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Neurons made from stem cells drive brain activity after transplantation

Neurons made from stem cells drive brain activity after transplantation | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have found a way to stimulate stem cell-derived neurons to direct cognitive function after transplantation to an existing neural network by using optogenetic stimulation — getting us a step closer to using these cells to treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.

 

Researchers and patients look forward to the day when stem cells might be used to replace dying brain cells in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.

 

Lipton and his team — including colleagues at Sanford-Burnham and Stanford University — transplanted human stem cell-derived neurons into a rodent hippocampus, the brain’s information-processing center. Then they specifically activated the transplanted neurons with optogenetic stimulation, a relatively new technique that combines light and genetics to precisely control cellular behavior in living tissues or animals.

 

To determine if the newly transplanted, light-stimulated human neurons were actually working, Lipton and his team measured high-frequency oscillations in existing neurons at a distance from the transplanted ones. They found that the transplanted neurons triggered the existing neurons to fire high-frequency oscillations. Faster neuronal oscillations are usually better — they’re associated with enhanced performance in sensory-motor and cognitive tasks.

 

The transplanted human neurons not only conducted electrical impulses, they also roused neighboring neuronal networks into firing — at roughly the same rate they would in a normal, functioning hippocampus.

 

The therapeutic outlook for this technology looks promising. “Based on these results, we might be able to restore brain activity — and thus restore motor and cognitive function — by transplanting easily manipulated neuronal cells derived from embryonic stem cells,” Lipton said.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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In Case You Wondered: Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Not ...

Mounting evidence suggests that toxic proteins that cause Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other neurodegenerative diseases spread from neuron to neuron in a slow crawl through the brain. That news has sparked some ...
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More Recent Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases

More Recent Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
(Science Daily) Scientists from the University of Southampton have identified the molecular system that contributes to the harmful inflammatory reaction in the brain during neurodegenerative diseases… Results from the study ...
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Translating Natural Products into Drugs for Alzheimer's and Neurodegenerative Disease

Translating Natural Products into Drugs for Alzheimer's and Neurodegenerative Disease | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
From BioPortfolio: Event Information: Monday, May 6, 2013 | 8:15 AM - 4:30 PMAlzheimer's disease may benefit from the novel chemistries found in natural products. This conference...
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Green Tea Wards Off Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Conditions Say U-M Scientists | Health

Green Tea Wards Off Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Conditions Say U-M Scientists | Health | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
 

 


Researchers at the University of Michigan have found a new potential benefit of a molecule in green tea: preventing the misfolding of specific proteins in the brain.

The aggregation of these proteins, called metal-associated...
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CoQ10 helps heal neurodegenerative disease: Study

CoQ10 helps heal neurodegenerative disease: Study | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
(NaturalNews) Most of us know the value of CoQ10 for heart health. Now a recent case report has demonstrated that CoQ10 may be of value for reversing even extreme neurodegenerative diseases. This case report involved ...
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Ubiquitin Pathway Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases ...

Ubiquitin Pathway Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases ... | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. To explore the specific role of autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in apoptosis, a specific proteasome inhibitor and macroautophagy ...
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International Consortium Builds ‘Google Map’ of Human Metabolism

International Consortium Builds ‘Google Map’ of Human Metabolism | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it

Building on earlier pioneering work by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, an international consortium of university researchers has produced the most comprehensive virtual reconstruction of human metabolism to date. Scientists could use the model, known as Recon 2, to identify causes of and new treatments for diseases like cancer, diabetes and even psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Each person’s metabolism, which represents the conversion of food sources into energy and the assembly of molecules, is determined by genetics, environment and nutrition.

 

Doctors have long recognized the importance of metabolic imbalances as an underlying cause of disease, but scientists have been ramping up their research on the connection as a result of compelling evidence enabled by the Human Genome Project and advances in systems biology, which leverages the power of high-powered computing to build vast interactive databases of biological information.

 

“Recon 2 allows biomedical researchers to study the human metabolic network with more precision than was ever previously possible. This is essential to understanding where and how specific metabolic pathways go off track to create disease,” said Bernhard Palsson, Galletti Professor of Bioengineering at UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering.

 

“It’s like having the coordinates of all the cars in town, but no street map. Without this tool, we don’t know why people are moving the way they are,” said Palsson. He likened Recon 2 to Google mapping for its ability to merge complex details into a single, interactive map. For example, researchers looking at how metabolism sets the stage for cancerous tumor growth could zoom in on the “map” for finely detailed images of individual metabolic reactions or zoom out to look at patterns and relationships among pathways or different sectors of metabolism. This is not unlike how you can get a street view of a single house or zoom out to see how the house fits into the whole neighborhood, city, state, country and globe.  And just as Google maps brings together a broad set of data – such as images, addresses, streets and traffic flow – into an easily navigated tool, Recon 2 pulls together a vast compendium of data from published literature and existing models of metabolic processes.

 

Recon 2 is already proving its utility, according to Ines Thiele, a professor at the University of Iceland and UC San Diego alumna, who led the Recon 2 effort. Thiele earned her Ph.D. in bioinformatics as a student of Palsson’s and was part of the original Recon 1 team.

 

Thiele said Recon 2 has successfully predicted alterations in metabolism that are currently used to diagnose certain inherited metabolic diseases.

“The use of this foundational resource will undoubtedly lead to a myriad of exciting predictions that will accelerate the translation of basic experimental results into clinical applications,” said Thiele. “Ultimately, I envision it being used to personalize diagnosis and treatment to meet the needs of individual patients. In the future, this capability could enable doctors to develop virtual models of their patients’ individual metabolic networks and identify the most efficacious treatment for various diseases including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.”

 

As much as Recon 2 marks a significant improvement over Recon 1, there is still much work to be done, according to the research team. Thiele said Recon 2 accounts for almost 1,800 genes of an estimated 20,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome. “Clearly, further community effort t will be required to capture chemical interactions with and between the rest of the genome,” she said.  

 


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Victoria Auyeung's curator insight, July 11, 2014 7:49 PM

Look forward to a future in which we can use the human metabolic network to predict how our diets may affect our health? I certainly do!

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Western diet may cause brain impairment and neurodegenerative conditions, say researchers

Western diet may cause brain impairment and neurodegenerative conditions, say researchers | Pineal Cysts | Scoop.it
Consumption of a high fat, high sugar, Western style diet leads to the long-term impairment of brain functioning and may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative conditions, say scientists reviewing decades of evidence.
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Photo by ciscanelwan • Instagram

International Seminar and Symposium .. Use Herbs for Prevention of Vascular and Neurodegenerative Disease #Herbs #HealthyHerbs #VascularDiseases #NeuroDegerative
ciscanelwan's photo on Instagram (International Seminar and Symposium ..
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