PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0
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PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0
Physical Science Grade 10-11-12
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Physical Sciences Break 1.0

Physical Sciences Break 1.0 | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
This blog covers Physical Sciences Topics for Grade 10-11-12. (by CT MAIMELA)
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Test yourself GR11

Test yourself GR11 | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Consider the following molecules and answer the questions that follow. Consider the following molecules and answer the questions that follow. A.NH3 B.CO2 C.C2H2 D.H20 E.BH3 Which molecule: 1.1.1 Contains a triple bond? [1] 1.2 Is trigonal planar? [1] 1.3 Is angular in shape and contains a centre atom with two lone pairs? [1] 2.Which TWO…
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Physical Science App

Physical Sciences Break 1.0

"Physical Sciences Break 1.0 APP is a Chemistry and Physics APP for both Teachers and Learners at Grades 10-11-12 using CAPS material for South African ."
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Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Blast a Buick out of a cannon! Learn about projectile motion by firing various objects. Set the angle, initial speed, and mass. Add air resistance. Make a game out of this simulation by trying to hit a target.
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Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

Definition 1: Newton's law of universal gravitation

Every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force directed along the line connecting the two. This force is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

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Physical Sciences Break 1.0 - TheGreatApps

Physical Sciences Break 1.0 - TheGreatApps | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Physical Sciences Break 1.0 APP is a Chemistry and Physics APP for both Teachers and Learners at Grades 10-11-12 using CAPS material for South African Education System.The App seeks to promote the use of mobile devices to access Physical Sciences Material for CAPS.
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The Lorentz Force

The Lorentz Force | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it

 

The Lorentz force is the force experienced by a moving charged particle in an electric and magnetic field. The magnetic component is:

F=qvB

where F is the force (in newtons, N), q is the electric charge (in coulombs, C), v is the velocity of the charged particle (in m·s−1) and B is the magnetic field strength (in teslas, T).

Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

An electric motor works by using a source of emf to make a current flow in a loop of conductor such that the Lorentz force on opposite sides of the loop are in opposite directions which can cause the loop to rotate about a central axis.

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Informal experiment 1: Le Chatelier's principle

Informal experiment 1: Le Chatelier's principle | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Informal experiment 1: Le Chatelier's principle

Aim

To determine the effect of a change in concentration and temperature on chemical equilibrium

Apparatus

0,2 mol.dm−3 purple CoCl2 in ethanol solution, concentrated HCl, water

test tube, tongs

ice-bath, water-bath, hot-plate or bunsen burner

Method

Place the water bath on the hot-plate and heat.

During each step observe and record the colour change that takes place.

Put 4 – 5 drops of 0,2 mol.dm−3 CoCl2 solution into the test tube.

Add 10 – 12 drops of water.

Add 20 – 25 drops of concentrated HCl.

Place the test tube in the water-bath on the hot-plate (use tongs). Leave for 1 – 2 minutes. Record your observations.

Place the test tube in the ice-bath. Leave for 1 – 2 minutes. Record your observations.

The equation for the reaction that takes place is:

 

CoCl2−4(aq)blue+6H2O(ℓ)⇌Co(H2O)2+6(aq)pink+4Cl−(aq)

 

Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

Results

Complete your observations in the table below, noting the colour changes that take place, and also indicating whether the concentration of each of the ions in solution increases or decreases.

 

Table 1 Original colourFinal colour[CoCl2−4][Co(H2O)2+6][Cl−]Add HCl     Add H2O     Increase temp     Decrease temp      

Conclusions

Use Le Chatelier's principle to explain the changes that you recorded in the table above.

Draw a conclusion about the effect of a change in concentration of either the reactants or products on the equilibrium position.

Also draw a conclusion about the effect of a change in temperature on the equilibrium position.

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PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 - Resources - TES

PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 - Resources - TES | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
The Blog covers topics for Grade 10-11-12
The most rated topics for High School Chemistry and Physics topics based on CAPS in South Africa
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Chipa (maimelatct) on Twitter

Chipa (maimelatct) on Twitter | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
The latest from Chipa (@maimelatct). E-Learning Science Blogger-Material Developer. POLOKWANE(MZANSI) ZA
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Formal experiment 1: Heating and cooling curve of water

Formal experiment 1: Heating and cooling curve of water | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it

Aim

To investigate the heating and cooling curve of water.

Apparatus

beakers

ice

Bunsen burner

thermometer

water

Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

Method

Place some ice in a beaker.

Measure the temperature of the ice and record it.

After 1 minute measure the temperature again and record it. Repeat every minute, until at least 3 minutes after the ice has melted.

Plot a graph of time versus temperature for the heating of ice.

Heat some water in a beaker until it boils. Measure and record the temperature of the water.

Remove the water from the heat and measure the temperature every 1 minute, until the beaker is cool to touch.

Warning:

Be careful when handling the beaker of hot water. Do not touch the beaker with your hands, you will burn yourself.

