Pest risk analysis
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Pest risk analysis
Sharing information on risk assessment and risk management performed to protect plant health and agricultural plant production in the EPPO region and worldwide. Sharing information on PRA methodology (e.g. climate mapping, PRA schemes, evaluation of impact)
Curated by Muriel Suffert
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EPPO and Pest Risk Analysis

EPPO and Pest Risk Analysis | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

This e-journal on 'Pest Risk Analysis' is maintained by the Secretariat of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) and its aim is to share information collected on the Internet on pest risk analyses and on PRA tools.

 

EPPO is an intergovernmental organization created in 1951 which currently has 50 member countries. EPPO is responsible for harmonization and cooperation among the National Plant Protection Organizations (official authorities) of its member countries. EPPO helps its members in their efforts to protect plant health in agriculture, forestry and the uncultivated environment (standard-setting activities and exchange of information).

 

On its official website, EPPO also provides:

- all PRAs conducted by EPPO Expert Working Groups: http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_intro.htm

- working documents on Pest Risk Analysis which have been presented to various EPPO Panels: http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_documents.htm

- the EPPO Alert List (early warning on emerging pests which could present a risk for the Euro-Mediterranean region):
www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/alert_list.htm

 

Read more on EPPO work on PRA on http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_intro.htm.

 

Visit the official EPPO website: www.eppo.int

Muriel Suffert's insight:

The EPPO Secretariat maintains other scoop.it magazines on Pest Alerts (http://www.scoop.it/t/pest-alerts), Invasives Alien Plants (http://www.scoop.it/t/invasive-plants-by-robert-tanner-1), Video of plant pests (http://www.scoop.it/t/pests-on-videos), Diagnostic activities for plant pests (http://www.scoop.it/t/diagnostic-for-pests), Communication on pests (http://www.scoop.it/t/communication-and-citizen-sciences-on-pests-and-invasive-alien-species)

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Mehmet Levent's comment, August 4, 2014 7:40 AM
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Rapid Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for Agapanthus gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

The agapanthus gall midge, which is new to science, is a damaging pest of Agapanthus. Larval feeding within flower buds can lead to the discolouration and deformation of the buds, and can sometimes cause them to not open, while larvae that feed between developing stems within the flower head sheath can lead to the collapse of the entire flower head. These symptoms would make the agapanthus unmarketable in trade and unattractive in a non-commercial setting. 
In May 2015, the pest was added to the Plant Health Risk Register and it was decided that statutory action should be taken against findings of the agapanthus gall midge on commercially traded plants. At this time, the midge had only been recorded at three sites in southern England. The midge has now been found to have spread widely across the south of England and has been recorded in West Yorkshire. A PRA has therefore been initiated to see if statutory action in trade is still justified.

Defra 2015. Rapid Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for: Agapanthus gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/plant-health/documents/agapanthus_gall_midge_pra_web.pdf

Muriel Suffert's insight:
This new species has now be named Enigmadiplosis agapanthi. 

Pictures of the insect and damage on Agapanthus can be viewed on the Royal Horticultural Society website: https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?PID=901
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Anses evaluation of decontamination of potato tubers for Globodera spp.

Anses evaluation of decontamination of potato tubers for Globodera spp. | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Anses recently published a report (in French) evaluating the possibility to decontaminate potato tubers infested by Globodera spp. 


Anses 2016. Efficacité de la décontamination par la transformation de lots de tubercules de pomme de terre contaminés par par des nématodes à kyste (Globodera spp.) https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/SANTVEG2015SA0232Ra.pdf
Muriel Suffert's insight:
The report highlights the need to take into account all steps from the field (where tubers should be washed) to treatment of waste. 
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Thekopsora minima (blueberry leaf rust) added to the EPPO Alert List 

Thekopsora minima (blueberry leaf rust) added to the EPPO Alert List  | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Thekopsora minima is an heteroecious rust which lives on needles of Tsuga spp. (aecial stage) and leaves of ericaceous plants (telial stage). On blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), it can cause a serious rust disease leading to extensive defoliation. The presence of T. minima was detected for the first time in Germany in 2015 and an express-PRA has concluded that this pathogen might present a high risk for Germany and other parts of the EPPO region. The NPPO of Germany has therefore suggested that T. minima should be added to the EPPO Alert List.
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UK PRA on Ceratocystis fagacearum

UK PRA on Ceratocystis fagacearum | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Forest Research recently published a Pest Risk Analysis on Ceratocystis fagacearum that causes the disease ‘oak wilt’. This fungus is currently only known to be present in the USA, although European oak species are susceptible and can be killed by the disease.
  
