Plant Biochemistry
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Gibberellins Regulate Ovule Integument Development by Interfering with the Transcription Factor ATS

Gibberellins Regulate Ovule Integument Development by Interfering with the Transcription Factor ATS | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate most plant life cycle aspects, including flowering and fruit development. Here, we demonstrate the implication of GAs in ovule development. DELLA proteins, negative GA response regulators, act as positive factors for ovule integument development in a mechanism that involves transcription factor ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS). The seeds of the della global mutant, a complete loss-of-function of DELLA, and the ats-1 mutant are remarkably similar, with a round shape, a disorganized testa, and viviparism. These defects are the result of an alteration in integuments that fail to fully develop and are shorter than in wild-type plants. ats-1 also shows some GA-related phenotypes, for example, higher germination rates and early flowering. In fact, ats-1 has elevated GA levels due to the activation of GA biosynthesis genes, which indicates that ATS inhibits GA biosynthesis. Moreover, DELLAs and ATS proteins interact, which suggests the formation of a transcriptional complex that regulates the expression of genes involved in integument growth. Therefore, the repression of GA biosynthesis by ATS would result in the stabilization of DELLAs to ensure correct ATS-DELLA complex formation. The requirement of both activities to coordinate proper ovule development strongly argues that the ATS-DELLA complex acts as a key molecular factor. This work provides the first evidence for a role of GAs in ovule and seed development.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Axillary buds are dwarfed shoots that tightly regulate GA pathway and GA-inducible 1,3-β-glucanase genes during branching in hybrid aspen

Axillary buds are dwarfed shoots that tightly regulate GA pathway and GA-inducible 1,3-β-glucanase genes during branching in hybrid aspen | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Axillary buds (AXBs) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides) contain a developing dwarfed shoot that becomes para-dormant at the bud maturation point. Para-dormant AXBs can grow out after stem decapitation, while dormant AXBs pre-require long-term chilling to release them from dormancy. The latter is mediated by gibberellin (GA)-regulated 1,3-β-glucanases, but it is unknown if GA is also important in the development, activation, and outgrowth of para-dormant AXBs. The present data show that para-dormant AXBs up-regulate GA receptor genes during their maturation, but curtail GA biosynthesis by down-regulating the rate-limiting GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE2 (GA3ox2), which is characteristically expressed in the growing apex. However, decapitation significantly up-regulated GA3ox2 and GA4-responsive 1,3-β-glucanases (GH17-family; α-clade). In contrast, decapitation down-regulated γ-clade 1,3-β-glucanases, which were strongly up-regulated in maturing AXBs concomitant with lipid body accumulation. Overexpression of selected GH17 members in hybrid aspen resulted in characteristic branching patterns. The α-clade member induced an acropetal branching pattern, whereas the γ-clade member activated AXBs in recurrent flushes during transient cessation of apex proliferation. The results support a model in which curtailing the final step in GA biosynthesis dwarfs the embryonic shoot, while high levels of GA precursors and GA receptors keep AXBs poised for growth. GA signaling, induced by decapitation, reinvigorates symplasmic supply routes through GA-inducible 1,3-β-glucanases that hydrolyze callose at sieve plates and plasmodesmata.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Gibberellin regulates infection and colonization of host roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is established by the entry of AM fungi into the host plant roots and the formation of symbiotic structures called arbuscules. The host plant supplies photosynthetic products to the AM fungi, which in return provide phosphate and other minerals to the host through the arbuscules. Both partners gain great advantages from this symbiotic interaction, and both regulate AM development. Our recent work revealed that gibberellic acids (GAs) are required for AM development in the legume Lotus japonicus. GA signaling interact with symbiosis signaling pathways, directing AM fungal colonization in host roots. Expression analysis showed that genes for GA biosynthesis and metabolism were induced in host roots around AM fungal hyphae, suggesting that the GA signaling changes with both location and time during AM development. The fluctuating GA concentrations sometimes positively and sometimes negatively affect the expression of AM-induced genes that regulate AM fungal infection and colonization.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Aloe Vera Juice's Top 25 Uses

