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Prions Are Key to Preserving Long-Term Memories

Prions Are Key to Preserving Long-Term Memories | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it

The famed protein chain reaction that made mad cow disease a terror may be involved in helping to ensure that our recollections don't fade.

 

Prions are proteins with two unusual properties: First, they can switch between two possible shapes, one that is stable on its own and an alternate conformation that can form chains. Second, the chain-forming version has to be able to trigger others to change shape and join the chain. Say that in the normal version the protein is folded so that one portion of the protein structure—call it "tab A"—fits into its own "slot B." In the alternate form, though, tab A is available to fit into its neighbor's slot B. That means the neighbor can do the same thing to the next protein to come along, forming a chain or clump that can grow indefinitely.


For a brain cell, keeping a memory around is a lot of work. A variety of proteins need to be continually manufactured at the synapse, the small gap that interfaces one cell to another. But whereas a cell may have a multitude of synapses, the protein synthesis that grows and maintains the connection only occurs at specific ones that have been activated. Work in the sea slug Aplysia (a favorite of neuroscientists because of its large cells) showed that a protein called CPEB, for cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding, is necessary to keep a synapse activated. CPEB acts as a prion.


Once the prion's chain reaction gets started it's self-perpetuating, and thus the synapse can be maintained after the initial trigger is gone—perhaps for a lifetime. But that still doesn't explain how the first prion is triggered or why it only happens in certain synapses and not others.

 

An answer comes from Si's work on fruit flies, published February 11 in PLoS Biology. Sex—and, in particular, male courtship behavior—is an ideal realm in which to test memory: If a female is unreceptive, the male will remember this and stop trying to court her. Earlier, Si’s team showed that if the fly's version of CPEB, called Orb2, is mutated so that it cannot act as a prion, the insect briefly remembers that the female is unreceptive but that memory fades over the course of a few days.

 

Now, Si's team has figured out how the cell turns on the machinery responsible for the persistence of memory—and how the memory can be stabilized at just the right time and in the right place.

 

Before the memory is formed a fly's neuron is full of a version of the prion called Orb2B. Although this version can switch shapes to form prions' characteristic clumps, it can't get started without the related protein Orb2A. In this week's paper Si and colleagues untangled the multipartnered dance that controls Orb2A's role. First, a protein called TOB binds to Orb2A, allowing it to persist intact in the cell. (Normally, it would be broken down within a few hours.) Once stabilized it needs to have a phosphate tag attached, and this is done by another protein called Lim kinase.

 

Crucially, Lim kinase is only activated when the cell receives an electrical impulse—and only targeted at that synapse, not any other synaptic connections the cell might also be making. That means that the prion chain reaction is turned on in the specific time and place it's needed. This, researchers say, means the cell has a mechanism to stabilize some synapses but not others—potentially explaining why some of our memories fade, whereas others last a lifetime.

 

Although work so far on these proteins has been in yeast, sea slugs, flies and mice, the human CPEB may operate in the same way to preserve memories. The next steps, both researchers agree, are to develop better techniques to see where in the brain prions are activated, and to dig into more questions about how the prion process is regulated. One burning question: When we forget, does that mean that the prion's chain reaction has been halted?


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Nacho Vega's insight:

"For a #brain cell, keeping a #memory around is a lot of work"

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Eli Levine's curator insight, February 20, 2014 3:35 PM

They may try to make us forget, and, indeed, they may actually succeed.

 

However, science works both ways, for positive uses and for negative as well.

 

Memory loss may be helpful to some, while memory retention is good for all.

Way cool science.

 

Hope it doesn't effect us negatively in some way.

 

Think about it. 

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How to Increase Your Google+ Engagement by 281%

How to Increase Your Google+ Engagement by 281% | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it

"If you are limited to the amount of time you can spend on Google+, I recommend that you focus your efforts on the following:

 

- Authorship – by following these steps, you can add an image next to your search listings.

 

- Videos – by sharing videos related to your business, you can roughly get 28.6% more engagement.

 

- Ask questions – you will get more comments if you ask engaging questions. These questions could be related to your business, the industry your are in or anything else that your friends might like.

