It is clear that Arduino is in a different league than the Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone Black, and serves an entirely different purpose. What I was looking for and couldn’t find was a comprehensive article that would summarize all of the pros and cons of the Raspberry Pi and the BeagleBone Black,
The Raspberry Pi is great, but it's also missing a few things you need to actually use it. Namely, a keyboard, mouse, and monitor. Adafruit solves that (with the exception of the monitor), with the Computer Add-On Pack.