Aloe Vera Juice's Top 25 Uses | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
San Francisco, CA -- (DiD Publishing) -- 09/19/2016— So what can Aloe Vera do for you? The following 25 examples brought to you by the folks at http://www.aloeverajuiceuses.com, are just the tip of the iceberg. 1. Contains Healthy Plant Compounds Vitamins A (beta-carotene), C and E, which are antioxidants. It also contains vitamin B12, folic acid, and choline, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids. 2. Accelerates The Healing of Burns Its anti-inflammatory compounds act as an antibacterial agent. Aloe Vera applied to burns for six weeks was found to decrease “subdermal temperature within the skin.” 3. Reduces Dental Plaque Aloe Vera mouthwash showed significant reduction of plaque and gingivitis to be considered quite effective. 4. Mouth Ulcers, Or Canker Sores Aloe Vera also works to kill the bacteria that cause gingivitis, preventing plaque from building up on the gingiva. 5. Reduces Constipation To use aloe to relieve constipation, you can purchase it as a juice, a gel, or in capsule form. 6. Prevent Wrinkles Aloe Vera works from the inside out to reverse wrinkles and prevent new ones from appearing. 7. Lowers Blood Sugar Levels Aloe Vera can lower both blood sugar and cholesterol – in people with type-2 diabetes according to a recent study. 8. Immune Booster The plant contains Acemannan, a compound with antiviral, and anti-cancer properties that boosts the immune system. 9. Regulates Weight and Energy Level Aloe has high levels of phytosterols, which is a compound that helps to reduce visceral fat. 10. Halts Inflammation Improve the health of our mucosal membranes. It will also repel infective bacteria while supporting our friendly bacteria. 11. Treats Acne Scars Aloe is not a surefire acne cure, but it may help heal acne scars. 12. Makes Hair Smooth and Shiny Aloe Vera gel contains small amounts of the protein lectin, as well as various amino acids. These can be absorbed into the cortex of the hair, which give it structural integrity. 13. Lowers High Cholesterol A recent study demonstrates the efficacy of Aloe for lowering cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes. 14. As A Makeup Remover Cosmetic companies include Aloe in their makeup removal products due to its abundance of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and enzymes. 15. As A Shaving Cream The sap of the Aloe Vera plant contains nutrients that promote healing and regeneration of skin. 16. As A Soothing Ice Cube Place the gel in an ice cube tray and leave in the freezer. Use as a soothing reprieve from sunburn or stress relief. 17. As A Face Wash You can purchase Aloe Vera face wash for a natural cleansing agent. Aloe is a natural disinfectant and moisturizer. 18. An Exfoliator Add ground up oatmeal or baking soda to a half a cup of Aloe gel. Use as an exfoliating rub, then rinse. 19. For Bad Breath Halitosis may be caused by poor dental hygiene as well as gastrointestinal problems. Aloe juice can take care of both issues. Drink for stomach problems and gargle for fresh breath. 20. Dry, Cracked Skin If you want one of the most effective skin conditioners around, try an Aloe Vera based skin cream. You’ll get all the vitamins, minerals, and skin softeners, that Aloe is famous for. 21. Heartburn Relief Aloe Vera juice contains glycoproteins and polysaccharides that soothe the entire esophagus track and provides relief from irritation. 22. Mouthwash Conventional mouthwashes have chlorhexidine an antibiotic chemical which also leaves the mouth open to new potential invasions of all sorts of bacteria. Try Aloe mouthwash instead. 23. Lowering Your Blood Sugar Aloe Vera may help improve HbA1c levels in people with Type 2 diabetes. 24. A Natural Laxative Drinking Aloe juice daily has a natural laxative effect without the discomfort of diarrhea. 25. Osteoarthritis Aloe Vera is most commonly used in clearing up skin irritation, but the plant is an important ingredient in arthritis treatments as well. Ancient civilizations brought the Aloe Vera plant to the Mediterranean region and other warm climates around the world. Modern research is exploring Aloe for health and wellness. For more resources on Aloe Vera benefits, interested individuals are recommended to visit http://aloeverajuiceuses.com for more information. Media Contact: Winona Dorris email: info@aloeverajuiceuses.com

Via Roger White
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Rescooped by Manoj Dinesh Oak from Diet & Nutrition
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We’re So Confused: The Problems With Food and Exercise Studies

We’re So Confused: The Problems With Food and Exercise Studies | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Among the drawbacks: poorly designed research, a variety of ways to measure and report outcomes, and a bias toward reporting “interesting” results.