Due to the longstanding recognition of the risk posed to trees in the UK and Europe from oak wilt a range of statutory actions are already in place to prevent entry of C. fagacearum and associated vectors from North America. However, the relatively recent proposals that C. fagacearum is more likely to be an introduction into the USA of unknown evolutionary and geographic origins, possibly from Mexico, Central America or northern South America, and associated with trees that extent to hosts other than Quercus merit discussion on whether wider statutory action could be considered appropriate.


Forest Reseach (2015). Rapid Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for Ceratocystis fagacearum https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/plant-health/documents/pra-oak-wilt-2016.pdf
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Rapid Pest Risk Analysis for 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini'

This rapid PRA shows that Ca. Phytoplasma fraxini is a damaging pest of Fraxinus (ash) and Syringa (lilac) in North America, and an emerging problem on a range of tree species in Colombia. Since no insect vector has been identified, the assessment of potential impacts in the UK is subject to considerable levels of uncertainty. Relevant sections of this PRA (establishment outdoors, spread and potential impacts in the UK) have been rated for two scenarios: the absence of an efficient vector in UK, and the presence of an efficient and polyphagous vector. An additional appendix provides a brief overview of the recent findings of phytoplasmas in the the same group of Ca. Phytoplasma fraxini in South America that represent a lower risk to the UK.

DEFRA 2106 'Rapid Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’  https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/plant-health/documents/pra-phytoplasma-fraxini-2016.pdf
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Ceratothripoides claratris (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) added to the EPPO Alert List

Ceratothripoides claratris (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – Oriental tomato thrips) was identified in the EPPO study on pest risks associated with the import of tomato fruit as possibly presenting a risk for the EPPO region. C. claratris was later selected as a priority for PRA by the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures. An EPPO Expert Working Group met in December 2015 to conduct PRAs on several tomato pests, including C. claratris. 

C. claratris is probably of Asian origin, but seems to have spread to Africa in recent years. In the literature, C. claratris is referred to as a species adapted to the hot and humid tropics of South East Asia. In East Africa, it is observed in the humid coastal and low–mid altitude zones.
The main host of C. claratris is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), but it has also been observed on other solanaceous crops such as, aubergine (S. melongena), Capsicum spp., and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as on crops belonging to other plant families (e.g. Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae).

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Contingency Plan for the Bronze
Birch Borer (Agrilus anxius)

Contingency Plan for the Bronze<br/>Birch Borer (Agrilus anxius) | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
UK Forestry Commission recently published a contingency plan for Agrilus anxius (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a pest of North American originContingency Plan for the Bronze Birch Borer (Agrilus anxius)


Muriel Suffert's insight:
Similar profile as Agrilus planipennis, but on Betula
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Bryan Yong's curator insight, March 26, 8:59 PM
Similar profile as Agrilus planipennis, but on Betula
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Help us identify important pests of citrus and grapevine that present a risk for the EPPO region

In the framework of the EU project Dropsa (http://dropsaproject.eu), the EPPO Secretariat together with JKI (Germany) is preparing Alert Lists for pests of citrus and grapevine (among other crops) that may be transported with the fruit trade and present a risk for EU countries.
The compilation of lists of pests is currently based mostly on bibliographic studies. Based on the experience acquired when preparing previous lists for pests of tomato, apples and fruit of Vaccinium species, it appears that this approach is not always sufficient. We invite experts and NPPOs to provide input in order to ensure that pests considered important are listed and given due consideration. 
We are interested in potentially damaging pests that are not yet present in the EPPO region/the EU, are not regulated, and considered to present a risk of introduction with fruit trade. Emerging pests are especially interesting, but also others. The pests proposed through this consultation will be given extra attention in the screening process. However, a pest will be retained in the final Alert Lists only if it meets the specific criteria defined in the screening process. The deliverable of the project will be finalized in January 2017.
Pests may be identified for example from experts’ own knowledge, recent developments related to the pest, recent presentations heard at conferences, pests included in surveys, national Alert Lists that are already compiled, information circulating in your networks, etc. 
Muriel Suffert's insight:
Contact me if you have suggestions of pests!
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UK PRA on Ca. Phytoplasma fragariae