 

- Post on Friday – there are a lot of people on Google+ on Fridays from 11 am to 2 pm"

 


Via Antonino Militello
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"Increase your organic traffic by up to 150%"

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Gareth Harris's curator insight, February 17, 2014 4:15 AM

Although all the stats are US based the information is very useful and should definitely be worth thinking about in the UK.

Rich Rawdin's curator insight, February 17, 2014 8:36 AM
This is a great article. Tons of information which I am going to try to figure out how to implement on Google +
2DiFore Marketing Solutions's curator insight, February 21, 2014 8:22 AM

Are you shy about using Google+ to increase your engagement, think again! Don't forget to use Google Hangout, it is more reliable than Skype!

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Sales and #Marketing: An unfinished love story

Sales and #Marketing: An unfinished love story | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
 

Anybody could tell that they were meant to be together. They shared the same passions, wanted the same things, but something or other just kept getting in the way. Both of them
Nacho Vega's insight:

"The relationship between Sales and Marketing can be a heart-breaking tale: a romance waiting to bloom that never quite seems to get off the ground." #SlideShare presentation by Amy Miller

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Sex up your LinkedIn Profile with Optimized Pictures - Integrated Alliances

Sex up your LinkedIn Profile with Optimized Pictures - Integrated Alliances | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
LinkedIn profiles have seen an extreme transformation in the last year – if you know where to look and pay attention. Many of us might recall when LinkedIn profiles had no picture. There were no LinkedIn groups or company pages either. It was a character-based site for the most part, like the old days of [...]
Nacho Vega's insight:

These images define you to profile visitors. They deserve the utmost attention. Each image can have a title and a description as well so there is a lot more to it than looks.

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Facebook Develops A Photoshop For Interaction Design, And It's Free For Anyone To Use

To design the groundbreaking app Paper, Facebook built an in-house IxD tool first. And then the company shared it with the world for free.
Nacho Vega's insight:

Origami is a powerful counterpoint  to #Photoshop, just as paper is a powerful counterpoint to #Facebook´s app

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5 Essential Steps to Success in Social Media Marketing - Jeffbullas's Blog

5 Essential Steps to Success in Social Media Marketing - Jeffbullas's Blog | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Social media accounts for 27 percent of all time spent online. It must be part of your marketing. Here are the 5 steps to success in social media marketing
Nacho Vega's insight:

Think Visually: 5 Essential Steps to Success in #SocialMedia #Marketing - @Jeffbullas 

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How Your Brain Activity Changes When You're "In The Zone"

How Your Brain Activity Changes When You're "In The Zone" | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
The most creative people are able to activate two brain systems at once while in a moment of creative flow.
Nacho Vega's insight:

"Positive schizotypy is associated with central features of "flow"-type experience, including distinct shift in phenomenological experience, deep absorption, focus on present experience, and sense of pleasure."

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Social Image Resizer Tool, otra herramienta para crear imágenes para perfiles en redes sociales

Social Image Resizer Tool, otra herramienta para crear imágenes para perfiles en redes sociales | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Social Image Resizer Tool es un servicio online similar a Social Media Image Maker, una brillante herramienta para crear imágenes optimizadas para su uso
Nacho Vega's insight:
Una #herramienta para crear #imágenes optimizadas para su uso en perfiles de #redessociales: con las dimensiones perfectas. 
El proceso es automático y las dimensiones están previamente establecidas, lo único que hace falta mover es un cuadro de selección de área. "To Pic Away" ;) 
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The Persuasion Slide: An Introduction | Neuromarketing

The Persuasion Slide: An Introduction | Neuromarketing | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
In my keynote at the ConversionSUMMIT in Frankfurt (an amazing one-day conference I highly recommend!), I introduced a new concept I’ve been working on: The Persuasion Slide™.
Nacho Vega's insight:

Building Your Slide #neuromarketing #SocialMedia

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40 more maps that explain the world

40 more maps that explain the world | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
I've searched wide and far for maps that can reveal and surprise and inform in ways that the daily headlines might not.

Via Seth Dixon
Nacho Vega's insight:

Mapping humanprint!

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Terheck's curator insight, January 26, 2014 5:58 AM

Une sélection de 40 cartes qui permettent de mieux comprendre notre monde.