Via IRN & USHFC
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IRN & USHFC's curator insight, August 17, 6:07 PM

"What is needed at this point, he says, is a little more humility among researchers in interpreting and reporting the implications of their own evidence."

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Why I Love Genetics: Essay on Occasion of Being Awarded the GSA Medal 2016

Why I Love Genetics: Essay on Occasion of Being Awarded the GSA Medal 2016 | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
The Genetics Society of America (GSA) Medal is awarded to an individual for outstanding contributions to the field of genetics in the last 15 years. Recipients of the GSA Medal are recognized for elegant and highly meaningful contributions to modern genetics, and exemplify the ingenuity of GSA membership.

The 2016 recipient is Detlef Weigel, whose contributions include the identification of the molecular basis for floral patterning; the determination of mechanisms for flowering time; and elucidation of genetic tradeoffs between growth and immunity in natural populations. Notably, his group identified the gene for florigen, a compound made in leaves that induces flowering. Throughout these investigations, Weigel developed multiple resources for the plant genetics community, including activation tagging to create gain-of-function mutants; gathering data and creating a web interface for AtGenExpress, a gene expression atlas for Arabidopsis; and jumpstarting the 1001 Genomes project of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Via Francis Martin
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Urinary Biomarkers of Whole Grain Wheat Intake Identified by Non-targeted and Targeted Metabolomics Approaches

Urinary Biomarkers of Whole Grain Wheat Intake Identified by Non-targeted and Targeted Metabolomics Approaches | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Mounting evidence suggests that whole grain (WG) intake plays an important role in chronic disease prevention.
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What is Gluten?

What is Gluten? | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Gluten is a grain protein found in a lot of breads, pastas, and cereals. It's completely benign for most of us. but for millions it is a intestinal time bomb and worse.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Steps for Avoiding Acrylamide: The Carcinogen in Cooked Foods

Steps for Avoiding Acrylamide: The Carcinogen in Cooked Foods | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Did you know that cooking your food may produce a cancer-causing substance? The FDA has issued an action plan for reducing exposure to this carcinogen.

Via Troy Mccomas (troy48)
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India: Ahead of wheat sowing season, Punjab agriculture department to provide seeds at subsidised rates

India: Ahead of wheat sowing season, Punjab agriculture department to provide seeds at subsidised rates | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
This season, the department has been promoting HD 3086, PWD 725, PWD 677, Wh 1105 varieties in the state.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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FAO: Global wheat and rice harvests poised to set new record

FAO: Global wheat and rice harvests poised to set new record | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Global food markets will likely remain "generally well balanced" in the year ahead, as prices for most internationally-traded agricultural commodities are relatively low and stable, FAO said today.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Fast-cooking dry beans provide more protein, iron than ‘slower’ varieties - ACS (2016) 

Fast-cooking dry beans provide more protein, iron than ‘slower’ varieties - ACS (2016)  | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it

Beans are a versatile, inexpensive staple that can boost essential nutrients in a diet, especially for people in low-resource areas where food options are limited. To get the most out of these legumes, new research suggests choosing fast-cooking dry beans could be the way to go... fast-cooking beans retained more protein, iron and other minerals than “slower” dry beans...  

About 2 billion people around the world are estimated to be deficient in key vitamins and minerals, including iron and zinc. Dry beans could help address these deficiencies, but they often take a long time to cook. This can deter people from adding them to meals. 


To prepare food, many people with limited resources rely on burning wood, charcoal or other biofuels that can require a lot of time to gather or a relatively high percentage of their income. For those reasons, faster-cooking beans would be a good dietary option... 

