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Science: Jack of All Trades, Master of Flowering

Science: Jack of All Trades, Master of Flowering | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

"Carbohydrates are thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of flowering, and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) has been suggested to function as a proxy for carbohydrate status in plants. The loss of TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 1 (TPS1) causes Arabidopsis thaliana to flower extremely late, even under otherwise inductive environmental conditions. This suggests that TPS1 is required for the timely initiation of flowering. We show that the T6P pathway affects flowering both in the leaves and at the shoot meristem, and integrate TPS1 into the existing genetic framework of flowering-time control. "

Mary Williams's insight:

Great! Trehalose-6-phophate is such an interesting molecule....

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Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Traffic Lines: New Tools for Genetic Analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana

Traffic Lines: New Tools for Genetic Analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

This paper summary is contributed by Dr. Clint Springer @clintspringer (http://www.sju.edu/about-sju/faculty-staff/faculty-experts/clint-springer-phd).

Scott Poethig’s group at the University of Pennsylvania has created an excellent new tool for use in genetic analysis studies of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the “traffic lines” they have created, one can use a pair of seed-expressed green and red fluorescent transgenes that flank the mutation of interest to identify the genotype of mutants without the need for phenotypic analysis. This powerful tool cuts mutant analysis time substantially in all mutant genotypes and provides a way of determining genotype if a visible phenotype is not present. Because of the coverage of the “traffic line” insertions across the genome, one could make use of this resource in classroom studies of plant genetics to examine segregating populations as well mutant analysis. The “traffic lines” are available in both the Columbia and Landsberg erecta genetic backgrounds and can be ordered from the The Arabidopsis Information Resource center.

http://www.genetics.org/content/200/1/35.abstract

Mary Williams's insight:

Thanks Clint for sharing that. If any of you see a paper you want to share with others interested in plant biology education like this, drop me a line and I can share here. Also, when the new platform for plant science launches later this year we can get a nice "journal club" going with contributions and discussions.

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IAN SUSSEX's Obituary in New Haven Register

IAN SUSSEX's Obituary in New Haven Register | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

Ian Sussex died May 10. He is survived by his wife, Nancy Kerk of Guilford CT, brother Neil Sussex and family in New Zealand. Ian Sussex was an accomplished scientist ....

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Molecular Mechanisms of Nematode-Nematophagous Microbe Interactions: Basis for Biological Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes - Annual Review of Phytopathology

Molecular Mechanisms of Nematode-Nematophagous Microbe Interactions: Basis for Biological Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes - Annual Review of Phytopathology | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.


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Steve Marek's curator insight, May 8, 11:21 AM

Nice review including summary of commercialized biocontrols.

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India eases stance on GM crop trials

India eases stance on GM crop trials | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
States begin to permit field tests of transgenic plants.
Mary Williams's insight:

From part of a special issue on science in India, in Nature

http://www.nature.com/news/a-nation-with-ambition-1.17520

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Natural Variation Identifies ICARUS1 , a Universal Gene Required for Cell Proliferation and Growth at High Temperatures in Arabidopsis thaliana

Natural Variation Identifies  ICARUS1 , a Universal Gene Required for Cell Proliferation and Growth at High Temperatures in  Arabidopsis thaliana | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

Author Summary "The increase in average temperatures across the globe has been predicted to have negative impacts on agricultural productivity. Therefore, there is a need to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie plant growth responses to varying temperature regimes. At present, very little is known about the genes and pathways that modulate thermo-sensory growth responses in plants. In this article, the authors exploit natural variation in the commonly occurring weed thale cress."

Mary Williams's insight:

I think it's great that the gene that helps plants thrive at high temperatures is named ICARUS :)


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Ms. Peters's curator insight, May 13, 9:07 PM

Pay attention to how natural selection plays a role in changes to allele frequency over time. 

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Nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones crosstalk during early plant development

Nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones crosstalk during early plant development | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
During the past two decades, nitric oxide (NO) has evolved from a mere gaseous free radical to become a new messenger in plant biology with an important role in a plethora of physiological processes. This molecule is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development, pathogen defence and abiotic stress responses, and in most cases this is achieved through its interaction with phytohormones. Understanding the role of plant growth regulators is essential to elucidate how plants activate the appropriate set of responses to a particular developmental stage or a particular stress. The first task to achieve this goal is the identification of molecular targets, especially those involved in the regulation of the crosstalk. The nature of NO targets in these growth and development processes and stress responses remains poorly described. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of NO in these processes and their interaction with other plant hormones are beginning to unravel. In this review, we made a compilation of the described interactions between NO and phytohormones during early plant developmental processes (i.e. seed dormancy and germination, hypocotyl elongation and root development).

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Teacher: I don’t care about my students’ grades. This is far more important.

