid accumulation. We found that the expression of candidate flavonoid genes varies considerably with time. Variation in transcript abundance results in enzymatic variation, which could have a large effect on metabolite accumulation. Candidate transcript abundance was included in the mathematical model as representative for enzyme concentration. We fitted the resulting model to the flavonoid dynamics in the cotyledons, and tested it by applying it to the data from hypocotyls. When transcript abundance is included, we are indeed able to explain flavonoid dynamics in both tissues. Importantly, this is possible under the biologically relevant restriction that the enzymatic properties estimated by the model are conserved between the tissues.

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Genomic Relationships and GBLUP - eXtension Tutorial

Genomic Relationships and GBLUP  - eXtension Tutorial | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

This tutorial describes calculations of realized genomic relationships from DNA markers and the application of GBLUP for genomic estimated breeding values in animal and plant breeding. Two demos are provided using R and ASReml software with sample data and links to software. Presented by Fikret Isik, Associate Professor and Associate Director of North Carolina State University Cooperative Tree Improvement Program.

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PLOS ONE: Complete Genes May Pass from Food to Human Blood

PLOS ONE: Complete Genes May Pass from Food to Human Blood | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly precise log-normal distribution in the plasma samples while non-plasma (cord blood) control sample was found to be free of plant DNA.

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COOL!

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PLOS ONE: Genetic Basis for Spontaneous Hybrid Genome Doubling during Allopolyploid Speciation of Common Wheat Shown by Natural Variation Analyses of the Paternal Species

PLOS ONE: Genetic Basis for Spontaneous Hybrid Genome Doubling during Allopolyploid Speciation of Common Wheat Shown by Natural Variation Analyses of the Paternal Species | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschiiintraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii’s ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the genetic mechanisms for hybrid genome doubling could be studied based on the intrinsic natural variation that exists in the parental species.

  
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Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palmElaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues ofWRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators1, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis2 but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings3, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.

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Open Access

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Lactoferrin-Derived Resistance against Plant Pathogens in Transgenic Plants - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications)

Lactoferrin-Derived Resistance against Plant Pathogens in Transgenic Plants - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) | Plant Breeding and Genomics News | Scoop.it

Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis (A. thaliana) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) via Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogenRhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications.

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Lidia Pérez de Obanos's curator insight, October 20, 2013 7:57 AM

Me parece bien que se desarrolle este tipo de alimentos ya que es un beneficio para la sociedad al tener menos contaminaciones.

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BMC Bioinformatics | Abstract | RCircos: an R package for Circos 2D track plots

Background

Circos is a Perl language based software package for visualizing similarities and differences of genome structure and positional relationships between genomic intervals. Running Circos requires extra data processing procedures to prepare plot data files and configure files from datasets, which limits its capability of integrating directly with other software tools such as R. Recently published R Bioconductor package ggbio provides a function to display genomic data in circular layout based on multiple other packages, which increases its complexity of usage and decreased the flexibility in integrating with other R pipelines.

Results

We implemented an R package, RCircos, using only R packages that come with R base installation. The package supports Circos 2D data track plots such as scatter, line, histogram, heatmap, tile, connectors, links, and text labels. Each plot is implemented with a specific function and input data for all functions are data frames which can be objects read from text files or generated with other R pipelines.

Conclusion

RCircos package provides a simple and flexible way to make Circos 2D track plots with R and could be easily integrated into other R data processing and graphic manipulation pipelines for presenting large-scale multi-sample genomic research data. It can also serve as a base tool to generate complex Circos images.

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