The researchers analyzed the nutritional value of 12 fast-, moderate- and slow-cooking dry bean cultivars from four classes: yellow, cranberry, light red kidney and red mottled. The speedier beans maintained higher protein and mineral content after they were prepared... 


For example, the fast-cooking yellow bean Cebo Cela contained 20 percent more protein, 10 percent more iron and 10 percent more zinc than the yellow bean Canario, which took twice as long to prepare... Iron bioavailability... is also higher in the quicker-cooking beans... 


https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2016/acs-presspac-november-16-2016/fast-cooking-dry-beans-provide-more-protein-iron-than-slower-varieties.html


Underlying article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03100



Via Alexander J. Stein
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HSP90 Stabilizes Auxin-Responsive Phenotypes by Masking a Mutation in the Auxin Receptor TIR1

HSP90 Stabilizes Auxin-Responsive Phenotypes by Masking a Mutation in the Auxin Receptor TIR1 | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) aids the folding of nascent proteins into their mature form. The client proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases and receptors that play important roles in signal transduction pathways. HSP90 associates with these client proteins either to stabilize them or to fold them into stimulus-sensitive forms with the aid of several co-chaperones  . The transcription factor BES1, which activates brassinosteroid response genes in Arabidopsis, is a client protein of HSP90 ...


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Tomato growth boosted with a spray of nanoparticles

Tomato growth boosted with a spray of nanoparticles | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Fans of The Simpsons may recall Lisa using genetic engineering to create a super tomato that she hoped would cure world hunger. Now researchers at Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) have come close to the real thing, not through genetic engineering, but with the use of nanoparticles. Although the individual fruit aren't as large as Lisa's creation, the team's approach has resulted in tomato plants that produced almost 82 percent more fruit by weight, with the fruit also boasting higher antioxidant content.

The new technique developed by Ramesh Raliya, PhD and Pratim Biswas, PhD, both at WUSTL's School of Engineering & Applied Science, involves the use of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to boost the tomato plant's ability to absorb light and minerals. The titanium oxide increases chlorophyll content in the plant's leaves to improve photosynthesis, while zinc is an essential nutrient that also helps the function of enzymes within the plant.

"When a plant grows, it signals the soil that it needs nutrients," Biswas says. "The nutrient it needs is not in a form that the plant can take right away, so it secretes enzymes, which react with the soil and trigger bacterial microbes to turn the nutrients into a form that the plant can use. We're trying to aid this pathway by adding nanoparticles."

Via Wildcat2030
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Benefits of Meditation: 10 Science-Based Reasons To Start Meditating Today INFOGRAPHIC - Emma Seppälä, Ph.D.

Benefits of Meditation: 10 Science-Based Reasons To Start Meditating Today INFOGRAPHIC - Emma Seppälä, Ph.D. | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
For the last 10 years, I have been involved in researching the impact of meditation on health and well-being. This infographic summarized some of the key findings about the benefits of meditation. When my colleagues at Stanford and at other universities started researching meditation, most of us expected that meditation would help with stress levels. However, what many of us did not anticipate was the extent of the benefits the data ended up showing. Hundreds of studies suggest that meditation... Continue Reading

Via Kat Tansey
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Kat Tansey's curator insight, June 1, 2015 2:29 PM

I've been meditating since the early 90's --I wrote about my struggles with learning to meditate in "Choosing To Be: Lessons in Living from a Feline Zen Master."  Learning to meditate helped me recover from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and continues to benefit me in many ways, many of which are now documented in numerous studies. 

 

Kat Tansey

www.choosingtobe.com

 

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Smartphone sensor spots cancer in several samples simultaneously

Smartphone sensor spots cancer in several samples simultaneously | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
The continuing miniaturization of electronic devices has allowed sensors previously confined to a laboratory to shrink down to a portable size, with previously bulky equipment now able to fit in a briefcase or even a needle. Now a team from Washington State University (WSU) has developed an inexpensive spectrometer that connects to a smartphone and can spot cancer biomarkers in several samples simultaneously, thereby taking lab-like accuracy out into the field.