UK PRA on Ca. Phytoplasma fragariae | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Ca. Phytoplasma fragariae is a poorly understood plant pathogen whose full distribution and host range are unlikely to have been elucidated. It has been associated with moribund hazel (Corylus) at an outbreak in the UK, which triggered the initiation of this PRA. Without knowledge of the vector of the pathogen, risk assessment and management decisions are subject to high levels of uncertainty.

 

The first record of Ca. Phytoplasma fragariae was from Lithuania in cultivated strawberry (2006). It was later reported in Italy, having been detected in a survey of plants in the wider environment around phytoplasma infected vineyards (2008). More recently, it has been described as causing disease in China in potatoes (2015).

 

Rapid Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for: Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae September 2015  https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/plant-health/documents/pra-ca-phytoplasma-fragariae.pdf

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German PRA on Atherigona orientalis, pepper fruit fly

German PRA on Atherigona orientalis, pepper fruit fly | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

JKI recently punblished an Express PRA (in German) on Atherigona orientalis (Diptera, Muscidae) after findings in different commodities (e.g. Capsicum from Ghana). 

This polyphagous fly occurs in Oceania (including Australia), Africa, the southern USA, Central and South America. It was introduced and eestablished in Cyprus and Israel. Host plants include tomato, Capsicum, citrus, rice, wheat, maize, sunflower, soya, and peaches.

The probability of establishment in Germany is considered low, with possible damage only in greenhouses tomatoes and Capsicum. 

The phytosanitary risk for Mediterranean countries is considered medium. 

 

JKI 2016 Express – PRA zu Atherigona orientalis http://pflanzengesundheit.jki.bund.de/dokumente/upload/c0467_atherigona-orientalis_express-pra.pdf

 

Photo: Adult Atherigona orientalis. Photograph by Gary Steck, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/FRUIT/TROPICAL/pepper_fruit_fly.htm

Muriel Suffert's insight:

This pest was identified in the EPPO Tomato Study as a potential pest of tomato recently introduced in the EPPO region. (http://sco.lt/5dGXKL)

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Update of the EFSA database of host plants of Xylella fastidiosa

Update of the EFSA database of host plants of Xylella fastidiosa | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was tasked to periodically update its database of host plants of Xylella fastidiosa which was published in April 2015. An extensive literature search approach was used for updating the database in order to catch all new scientific developments published on the topic. Furthermore, the outputs of investigations conducted on host plants affected by X. fastidiosa in the Italian and French outbreaks were included. Literature screening and data extraction were performed using the Distiller platform. The protocol and the guideline applied for the Extensive Literature Search and for the update of the database are described in this report. The current version of the database includes reports of hosts of X. fastidiosa published up to 20 November 2015. The current list of X. fastidiosa host plant species consists of 359 plant species (including hybrids) from 204 genera and 75 different botanical families. Compared to the previous database, 44 new species and 2 new hybrids, 15 new genera and 5 new families were found. The majority of the additional species (70%) were reported in Apulia, Corsica and southern France.


http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/4378.pdf

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/4378ax1.xlsx

Muriel Suffert's insight:

The database originally published in April 2015 has been updated with all records of host plants up to 20 November 2015.

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TAPPAS, a new software to model wind dispersion

TAPPAS, a new software to model wind dispersion | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

TAPPAS – Tool for Assessing Pest and Pathogen Aerial Spread – is a new online software tool for modelling the dispersal of living organisms in near-real time. Recently released by CSIRO, TAPPAS Version 1 offers a simple user interface for researchers and collaborators to study long-distance wind dispersal by providing access to powerful dispersion and weather prediction models. With natural spread being an important pathway for many invasive organisms, TAPPAS can have particular value in understanding and quantifying risks of biosecurity incursions.

