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Philosophy everywhere everywhen
The First Law of Philosophy: For every philosopher, there exists an equal and opposite philosopher. The Second Law of Philosophy: They're bo
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YA sci-fi is supposed to make us question society - Orlando Weekly

[...] Confession: I'm a huge fan of dystopian YA. But lately, some of the more popular emerging titles seem to be disrupting the basic pillars of dystopia and distracting from the main mission of any dystopian novel: to caution against current societal practices that could lead to such a society's existence. Consider this genre's purpose as innocently as you would the purpose of Smokey the Bear, only with a more complex directive: Only you can prevent the future. [...]

by Ashley Belanger

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Life is larger than life | Ogilvydo.com

An observation about Fake and Reality or is it the other way around? Read this first, then decide.
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Andrea Graziano's comment, November 20, 2012 3:55 AM
masterpiece.
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Le Blog de Jean-Paul Sartre Discovered

Le Blog de Jean-Paul Sartre Discovered | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

Wednesday, 22 July, 1959: 10:50 A.M.

This morning over breakfast S. [short for Simone]. asked me why I looked so glum.

“Because,” I said, “everything that exists is born for no reason, carries on living through weakness, and dies by accident.”

“Jesus,” S. said. “Aren’t you ever off the clock?”

Thursday, 16 July, 1959: 7:45 P.M.

When S. returned this afternoon I asked her where she had been, and she said she had been in the street.

“Perhaps,” I said, “that explains why you look ‘rue’-ful.”

Her blank stare only reinforced for me the futility of existence.

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Mary Warnock's top 10 philosophy books

Mary Warnock's top 10 philosophy books | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Lady Mary Warnock is a crossbench life peer, moral philosopher and author of a number of books on philosophy, including The Intelligent Person's Guide to Ethics.
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From Cooling System to Thinking Machine | Being Human

From Cooling System to Thinking Machine | Being Human | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

Hilary Putnam is not a household name. The Harvard philosopher’s work on the nature of reality, meaning, and language may be required reading in graduate school, but Putnam’s fame hasn’t extended far beyond the academy. But one of Putnam’s thought experiments is familiar to millions of people: what it would be like to be a brain in a vat?

Here’s how Putnam presented the idea in his 1981 book, Reason, Truth, and History:

Imagine that a human being…has been subjected to an operation by an evil scientist. The person's brain…has been removed from the body and placed in a vat of nutrients which keeps the brain alive. The nerve endings have been connected to a super-scientific computer which causes the person whose brain it is to have the illusion that everything is perfectly normal. There seem to be people, objects, the sky, etc.; but really, all the person…is experiencing is the result of electronic impulses travelling from the computer to the nerve endings.

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Ancient Cynics Knew Shortcut to Happiness | News | Laboratory Equipment

Ancient Cynics Knew Shortcut to Happiness | News | Laboratory Equipment | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
New research sheds light on the philosophy of the ancient Cynics. They actually held values they viewed as a shortcut to happiness.
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Towards a Third Culture or Working in Between

Artists working with computer and other technologies that are a product of the scientific world are also informed and inspired by the exciting innovations and discoveries taking place in science. We are keenly interested in what the cultural critics and commentators from the humanities have to say on the meaning and impact these discoveries and innovations have on culture and society. Scientists can relate and understand our work easier primarily because we use the same tools-computers. Because our work and tools are in constant flux, we are forced to articulate the reasoning and meaning informing the art produced, which has traditionally been the role of art critics and historians. This creates room for an active dialogue with both humanists and scientists. Thus we are placed in between these "Two Cultures," which creates a triangle and promises to an emergence of a Third Culture. This is a privileged and dangerous position, at least in this transitional stage. Therefore it is important to take a look at the background and current status of these Two Cultures.