While existing smartphone biosensors can only deal with one sample at a time, the WSU team's device can scan up to eight at once, measuring the light spectrum to detect traces of specific chemicals in a sample. In this case, the spectrometer is searching for the presence of human interleukin-6 (IL-6), which can act as a red flag for liver, lung, prostate, breast and epithelial cancers.

Via Ray and Terry's
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Down the Rabbit Hole–Carrots, Genetics and Art

Down the Rabbit Hole–Carrots, Genetics and Art | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
The large, unbranched cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subspecies sativus) is a popular vegetable with high sugar and dietary provitamin A carotenoid contents. The orange-coloured one is best known, but there are also white, yellow, red, and purple varieties. By contrast, the wild carrot Daucus carota subspecies carota (commonly referred to as Queen Anne's Lace) is a weedy plant that does not accumulate any detectable levels of carotenoid pigments in roots i. When visiting the museums of his native country in the late 1950s, the Dutch agronomer Otto Banga started to ponder the question on the origin of the modern carrot. He observed that paintings from the Dutch Golden Century (∼17th century) show an enormous diversity of carrots: white, red, yellow, and orange versions (Figure 1A). However, he noticed the orange carrot featuring more prominently on pictures that were painted later in the 17th century. He concluded that the orange carrot as we currently know it, appeared in the late 16th to early 17th century, and that it was likely first cultivated in The Netherlands [1]. Here, in view of the recent carrot genome assembly [2], we noncomprehensively discuss the origin of the carrot, explain how art can help in our understanding of its development, and elaborate upon some of the molecular mechanisms and underlying genetic network responsible for the observed colour differences.

Via Jean-Pierre Zryd, Loïc Lepiniec, Francis Martin
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Scientists sequence a genome seven times bigger than yours

Scientists sequence a genome seven times bigger than yours | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it

After fitting 16 billion separate fragments together, scientists have finally managed to sequence the genome of the loblolly pine tree, the largest ever genome sequenced so far.

***

The scientists, who published their papers in GENETICS and the journal Genome Biology, used DNA extracted from a single haploid seed of a Loblolly pine tree.


To obtain the DNA, the scientists first had to remove the embryo from the seed, says Indiana University's Keithanne Mockaitis, an author on the paper. What remains is then a haploid, whose cells have just one set of chromosomes.


Using next-generation sequencing technology, researchers obtained billions of shorter sequence of bases. The challenge now was to sift through the data, identify the overlapping sequences, and assemble them together – a computational puzzle called "genome assembly."

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The loblolly will serve as a good "reference" genome because "the size of the pieces of consecutive sequence that we assembled are orders of magnitude larger than what's been previously published," said Dr. Neale.

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"In addition to its value as a resource for researchers and breeders, the loblolly pine genome sequence and assembly reported here demonstrates a novel approach to sequencing the large and complex genomes of this important group of plants that can now be widely applied, " say researchers.


Via Sam Radcliffe
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Are farmers ready to pay for hybrid wheat?

Are farmers ready to pay for hybrid wheat? | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Bayer plans to have a marketable hybrid within eight years, and the German multinational isn’t the only seed company with its eye on hybrid wheat.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Cancer Risk From French Fries | NutritionFacts.org

Cancer Risk From French Fries | NutritionFacts.org | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
The association between cancer and the consumption of deep-fried foods may be due to carcinogens formed at high temperatures in animal foods (heterocyclic amines and polycyclic hydrocarbons) and plant foods (acrylamide).

Via Troy Mccomas (troy48)
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Has the nutritional value of wheat changed?

Has the nutritional value of wheat changed? | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Grain, flour and feed industry news and commentary offering insight on business, new products, market and product trends, supplier innovations and more.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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UK: Wrestling genes out of the giant barley and wheat genomes

UK: Wrestling genes out of the giant barley and wheat genomes | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
How do you locate a gene associated with a specific trait when there are several billion base pairs to search through? This is the problem researchers working with barley and wheat genomes face. To tell us more about this and his recently published article in Genome Biology is wheat geneticist Brande Wulff.

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems

The QTL  GNP1  Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems | Plant Biochemistry | Scoop.it
Abstract

Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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