TAPPAS Version 1 has been designed to help researchers, policy-makers and practitioners address questions of biosecurity risk, however, the software has been specifically designed to be flexible and adaptable. The software can be used to study long-distance wind dispersal relevant to many fields including biogeography, ecology, pollen allergens, dust and smoke.

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EFSA-EPPO Workshop: Modelling in Plant Health ( Parma, Italy, 12-14 December 2016)

EFSA-EPPO Workshop: Modelling in Plant Health ( Parma, Italy, 12-14 December 2016) | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
EFSA and EPPO are to hold a joint workshop in Parma, Italy; on Modelling in plant health – how can models support risk assessment of plant pests and decision-making? 
The main objective of this workshop is to explore the application of models in plant health risk assessment and how risk assessment models may support decision-making in plant health. The workshop will include presentations from keynote speakers and participants, as well as poster sessions. There will be sufficient time for discussion.
Muriel Suffert's insight:
Interested participants are kindly requested to propose an abstract for a presentation (oral or poster) by 17 june 2016.
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Use of potato varieties resistant to Globodera spp. in infested fields

Use of potato varieties resistant to Globodera spp. in infested fields | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Anses recently published a report (in French) evaluating the use of resistant potato varieties in fields infested by potato cyst nematodes, Globodera spp. 


Anses 2016. Utilisation de variétés résistantes de pommes de terre dans des champs contaminés par des nématodes à kyste (Globodera spp.) https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/SANTVEG2015SA0242Ra.pdf
Muriel Suffert's insight:
It is concluded that resistant varieties should have a resistance note of at least 7 but preferably 8 or 9. In addition, different varieties should be cropped in the same field (with different source of resistance), and it is preferable to use varieties resistant to both G. pallida and G. rostochiensis to avoid replacement of one specie by the other.
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Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) moving on municipal green waste

Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) moving on municipal green waste | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

This PRA evaluate the risk of entry and establishment of Rhagoletis pomonella moving with Municipal green waste containing host fruit (and possibly soil infested with pupae) 

 

Sansford,Mastro,Reynolds (2016), Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) moving on municipal green waste into the Pest-Free Area (PFA) of the state of Washington, USA http://agr.wa.gov/plantsinsects/insectpests/applemaggot/docs/FINAL_PRA_30_4_2016_2.pdf

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FinnPRIO: a model for ranking invasive plant pests based on risk

FinnPRIO: a model for ranking invasive plant pests based on risk | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
The number of plant pests that may be transported to new areas with international trade is too great for subjecting all of them to a full scale pest risk assessment. There is therefore a need for a quick risk assessment procedure that also ranks the pests according to their risk. The FinnPRIO model can be used to assess the risk of alien plant pests for Finland. It follows the basic structure of a full scale pest risk assessment, i.e. it can be used to separately estimate the probabilities of entry, establishment (including spread), and the likely impacts. The model also includes a section for assessing preventability and controllability of a pest invasion. The model consists of multiple-choice questions with answer options yielding a different number of points. For each question the most likely answer option and the plausible minimum and maximum options are chosen. The total risk score is simulated using a PERT distribution, providing a scale of potential risk for each pest and indicating the level of uncertainty associated with the assessment. The model is accompanied by a guide for the interpretation of the questions and answer options. The model’s functionality has been tested through simulations, and it has been validated by comparing pest rankings produced using the model to those obtained in expert workshops. To date, 95 pests have been assessed with the model. The results indicate that the model is well capable of differentiating pests based on their estimated risk.
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Importing plants into the Netherlands: an assessment of the risk of plant parasitic nematodes and a survey on their entry with adhering soil

Importing plants into the Netherlands: an assessment of the risk of plant parasitic nematodes and a survey on their entry with adhering soil | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Few plant parasitic nematodes are currently included in the European Union (EU) regulated pest lists. However, many plant parasitic nematodes not present in the EU are known to be damaging and present a risk to Europe. Therefore a study was performed to assess the risk of importing plant parasitic nematodes with the soil attached to plants for planting, with emphasis on plants in pots. Prior to the survey, a list of harmful plant parasitic nematodes not present within Europe was prepared per continent based on a literature review. This resulted in a Risk List of 26 species. Additionally, over a 3-year period a survey was carried out on plants for planting imported to the Netherlands with adhering soil, focusing on all plant parasitic nematodes and with special attention to the nematodes on the Risk List. A total of 258 soil samples were studied, originating from 54 different plant species and 20 different countries. Despite the small number of samples, several quarantine nematodes and species from the Risk List were detected, including new nematode–plant combinations. This survey illustrates that plants with adhering soil can be a pathway for the introduction of listed nematodes, including those from the Risk List, to the EU/EPPO region. This information might encourage a more risk-based approach to performing import inspections.