Jessica Rieman's curator insight, February 11, 2014 2:30 PM

When looking at this map there area few things that stick out to me and not just the colors. Fistly what I founf interesting was that South America in relation to where we live is quite different. For example, The US economic status is High Class at $12195 or more for most of the East and West Coast and then it is dull in the middle. These facts compared to South America where they are mostly upper middle class at around $3946-12185 and a portion of them are the lower middle class which rings in at around $886-3945.

Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, November 13, 2014 2:39 PM

 On map 33, it shows the religious borders map of the different religions that are occupying certain areas of the Middle East. The area of Baghdad and east is mostly Shiite Islam and west of Baghdad is Sunni Islam. What I found to be most interesting is that even though Jerusalem is surrounded by many different religions they still celebrate Judaism. They are religiously protected by its borders. There is some sign of Sunni Islam being practices within their borders but it is mostly dominated by Judaism. 

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Five iPad Apps That Help Students Start Creative Stories

Five iPad Apps That Help Students Start Creative Stories | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
In the year that I taught language arts before moving into the social studies department one of the challenges that my students faced in writing short stories was coming up with ideas to get starte...

Via John Evans
Nacho Vega's insight:

Creative #iPad #apps

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Lori Wilk's curator insight, January 10, 2014 10:56 AM

Apps to help with idea generation and to start the creative writing process  are excellent tools.

Ali Anani's curator insight, January 13, 2014 12:09 AM

Ideas for stories- quite interesting applications

Jan Watts's curator insight, February 8, 2014 1:53 AM

If you're a teacher who is always looking for useful apps, here's a few you may not have come across yet?

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4 Ways to Use Pinterest for Small Business Promotion. | Social ...

4 Ways to Use Pinterest for Small Business Promotion. | Social ... | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Social Media Management News and Advice – Marketme ... In addition to an active and engaged user base, Pinterest supports businesses using their platform for marketing purposes with a number of built-in tools.

Via The Fish Firm II
Nacho Vega's insight:

Pinteresting!

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The Fish Firm's curator insight, January 7, 2014 11:37 AM

Great article. Pinterest leads in retail conversion.

Pallab Kakoti's curator insight, January 8, 2014 5:34 AM

For businesses, Pinterest.com will work effectively by pinning existing visual contents from web-pages, using strong visuals for blog articles, deploy interactive info-graphics & data charts, create Pinning eBook & book covers and sharing photographs of customers as visually interactive testimonials.

http://blogs4bytes.wordpress.com/2012/11/25/success-with-pinterest-com-for-businesses/


Not convinced? Here are some more stats:

Pinterest users spend more: Pinterest shoppers in the US spend an average of between $140-$180 per order, compared to Facebook and Twitter shoppers who spend on average $60-$80.In the UK, Pinterest has seen a 786% increase in the last year, growing from 901,761 visits in September 2011 to 7,985,316 in September 2012. Pinterest has very quickly shed its niche image and is now in direct competition with Facebook and Twitter.According to a study by Convertro, Pinterest represented 17.4% of social media revenue for ecommerce sites in April 2012, up from 1.2% in Q2 2011.The same survey, which interviewed 7,431 online buyers from August 9 to 17 2012, also found that significantly more online consumers agree that Pinterest is a place to “get inspiration on what to buy” and “help keep track of or collect things I like".

 

Geoffrey Colon, a group marketing manager at Microsoft quotes:

"The landing page for Pinterest is an endless visual stream of subtle product recommendations from the very people who influence your purchasing decisions. Friends and strangers with good taste,"

http://econsultancy.com/blog/63891-how-small-businesses-can-make-the-most-of-pinterest

 

Small business owners should make it a priority to spend at least an hour each day on social media, splitting their time between the various platforms.  Along with sharing new photos of the products you offer, aim to become active in the online community.  Do so with sincerity – re-pin content that is relevant to your boards, answer consumers’ questions about your products and reply with thought out comments on others’ posts.  This is a way to build more broad and rich relationships with your current customers and prospects.

http://bigideasblog.infusionsoft.com/marketing-with-pinterest-for-small-businesses/


Just take a gander at these interesting uses for Pinterest and think about how they could make any business more awesome.

