Analysis of the surfaces of the leaves revealed that the number of plant pathogens as well as of necrotic plant tissues increased considerably when mutualistic Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus ants were absent.
The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a ‘top 10’ list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematodeRotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10)Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly.
The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a Top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Magnaporthe oryzae; (2) Botrytis cinerea; (3) Puccinia spp.; (4) Fusarium graminearum; (5) Fusarium oxysporum; (6) Blumeria graminis; (7) Mycosphaerella graminicola; (8) Colletotrichum spp.; (9) Ustilago maydis; (10) Melampsora lini, with honourable mentions for fungi just missing out on the Top 10, including Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Rhizoctonia solani. This article presents a short resumé of each fungus in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant mycology community, as well as laying down a bench-mark. It will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and what fungi will comprise any future Top 10.
Fungi and oomycetes that colonize living plant tissue form extensive interfaces with plant cells in which the cytoplasm of the microorganism is closely aligned with the host cytoplasm for an extended distance. In all cases, specialized biotrophic hyphae function to hijack host cellular processes across an interfacial zone consisting of a hyphal plasma membrane, a specialized interfacial matrix, and a plant-derived membrane. The interface is the site for active secretion by both players. This cross talk at the interface determines the winner in adversarial relationships and establishes the partnership in mutualistic relationships. Fungi and oomycetes secrete many specialized effector proteins for controlling the host, and they can stimulate remarkable cellular reorganization even in distant plant cells. Breakthroughs in live-cell imaging of fungal and oomycete encounter sites, including live-cell imaging of pathogens secreting fluorescently labeled effector proteins, have led to recent progress in understanding communication across the interface.
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