Teacher: I don’t care about my students’ grades. This is far more important. | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
Students have to know that you’re going to catch them before they’re willing to take a leap. They have to struggle to learn something meaningful, and learning to overcome struggle is the most valuable thing I can teach them.
Mary Williams's insight:

Good article on the important role teachers play in helping students learn

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The Coming Chocpocalypse

The Coming Chocpocalypse | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
A tropical greenhouse in drizzly Reading, England, is on the front lines of a war against bugs, blights, and confectionary ruin.
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Purity Through Food: How Religious Ideas Sell Diets

Purity Through Food: How Religious Ideas Sell Diets | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
I go to some stores and see ten flavors of Oreos and I'm like, good God, I clearly don't understand reality.
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Hyperspectral phenotyping on the microscopic scale: towards automated characterization of plant-pathogen interactions

Hyperspectral phenotyping on the microscopic scale: towards automated characterization of plant-pathogen interactions | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

Background The detection and characterization of resistance reactions of crop plants against fungal pathogens are essential to select resistant genotypes. In breeding practice phenotyping of plant genotypes is realized by time consuming and expensive visual rating. In this context hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a promising non-invasive sensor technique in order to accelerate and to automate classical phenotyping methods.A hyperspectral microscope was established to determine spectral changes on the leaf and cellular level of barley (Hordeum vulgare) during resistance reactions against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, isolate K1). Experiments were conducted with near isogenic barley lines of cv. Ingrid, including the susceptible wild type (WT), mildew locus a 12 (Mla12 based resistance) and the resistant mildew locus o 3 (mlo3 based resistance), respectively. The reflection of inoculated and non-inoculated leaves was recorded daily with a hyperspectral linescanner in the visual (400 – 700 nm) and near infrared (700 – 1000 nm) range 3 to 14 days after inoculation.Results  Data analysis showed no significant differences in spectral signatures between non-inoculated genotypes. Barley leaves of the near-isogenic genotypes, inoculated with B. graminis f.sp. hordeidiffered in the spectral reflectance over time, respectively. The susceptible genotypes (WT, Mla12) showed an increase in reflectance in the visible range according to symptom development. However, the spectral signature of the resistant mlo-genotype did not show significant changes over the experimental period. In addition, a recent data driven approach for automated discovery of disease specific signatures, which is based on a new representation of the data using Simplex Volume Maximization (SiVM) was applied. The automated approach - evaluated in only a fraction of time revealed results similar to the time and labor intensive manually assessed hyperspectral signatures. The new representation determined by SiVM was also used to generate intuitive and easy to interpretable summaries, e.g. fingerprints or traces of hyperspectral dynamics of the different genotypes.Conclusion  With this HSI based and data driven phenotyping approach an evaluation of host-pathogen interactions over time and a discrimination of barley genotypes differing in susceptibility to powdery mildew is possible.


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How I Got Converted to G.M.O. Food, from the New York Times by Mark Lynas

How I Got Converted to G.M.O. Food, from the New York Times by Mark Lynas | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
We can’t deny the science: Biotech works — for good.
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My tribute to Ian Sussex, mentor and friend

My tribute to Ian Sussex, mentor and friend | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

I learned today that my postdoctoral advisor and friend Ian Sussex has died. He was an important figure in my life and in the world of plant science, and I wanted to share three important lessons I learned from him.


“Animals respond behaviorally, plants respond developmentally”

For me, coming from a background where plants were often considered green yeast, the biggest lesson I learned from Ian was that plants have a different ethos. They’ve been doing things their own way for a couple of billion years, and it’s hard to understand them without first shedding our animal biases. Ian’s encyclopedic knowledge and powerful intellect gave him an unparalleled intuition about plants. As he described to me and in his autobiographical sketch, published in 1998 in Annual Reviews of Plant Biology, his curiosity about plants stemmed from his childhood and the freedom he had to wander and explore in his mother’s garden and beyond, “I was born and grew up in a semirural suburb of Auckland ...we had access to pastures, salt marshes, mud flats, beaches, and native bush. It was easy in this environment to develop an interest in plants.” One of the biggest challenges in teaching plant science is to help students who grow up without such easy access to the natural world to find their plant curiosity and to develop their plant intuition.

http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.0


“Don’t ask what experiment you can do, ask what experiment you should do, and then find a way to do it”

Ian was a phenomenally good teacher, and my enthusiasm for teaching is a direct consequence of the time I spent working with him. Walking back to the lab after a seminar, he’d ask the group what we thought the next experiment ought to be. Our replies tended to focus on what the speaker could do next, whereas Ian was able to see what they should do next. A lot of Ian’s research success came about because he found ways to answer important questions, even when this meant inventing a new approach. We praise and reward students for figuring out what could be done, but it’s important to also ask them what should be done, even if at the time it seems impossible (and this applies to life as well as science!).

 

“Does this say exactly what you want it to say in the best way possible?”

Ian enjoyed writing and was able to bring clarity to complex ideas. I’ll never forget the moment I learned how this clarity came about. I’d written a draft of a post-doctoral grant proposal and arranged to revise it with him. I sat down beside him at his desk and he read aloud the first sentence. He then turned to me and said, “Does this say exactly what you want it to say in the best way you can possibly say it?” Indeed, we went through the entire proposal, line by line and word by word asking this question: the best lesson in how to write I’ve ever had.