1. Make boards about things customers wouldn’t think about

2. Contests
3. Add a pin it button to your website

4. Bundle your social media
5. Coupons
6. Actually use it


http://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/how-to-use-pinterest-for-small-business/

 

dan's curator insight, January 13, 2014 11:16 AM

4 yummy ways hehe!

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Descubren cómo se comportan las neuronas inhibitorias durante los períodos críticos del aprendizaje

Descubren cómo se comportan las neuronas inhibitorias durante los períodos críticos del aprendizaje | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it

 Todos hemos escuchado alguna vez que, "a perro viejo no hay quien le enseñe trucos nuevos". Ahora los neurocientíficos están empezando a explicar la ciencia que hay detrás de este adagio.


Via Alvaro Díaz A.
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Aprender a "desaprender"...

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Unofficial Guide To Feedly: Better Than Google Reader

Unofficial Guide To Feedly: Better Than Google Reader | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Table Of Contents

§1 – Introduction to Feedly

§2 – Getting Started With Feedly

§3 – Overview of Feedly’s Advanced Features

§4 – Taking Feedly Mobile

§5 – Feedly Tips For Advanced Users

§6 – Conclusion

§7 – Image Credits

§8 – About the Author…


Via Frédéric DEBAILLEUL
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Great!

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Nuria Parra Macías's curator insight, February 18, 2014 2:32 AM

Guía para usar Feedly: no por no ser la versión oficial es menos útil.

Volkmar Langer's curator insight, February 18, 2014 3:32 AM

Very nice, feedly is my Favorite and now I can still learn a lot about it - thanks to Kannon Yamada.

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13 citas para #emprendedores que te harán #pensar | Eureka-Startups

13 citas para #emprendedores que te harán #pensar | Eureka-Startups | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Nacho Vega's insight:

Tony Hsieh: "No seas arrogante. No seas llamativo. Siempre hay alguien mejor que tú."

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10 Secrets to #Influencing Absolutely Anyone

10 Secrets to #Influencing Absolutely Anyone | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
How to get people to do what you want--no arm twisting, blackmail, or other slimy trick required.
Nacho Vega's insight:

How to get people to do what you want--no arm twisting, blackmail, or other slimy trick required.

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El Gobierno sube en febrero un 18% el término de potencia y baja un 7% el de energía eléctrica | voltimum.es

El Gobierno sube en febrero un 18% el término de potencia y baja un 7% el de energía eléctrica | voltimum.es | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
FACUA-Consumidores en Acción informa de que el Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo ha subido en febrero un 17,9% el término de potencia y ha bajado un 6,9% el de energía eléctrica en las tarifas que desde el mes pasado denomina Precios Voluntarios para el Pequeño Consumidor, sustituyendo a la Tarifa de Último Recurso (TUR).
Nacho Vega's insight:

Consumidores en Acción informa de que el Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo ha subido en febrero un 17,9% el término de potencia y ha bajado un 6,9% el de energía eléctrica en las tarifas que desde el mes pasado denomina Precios Voluntarios para el Pequeño Consumidor, sustituyendo a la Tarifa de Último Recurso (TUR).

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¿Qué se puede hacer para ayudar a un negocio a obtener beneficios? | Bloguismo

¿Qué se puede hacer para ayudar a un negocio a obtener beneficios? | Bloguismo | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Nacho Vega's insight:

10 puntos a tener en cuenta si quieres tener #beneficios en tu #negocio | #StartUp

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BOOK | Maria Konnikova

BOOK | Maria Konnikova | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
ABOUT MASTERMIND No fictional character is more renowned for his powers of thought and observation than Sherlock Holmes. But is his extraordinary intellect
Nacho Vega's insight:

Master-Mind by mariakonnikova.com 

No fictional character is more renowned for his powers of thought and observation than Sherlock Holmes. But is his extraordinary intellect merely a gift of fiction, or can we learn to cultivate these abilities ourselves, to improve our lives at work and at home?