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Experimental Philosophy: Intuitions about Innateness

Experimental Philosophy: Intuitions about Innateness | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Imagine that scientists are trying to understand how people develop a particular trait, which they have come to call Trait X. The scientists have discovered a surprising fact about people’s genes.
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PLOS ONE: Lifting the Veil of Morality: Choice Blindness and Attitude Reversals on a Self-Transforming Survey

PLOS ONE: Lifting the Veil of Morality: Choice Blindness and Attitude Reversals on a Self-Transforming Survey | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

Every day, thousands of polls, surveys, and rating scales are employed to elicit the attitudes of humankind. Given the ubiquitous use of these instruments, it seems we ought to have firm answers to what is measured by them, but unfortunately we do not. To help remedy this situation, we present a novel approach to investigate the nature of attitudes. We created a self-transforming paper survey of moral opinions, covering both foundational principles, and current dilemmas hotly debated in the media. This survey used a magic trick to expose participants to a reversal of their previously stated attitudes, allowing us to record whether they were prepared to endorse and argue for the opposite view of what they had stated only moments ago. The result showed that the majority of the reversals remained undetected, and a full 69% of the participants failed to detect at least one of two changes. In addition, participants often constructed coherent and unequivocal arguments supporting the opposite of their original position. These results suggest a dramatic potential for flexibility in our moral attitudes, and indicates a clear role for self-attribution and post-hoc rationalization in attitude formation and change.

 

PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.

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Jay Griffiths - Forests of the mind

Jay Griffiths - Forests of the mind | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
What is the greatest human gift?It is metaphor, carrying a cargo of meaning across the oceans that divide us...
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A computational approach to "free will... [Front Integr Neurosci. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Human choice is not free-we are bounded by a multitude of biological constraints. Yet, within the various landscapes we face, we do express choice, preference, and varying degrees of so-called willful behavior. Moreover, it appears that the capacity for choice in humans is variable. Empirical studies aimed at investigating the experience of "free will" will benefit from theoretical disciplines that constrain the language used to frame the relevant issues. The combination of game theory and computational reinforcement learning theory with empirical methods is already beginning to provide valuable insight into the biological variables underlying capacity for choice in humans and how things may go awry in individuals with brain disorders. These disciplines operate within abstract quantitative landscapes, but have successfully been applied to investigate strategic and adaptive human choice guided by formal notions of optimal behavior. Psychiatric illness is an extreme, but interesting arena for studying human capacity for choice. The experiences and behaviors of patients suggest these individuals fundamentally suffer from a diminished capacity of willful choice. Herein, I will briefly discuss recent applications of computationally guided approaches to human choice behavior and the underlying neurobiology. These approaches can be integrated into empirical investigation at multiple temporal scales of analysis including the growing body of experiments in human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and newly emerging sub-second electrochemical and electrophysiological measurements in the human brain. These cross-disciplinary approaches hold promise for revealing the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for the variety of choice capacity in humans.

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To Be Human - David Sloan Wilson | Center for Humans & Nature

To Be Human - David Sloan Wilson | Center for Humans & Nature | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

Teilhard called the human-created world the noosphere, which slowly spread like a skin over the planet, like the biological skin (the biosphere) that preceded it. He imagined “grains of thought” coalescing at ever-larger scales until they became a single global consciousness that he called the Omega Point.

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Distributing the origins of human will | Gene Expression | Discover Magazine

Distributing the origins of human will | Gene Expression | Discover Magazine | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Behavior Genetics | Behavior Genetics | In The New York Times David P. Barash writes about how parasites might influence our behavior.
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Raritania: Postmodernism and Self-Censorship

Uncertainty and doubt has always been part of intellectual and cultural life -including that exceptionally large doubt as to whether anything is knowable (an issue that seems as old as philosophical speculation itself). Equally, intellectual and artistic expression has always entailed risk. There was always a premium on pleasing everybody, and offending nobody (or at least, nobody who counts).

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Can Neuroscience Challenge Roe V. Wade?

Can Neuroscience Challenge Roe V. Wade? | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

When I was asked this summer to serve as an expert witness in an appellate case that some think could lead to the next Supreme Court test of Roe v. Wade, I was surprised.

Rick Hearn is the attorney representing Jennie McCormack, an Idaho woman who was arrested for allegedly inducing her own abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol — two F.D.A.-approved drugs, also known as RU-486 — and for obtaining the drugs from another state over the Internet. While the case against Ms. McCormack has been dropped for lack of evidence, Mr. Hearn, who is also a doctor, is pursuing a related suit against an Idaho statute, the “Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act” (Idaho Code, Section 18-501 through 18-510), and others like it that cite neuroscientific findings of pain sentience on the part of fetuses as a basis for prohibiting abortions even prior to viability.

The authors of a 2005 review of clinical research in the Journal of the American Medical Association have written, “Evidence regarding the capacity for fetal pain is limited but indicates that fetal perception of pain is unlikely before the third trimester.” Still, not surprisingly, opinions on whether and when fetal sensitivity to pain may develop vary widely.

