The EFSA PLH Panel conducted a risk assessment of Phyllosticta citricarpa (Guignardia citricarpa) for the EU. P. citricarpa causes citrus black spot (CBS) and is absent from the EU.
Establishment was rated as moderately likely because susceptible hosts are widely available and environmental conditions in many EU citrus-growing areas are suitable (with high uncertainty) for P. citricarpa ascospore production, dispersal and infection. Current fungicide treatments will not prevent establishment. Environmental favourability is increased by the use of sprinkler and micro-sprinkler irrigation in some EU citrus-growing locations. CBS is expected to affect mainly lemons and late-maturing sweet orange and mandarin varieties, with moderate negative consequences for the production of fresh fruit, but with environmental impact of additional fungicide treatments. Uncertainty concerning the consequences is high, mainly because of the lack of data on critical climate response parameters for the pathogen but also because information on impact in areas at the limits of the current distribution is scarce. Since eradication and containment are difficult, phytosanitary measures should focus on preventing entry.
Current phytosanitary measures are evaluated to be effective, with the exception of pest-free production sites.
EFSA 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk of Phyllosticta citricarpa (Guignardia citricarpa) for the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3557.pdf