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3 Ways to Use Google+ to Increase Search Rankings

3 Ways to Use Google+ to Increase Search Rankings | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Optimize your Google+ page, profile and content to maximize your exposure, increase search rankings and get a boost in traffic.
Nacho Vega's insight:

Did you know your Google+ page and profile could help?

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Pic A Moment, buscador para Instagram

Pic A Moment, buscador para Instagram | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Gracias a Pic A Moment, podemos seleccionar un evento específico y encontrar todas las fotografías de Instagram que hayan sido tomadas por otros usuarios.
Nacho Vega's insight:

"Encontrar fotografías específicas de un determinado momento"

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How to Get Others to Do Your Social Media Marketing for Free - Jeffbullas's Blog

How to Get Others to Do Your Social Media Marketing for Free - Jeffbullas's Blog | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Virality involves motivating people to share your content on their social networks. Here are 5 tips to get others to do your social media marketing for free
Nacho Vega's insight:

Wise #Twitter actions

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Line Whoscall identifica las fuentes de las llamadas y mensajes de números no conocidos

Line Whoscall identifica las fuentes de las llamadas y mensajes de números no conocidos | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
Line anuncia el lanzamiento de su aplicación Line Whoscall con el objetivo de permitir a los usuarios conocer quienes están detrás de las llamadas y de
Nacho Vega's insight:

App Line Whoscall: cuando un usuario recibe una llamada o un mensaje del cual no conoce la procedencia, Line Whoscall hace uso de su base de datos de más de 600 millones de números de teléfonos para identificar la procedencia de la comunicación, teniendo en dicha base a los números públicos de empresas y comercios disponibles tanto en las Páginas Amarillas como disponibles a través de Internet, así como aquellos números que los propios usuarios hayan denunciado como spam.

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The next big thing in tech: Augmented reality | #AR #cyborgs

The next big thing in tech: Augmented reality | #AR #cyborgs | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
The wearable revolution is heading beyond Google Glass, fitness tracking and health monitoring. The future is wearables that conjure up a digital layer in real space to 'augment' reality. Read this article by Dan Farber on CNET News.

Via luiy
Nacho Vega's insight:

Augmented Reality past and future

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luiy's curator insight, January 8, 2014 1:55 PM

Augmented Reality past and future


"You need to have technology that is sufficiently comfortable and usable, and a set of potential adopters who would be comfortable wearing the technology," said Feiner at the gathering of the fledgling AR industry at the Augmented Reality Expo here Wednesday. "It would be like moving from big headphones to earbuds. When they are very small and comfortable, you don't feel weird, but cool." He added that glasses with a "sexy lump of bump" with electronics and display could also be cool to the early adopters, especially the younger generation that has grown up digital. However, he didn't have any prediction for when wearable computer would reach a mass market....

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Manage Your Online Reputation [infographic]

Manage Your Online Reputation [infographic] | Personas 2.0: #SocialMedia #Strategist | Scoop.it
SOCIAL MEDIA (AP) - Free PLR infographic - Manage Your Online Reputation in 5 easy steps. (SOCIAL MEDIA (AP) - Free PLR infographic - Manage Your Online Reputation in 5 easy steps.

Via BirdEye
Nacho Vega's insight:

Be your #manager #PersonalBranding

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Bonnie Bracey Sutton's comment, August 29, 2013 9:57 AM
Sharing, thanks Jim.
harish magan's comment, August 31, 2013 6:18 AM
Since this is a show business and social media therefore it is advisable to see yourself under what place and position in the universe
Rachael Johnston's curator insight, October 20, 2014 9:43 PM

" If you don't manage your online reputation someone else  might do it for you, and you may not like the results." 

Good Point! This article has really made me think about what my online reputation is and looks like. Here is a summary of the 5 easy steps to getting known on the internet and keeping a good reputation while doing so:

1. Asses your current reputation - search for yourself online

2. Identify the changes needed - anything negative needs to be deleted or pushed down in the search results

3. Determine your best areans - publish more content on the places you are most popular,  you will hsve the most influence there.

4. Decide what type of content and topics you will publish about to promote the reputation you want to builld.

5. Start building - Publish and promote valuable content. Track your reputation by measuring and mointoring the success of your publishing and modify and make changes as necessary