So why not call an actual neuroscientist as an expert witness instead of a scholar of the humanities?

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Has Philosophy Really Lost Its Bite? - Percolator - The Chronicle of Higher Education

Has Philosophy Really Lost Its Bite? - Percolator - The Chronicle of Higher Education | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

Freeman Dyson doesn’t think much of philosophy, at least not how it’s practiced at universities these days. The physicist and mathematician is known for taking unorthodox stands, and he’s more than willing to wade into matters outside his bailiwick. In a recent review of Jim Holt’s Why Does the World Exist? An Existential Detective Story, Dyson wonders: “When and why did philosophy lose its bite? How did it become a toothless relic of past glories?”

This was greeted with a combination of bemusement and mild annoyance by philosophers.

 

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What Can You Really Know? by Freeman Dyson | The New York Review of Books

What Can You Really Know? by Freeman Dyson | The New York Review of Books | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it

Jim Holt’s Why Does the World Exist?: An Existential Detective Story is a portrait gallery of leading modern philosophers. He visited each of them in turn, warning them in advance that he was coming to discuss with them a single question: “Why is there something rather than nothing?” He reports their reactions to this question, and embellishes their words with descriptions of their habits and personalities. Their answers give us vivid glimpses of the speakers but do not solve the riddle of existence.

The philosophers are more interesting than the philosophy. Most of them are eccentric characters who have risen to the top of their profession. They think their deep thoughts in places of unusual beauty such as Paris and Oxford. They are heirs to an ancient tradition of academic hierarchy, in which disciples sat at the feet of sages, and sages enlightened disciples with Delphic utterances. The universities of Paris and Oxford have maintained this tradition for eight hundred years. The great world religions have maintained it even longer. Universities and religions are the most durable of human institutions.

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Why Proof of Heaven Does Not Prove There’s a Heaven.

Why Proof of Heaven Does Not Prove There’s a Heaven. | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Newsweek is dead. The 80-year-old magazine will cease publication at the end of the year, a teary-eyed Tina Brown said last Thursday. Before we sink too deeply into grief, let's all remember what lies beyond these earthly, stapled pages.
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Boston Review — Elliott Sober: Remarkable Facts (Thomas Nagel, Mind and Cosmos)

Boston Review — Elliott Sober: Remarkable Facts (Thomas Nagel, Mind and Cosmos) | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Since 1975, an award-winning forum for political, cultural and literary ideas.
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John Burnside - The visitor

John Burnside - The visitor | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Solitude is enlightening but if it does not lead us back to society, it can become a spiritual dead end...
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Philosophy Made Fun: Read the Free Preview Edition of the Action Philosophers! Comic

Philosophy Made Fun: Read the Free Preview Edition of the Action Philosophers! Comic | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
'Imagine Plato as a wrestling superstar of ancient Greece, Nietzsche as the original ubermensch, and Bohidharma as the grand master of kung fu. These are not just great thinkers they also make great comics.
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The significations of his words

The significations of his words | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan. Edited by Noel Malcolm. Oxford University Press; 2,355 pages; $375 and £195. Buy from Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk WHEN Thomas Hobbes was...
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State of the Earth: Still Seeking Plan A for Sustainability: Scientific American

State of the Earth: Still Seeking Plan A for Sustainability: Scientific American | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
How to improve the state of the planet: "everybody can do something"...

NEW YORK CITY—The state of the planet is grim, whether that assessment is undertaken from the perspective of economic development, social justice or the global environment. What's known as sustainable development—a bid to capture all three of those efforts in one effort and phrase—has hardly advanced since it was first used in the 1980s and the world is hardly closer to eradicating extreme poverty, respecting the dignity and rights of all peoples or resolving environmental challenges, whether climate change or the extinction of plants and animals. Or so argued the participants at the Earth Institute's State of the Planet 2012 meeting on October 11.

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Massimo Pigliucci – On consilience

Massimo Pigliucci – On consilience | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
For decades the sciences and the humanities have fought for knowledge supremacy.
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Groups and Gossip Drove the Evolution of Human Nature

Groups and Gossip Drove the Evolution of Human Nature | Philosophy everywhere everywhen | Scoop.it
Black-and-white colobus monkeys scrambled through the branches of Congo’s Ituri Forest in 1957 as a small band of Mbuti hunters wound cautiously through the undergrowth, joined by anthropologist Colin Turnbull.
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