den Nijs LJMF, van Bruggen AS and Karssen G. (2016), Importing plants into the Netherlands: an assessment of the risk of plant parasitic nematodes and a survey on their entry with adhering soil. EPPO Bulletin, 46: 94–102. doi: 10.1111/epp.12281

Muriel Suffert's insight:
A Risk list of plant parasitic nematodes which are considered a risk for the EU was compiled
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European Atlas of Forest Tree Species

European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both a scientific publication, in which researchers and forest specialists can find rigorous and up-to-date information on the many tree species of our forests, and a publication suited for education and the dissemination of information about the richness of our forests to our generation and future generations.


2016. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. et al., Eds. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. ISBN: 978-92-79-36740-3. DOI: 10.2788/038466

Muriel Suffert's insight:
A useful resource for PRAs on forestry pests providing maps of forest trees in Europe
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Ceratothripoides brunneus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) added to the EPPO Alert List

Ceratothripoides brunneus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae - tomato thrips) was identified in the EPPO study on pest risks associated with the import of tomato fruit as possibly presenting a risk for the EPPO region. This thrips species was later selected as a priority for PRA by the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures. An EPPO Expert Working Group met in December 2015 to conduct PRAs on several tomato pests, including C. brunneus. The conclusions of this PRA will then be reviewed by different EPPO bodies before being published.

C. brunneus is considered to be of African origin but it has spread to Asia and the Caribbean.

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Temporal and interspecific variation in rates of spread for insect species invading Europe during the last 200 years

Temporal and interspecific variation in rates of spread for insect species invading Europe during the last 200 years | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Globalization is triggering an increase in the establishment of alien insects in Europe, with several species having substantial ecological and economic impacts. We investigated long-term changes in rates of species spread following establishment. We used the total area of countries invaded by 1171 insect species for which the date of first record in Europe is known, to estimate their current range radius.
Accidentally introduced species spread faster than intentionally introduced species. Considering the whole period 1800–2014, spread patterns also differ between feeding guilds, with decreasing spread rates over residence time in herbivores but not in detritivores or parasitic species. 
Initial spread rate was significantly greater for species detected after 1990, roughly 3–4 times higher than for species that arrived earlier. We hypothesize that the political changes in Europe following the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989, and the further dismantling of customs checkpoints within an enlarged European Union (EU) have facilitated the faster spread of alien insect species. Also, the number of species first recorded in the Eastern Bloc of the politically-divided Europe before 1989 was lower than for the rest of Europe. A detailed analysis of six recent invaders indicated a dominant role of long-distance translocations related to human activities, especially with the plant trade, in determining rates of spread.

Roques, Auger-Rozenberg, Blackburn, Garnas, Pyšek, Rabitsch, Richardson, Wingfield, Liebhold, Duncan 2016. Biological invasions 10.​1007/​s10530-016-1080-y)
Muriel Suffert's insight:
The results of this study point to unrestricted
horticultural trade in Europe as a key driver of alien
insect spread
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Bryan Yong's curator insight, March 11, 8:22 PM
The results of this study point to unrestricted
horticultural trade in Europe as a key driver of alien
insect spread
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10th Meeting of the International Pest Risk Research Group (Parma, IT 23-26 August 2016)

10th Meeting of the International Pest Risk Research Group (Parma, IT 23-26 August 2016) | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
The International Pest Risk Research Group (IPRRG) will be hosting its 10th annual meeting in association with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) from 23-26 August 2016 at EFSA’s headquarters in Parma, Italy. The IPRRG, first convened in 2007 as the Pest Risk Mapping Workgroup, is a dedicated group of research scientists and pest risk practitioners that aims to develop enhanced pest risk modelling and mapping methods through rigorous and innovative research focused on the key challenges faced by the discipline.