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Loïc Lepiniec's comment, May 15, 1:56 AM
This is a text of from Mary Williams ! http://www.scoop.it/t/plant-biology-teaching-resouces-higher-education
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Dr Anne Osterrieder: Expert advice for plant science communication

Dr Anne Osterrieder: Expert advice for plant science communication | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
Dr. Anne Osterrieder is a Research and Science Communication Fellow at Oxford Brookes University, UK. We asked her expert opinion on the best approaches to raise public awareness of the importance ...
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In the News / Keiko Torii / Saruhashi Prize-winning botanist unravels secret of plant pores

In the News / Keiko Torii / Saruhashi Prize-winning botanist unravels secret of plant pores | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
Stomata, minute pores shaped like kiss marks, are dotted along the surface of the leaf of a plant to discharge oxygen and vapor into the atmosphere and absorb carbon dioxide.
Mary Williams's insight:

Professor Torii is also the Editor of The Arabidopsis Book

http://arabidopsisbook.org/

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Tweets about #FoPD hashtag on Twitter

Tweets about #FoPD hashtag on Twitter | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

I've been tweeting fascinating fotos, facts and fun activities for Fascination of Plants Day. Here's a tiny summary. See twitter for legible versions! https://twitter.com/PlantTeaching


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Design and Construction of an Inexpensive Homemade Plant Growth Chamber

Design and Construction of an Inexpensive Homemade Plant Growth Chamber | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

Lead author Fumiaki Katagiri says they needed space for undergraduate projects so they built their own growth chambers and have been collecting publication-quality data from plants grown in them.
"Our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber will tremendously increase research opportunities in experimental plant biology" - not just for undergraduates but for anybody who needs a cheaper alternative!

Mary Williams's insight:

Fumi says, "We are working to post detailed information including videos, like how to hack a potable air conditioner, on a webpage so that many people can actually build growth chambers of this kind. The page should be ready by the end of June."

I'll share the link when it is!

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Ms. Peters's curator insight, May 13, 9:05 PM

Potential inspiration for an IA or an EE.

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Experimental Plant Sciences (EPS): Seven universities, one graduate school | Plant Science Today

Experimental Plant Sciences (EPS): Seven universities, one graduate school | Plant Science Today | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

Read about how seven Netherlands universities team up to form the Experimental Plant Science group, for outstanding collaborations and graduate education.
ASPB blog post written by two members of the EPS PhD council, Hanna Rovenich and Setareh Mohammadin.

http://blog.aspb.org/2015/05/12/experimental-plant-sciences-eps-seven-universities-one-graduate-school/

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Plant scientists celebrate new woody plant genome - special issue of New Phytologist

Plant scientists celebrate new woody plant genome - special issue of New Phytologist | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
In this Feature Issue we celebrate the completion of the genome of Eucalyptus grandis (Myburg et al., 2014), the first representative of the plant order Myrtales, an early diverging rosid lineage, and a species-rich genus that evolved in isolation on the Australian continent. Compared to plant genomes sequenced to date, it represents an independent evolutionary experiment on what it means to be a large woody perennial plant evolving in diverse, and often stressful, habitats. Eucalyptus contains some of the fastest growing hardwood trees and the tallest flowering plant (Eucalyptus regnans) on Earth, and also has many species adapted to extremely dry, hot, and nutrient deficient soils. It also produces a diverse array of plant-specific metabolites (including the well-known eucalyptus oils).
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IMMM2015 International Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting Sept 2015

IMMM2015 International Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting Sept 2015 | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it

International Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting 2015

Cambridge, UK September 2015

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Rare African plant signals diamonds beneath the soil

Rare African plant signals diamonds beneath the soil | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
Geologist discovers first botanical indicator for diamond-bearing rock
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Single-Cell Telomere-Length Quantification Couples Telomere Length to Meristem Activity and Stem Cell Development in Arabidopsis: Cell Reports

Single-Cell Telomere-Length Quantification Couples Telomere Length to Meristem Activity and Stem Cell Development in Arabidopsis: Cell Reports | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
Here, a quantitative analysis of telomere length of single cells in Arabidopsis root apex uncovered a heterogeneous telomere-length distribution of different cell lineages showing the longest telomeres at the stem cells.
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How to end hunger: lessons from the father of India’s green revolution

How to end hunger: lessons from the father of India’s green revolution | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
The research of MS Swaminathan led to India reaching agricultural self-sufficiency in the 1970s. He reflects on scientists’ role in feeding the world

Via CIMMYT, Int.
Mary Williams's insight:

Good article by Professor MS Swaminathan in the Guardian - notable quote, "Chronic hunger does not move the media". It's true and lies at the root of a lot of problems! Wealthy, well-fed individuals need to care as deeply about the world's hungry as they do the latest celebrity....

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From NPR (National Public Radio): Plants Talk. Plants Listen. Here's How

From NPR (National Public Radio): Plants Talk. Plants Listen. Here's How | Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education) | Scoop.it
Animals bark, sing, growl and chat. Plants, one would think, just sit there. But it turns out that plants bark, growl and chat as well. Here's how they do it.
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