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Physical Sciences Break 1.0

Physical Sciences Break 1.0 | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
This blog covers Physical Sciences Topics for Grade 10-11-12. (by CT MAIMELA)
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Electronic configuration

Electronic configuration | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Electron arrangement We will start with a very simple view of the arrangement or configuration of electrons around an atom. This view simply states that electrons are arranged in energy levels (or shells) around the nucleus of an atom.
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Intermolecular forces 

Intermolecular forces  | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
The effects of intermolecular forces The following five experiments investigate the effect of various physical properties (evaporation, surface tension, solubility, boiling point and capillarity) of substances and determine how these properties...
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Wave Interference

Wave Interference | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Make waves with a dripping faucet, audio speaker, or laser! Add a second source or a pair of slits to create an interference pattern.
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Newton's second law

Newton's second law | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Example 6: Newton's second law: truck and trailerQuestion

A 2000 kg truck pulls a 500 kg trailer with a constant acceleration. The engine of the truck produces a thrust of 10 000 N. Ignore the effect of friction. Calculate the:

acceleration of the truck; and

tension in the tow bar T between the truck and the trailer, if the tow bar makes an angle of 25° with the horizontal.

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Physical Sciences Break 1.0 - 1.27.36.549 - Android

Physical Sciences Break 1.0 - 1.27.36.549 - Android | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
By: Chipa Thomas Maimela; Price: Free; Size: 6Mb; Download; Physical Sciences Break 1.0 APP is a Chemistry and Physics APP for both Teachers and Learners at Grades 10-11-12 using CAPS material for South African Education System.The App seeks to promote the
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PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 - Android Apps on Google Play

PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 - Android Apps on Google Play | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
Physical Sciences Break 1.0 APP is a Chemistry and Physics APP for both Teachers and Learners at Grades 10-11-12 using CAPS material for South African Education System...
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Pressure-temperature relation

Pressure-temperature relation | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it

The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature, if the volume is kept constant (Figure Figure 7). Recall that as the temperature of a gas increases, so does the kinetic energy of the particles in the gas. This causes the particles in the gas to move more rapidly and to collide with each other and with the side of the container more often. Since pressure is a measure of these collisions, the pressure of the gas increases with an increase in temperature. The pressure of the gas will decrease if its temperature decreases.

Tip:

You may see this law referred to as Gay-Lussac's law or as Amontons' law. Many scientists were working on the same problems at the same time and it is often difficult to know who actually discovered a particular law.

 
Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

In the same way that we have done for the other gas laws, we can describe the relationship between temperature and pressure using symbols, as follows:

T∝p,

therefore:

p=kT

Rearranging this we get:

and that, provided the amount of gas stays the same (and the volume also stays the same):

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Rates of reaction and factors affecting rate

Rates of reaction and factors affecting rate | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it
General experiment 2: Surface area and reaction rate

Marble (CaCO3) reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide gas according to the following equation:

CaCO3(s)+2HCl(ℓ) → CaCl2(s)+H2O(ℓ)+CO2(g)

Aim

To determine the effect of the surface area of reactants on the average rate of the reaction.

Apparatus

2 g marble chips, 2 g powdered marble, concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl)

one beaker, two test tubes.

Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

Method

Warning:

Concentrated HCl can cause serious burns. We suggest using gloves and safety glasses whenever you work with an acid. Remember to add the acid to the water and handle with care.

Prepare a solution of hydrochloric acid in the beaker by adding 2 cm3 of the concentrated acid to 20 cm3 of water.

Place the marble chips into one test tube and the powdered marble into a separate test tube.

Add 10 cm3 of the dilute hydrochloric acid to each of the test tubes and observe the rate at which carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is produced (you should see bubbles of CO2).

Results

Note (write down) what you observe.

Questions and discussion

Which reaction proceeds faster?

Can you explain this?

Conclusion

The reaction with powdered marble is faster. The smaller the pieces of marble are (in this case the powdered form is smallest), the greater the surface area for the reaction to take place.

Only the molecules at the surface of the solid can react with the hydrochloric acid. The next layer of molecules can only react once the surface molecules have reacted. That is, the next layer of molecules becomes the surface.

The chips of marble are relatively large, so only a small percentage of the molecules are at the surface and can react initially. The powdered marble has much smaller solid pieces, so there are many more surface molecules exposed to the hydrochloric acid. The more molecules exposed on the surface (the greater the surface area) the faster the reaction will be.

 
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Geometric optics

Geometric optics | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it

To describe the reflection of light, we will use the following terminology. The incoming light ray is called the incident ray. The light ray moving away from the surface is the reflected ray. The most important characteristic of these rays is their angles in relation to the reflecting surface. These angles are measured with respect to the normal of the surface. Thenormal is an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface. The angle of incidence, θi is measured between the incident ray and the surface normal. The angle of reflection, θr is measured between the reflected ray and the surface normal. 

Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

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Moving observer, stationary source

Moving observer, stationary source | PHYSICAL SCIENCES BREAK 1.0 | Scoop.it

a source (a police car) of sound waves with a constant frequency and amplitude. There are two observers, one on the left that will move away from the source and one on the right that will move towards the source. We have three diagrams:

shows the overall situation with the siren starting at time t1;shows the situation at time t2 when the observers are moving; andshows the situation at t3 after the observers have been moving for a time interval, Δt=t3−t2.

The crests and troughs are numbered so you can see how they move further away and so that we can track which ones an observer has measured.

Chipa Thomas Maimela's insight:

The motion of the observer will alter the frequency of the measured sound from a stationary source:

An observer moving towards the source measures a higher frequency.An observer moving away from the source measures a lower frequency.
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