Oral and poster presentations are invited on all aspects of pest risk research. Pests include “any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent, injurious to plants” or animals. Presentations on advances in modelling and mapping risks (e.g. pathway analysis, species distribution modelling, spread modelling, uncertainty analysis, climate change impacts and vector-borne disease risk), impact assessment, and communicating risks to policy makers are particularly welcomed. 
Abstracts (≤250 words) should be submitted by 31 May 2016. An online abstract submission form will be available soon.

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Spanish contingency plans against Tryoza erytreae, Diaphorina citri and Huanglongbing

Spanish contingency plans against Tryoza erytreae, Diaphorina citri  and Huanglongbing | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
In end of January 2016 the  Spanish Council of Ministers approved a royal decree for the launch of the National Programme for the control and eradication of Trioza erytrae and the national prevention program against Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter spp. These insects can carry the bacterium that causes citrus greening (also known as Huanglongbing or HLB); a serious disease affecting these crops in other countries.
 
After the detection of the vector in Galicia (in 2014), but not the bacteria, the Ministry drew up a plan of action for Trioza erytreae, which was published on the website of the department (in 2015). Later they approved and launched a contingency plan for citrus greening and another one for the vectorDiaphorina citri.
 
The goal of these documents is to provide preventive tools against these harmful organisms and establish a monitoring plan in Spain to detect their presence, working on control and eradication wherever they appeared.
 
With the approval of the new royal decree, legal support is given to all previously published action and contingency plans against the Trioza erytreae, Citrus greening and Diaphorina citri for the implementation of harmonised rules for the control and prevention of these organisms. This shows a commitment to early detection and effective actions to prevent the possible spread of these pests in our country.
 
 
Muriel Suffert's insight:

NAPPO also recently approved Discussion document on "Management of Huanglongbing and its Vector, the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri" in North America

http://www.nappo.org/files/9314/4865/6656/DD_05_HLB__Vector_AWM_15-10-2015-e_.pdf

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Contarinia pseudotsugae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Douglas-fir needle midge recently added to the EPPO Alert List

Contarinia pseudotsugae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Douglas-fir needle midge recently added to the EPPO Alert List | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Contarinia pseudotsugae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is one of three North American species of needle midge (C. pseudotsugae, C. constricta, C. cuniculator) which can attack Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) trees and cause some damage. Its presence in two European countries, Belgium and the Netherlands, is suspected. In these two countries, as larvae only could be recovered from P. menziesii, a more definitive identification is awaiting the collection or rearing of adult flies. Nevertheless, the EPPO Secretariat considered that the possible presence of a new forest pest in the EPPO region should be brought to the attention of the NPPOs.
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Revised assessment of the risk of spread of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus on untreated wood of ash (Fraxinus spp., particularly Fraxinus excelsior)

Revised assessment of the risk of spread of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus on untreated wood of ash (Fraxinus spp., particularly Fraxinus excelsior) | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it

In May 2015, the Department of Agriculture of Ireland commissioned the author of the original Pest Risk Analysis (2013) to re-examine the risk associated with ash wood as a pathway for the disease in light of any new research in the intervening period and to supplement the PRA - Pest Risk Analysis for Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus for the UK and the Republic of Ireland – by means of an addendum. Amongst other things, it found a lack of scientific evidence to link large diameter ash wood with the lifecycle of the disease. 

As a consequence it was agreed that relaxing certain legal measures restricting ash wood imports would not impact on the control of the disease. 

The new Order (S.I. No. 479 of 2015) restates the provisions contained in the previous Order (S.I. No. 431 of 2012) as they pertain to plant and plant products (and which remain common to both jurisdictions) but introduced a number of changes in relation to the documentary requirements around the importation of ash wood as well as the required pre-importation treatments.

 

Sansford 2015.  Revised assessment of the risk of spread of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus on untreated wood of ash (Fraxinus spp., particularly Fraxinus excelsior) http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/media/migration/forestry/ashdiebackchalara/RevassesHymenoscyphusfraxineus290116.pdf

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Phytosanitary Irradiation

Phytosanitary Irradiation | Pest risk analysis | Scoop.it
Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy.

 

Hallman & Blackburn 2016. Phytosanitary Irradiation. Foods 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/foods5010008 

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