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Software libre y conocimiento en abierto

Software libre y conocimiento en abierto | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Software libre y conocimiento en abierto
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Interesante la propuesta que se nos hace desde el LITI de la UPM (http://www.dmami.upm.es/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=57&Itemid=87) y el GIDTIC de la Universidad de Zaragoza (http://www.unizar.es/fmi/?q=node/80), tanto por la modalidad de aprendizaje online, basada en un curso MOOC, como por la temática 'Software Libre y Conocimiento en Abierto', basada en la experiencia acumulada de su equipo docente.

 

Enhorabuena por la iniciativa, Angel y Marisa, espero aprender.

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Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum
Importancia creciente del pensamiento crítico (y creativo) en la actual Sociedad Red y del Conocimiento. Importancia de su integración en el sistema educativo, con la consiguiente nueva pedagogía 'critica' y 'entre iguales'. Desarrollo de habilidades superiores del pensamiento (Nivel superior de la Taxonomía de Bloom 'revisada'). Thinking Skills, Thinking Tools.
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Introducción al Pensamiento Crítico, Docencia, y Aprendizaje

Introducción al Pensamiento Crítico, Docencia, y Aprendizaje | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

 

Introducción al Pensamiento Crítico y su integración en el Curriculum (http://blog.cicei.com/erubio/2012/03/20/introduccion-al-pensamiento-critico-y-su-integracion-en-el-curriculum/)

 

'Introducción al Pensamiento Crítico, Docencia, Aprendizaje y Rúbricas', junto con el mapa conceptual correspondiente, en el que se incluye su integración en el curriculum, con una requerida nueva pedagogía ('crítica' y 'entre iguales')  caracterizada por una nueva forma de enseñar y aprender y una nueva forma de evaluar. También se muestra una experiencia 'en curso' (asignatura 'Ingeniería de la Información' de la ETSII de la ULPGC), de introducción del 'pensamiento crítico en el curriculum, relativa al 'análisis y evaluación' de una película.

 

Integración de las TICs para el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico y creativo, en la educación superior (http://blog.cicei.com/erubio/2012/04/22/integracion-de-las-tics-para-el-desarrollo-del-pensamiento-critico-y-creativo-en-la-educacion-superior/)

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CRONOS Y KAIRÓS - Magazine INED21

CRONOS Y KAIRÓS - Magazine INED21 | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
El tiempo es el marco de referencia de cada vida concreta. Cronos y Kairós: el tiempo en educación.
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Como complemento al anterior post de la misma autora, recomendable lectura acerca del significado del tiempo en la vida personal de cada uno de nosotros (en el ámbito de ka educación o fuera de ella)...

 

"El tiempo es el marco de referencia de cada vida concreta...

La prisa de mi compañero Óscar, la memoria del progreso de mis alumnos y las expectativas que yo albergo están relacionadas con el tiempo, un don que nos ha sido otorgado para vivir. Sin embargo, como la palabra tiempo en lengua española tiene muchos significados,  me gustaría imitar a los antiguos griegos y distinguir, como ellos, entre tres variables: Cronos, Aión  y Kairós.

Cronos es el tiempo externo y uniforme cuya medida es el movimiento de los astros. Es la arena que cae en la clepsidra, el tic-tac que no cesa. Cronos pasa y no vuelve, se mide y se pierde. Aión es la duración de la vida, por fuerza incognoscible. Kairós es un diosecillo capaz de enlazar a los dos anteriores porque es el momento presente, el más real. En la traducción literal del griego, Kairós es la oportunidad.

Cada ser humano posee un tiempo delante de sí mismo y un tiempo en su interior, por eso pudo decir Nietzsche: “En un instante feliz está la justificación de todo lo pasado y lo futuro”1. Ese instante del Kairós nos configura como una persona determinada, siempre la misma pero nunca igual".

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DESPERTAR: GLÁNDULA PINEAL, SIMBOLISMO/ FUNCIÓN

DESPERTAR: GLÁNDULA PINEAL, SIMBOLISMO/ FUNCIÓN | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Pero comprender racionalmente no crea ni influye. Ya estaríamos todos en la 5D si fuera así. Todo lo que no se experimenta emocionalmente, no tiene efecto.

Despertar la glándula pineal implica sentir, de forma predominante, que somos los guionistas del argumento.
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Aunque interesante la relación que se muestra entre 'implicación' (despertar) y neurociencia (glándula pineal), me surgen dudas, al profundizar un poco mas, respecto al potencial rigor intelectual que pueda estarse aplicando .

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Teacher's Guide to Digital Citizenship | Edudemic

Teacher's Guide to Digital Citizenship | Edudemic | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

While many Americans are scared, overwhelmed or confused by the Internet and the technology evolving around them, they can’t imagine their lives without it. This survey shows people recognize the importance of improving their software skills and staying safe on the web, and are motivated to master new skills and make themselves more digitally literate.

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However, they are discouraged by time and cost restrictions, not knowing where to turn for help and feeling too embarrassed to admit inadequacies—even though they know these skills could help improve their lives.

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Learn more:

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https://gustmees.wordpress.com/2012/10/11/learning-basics-of-cyber-security-by-easy-to-follow-steps/

 

https://gustmees.wordpress.com/2012/11/29/cyber-hygiene-ict-hygiene-for-population-education-and-business/

 


Via Gust MEES
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Ciudadanía digital y comportamiento en la red... magnífica síntesis visual y post que le acompaña

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Gust MEES's curator insight, April 17, 8:18 PM

While many Americans are scared, overwhelmed or confused by the Internet and the technology evolving around them, they can’t imagine their lives without it. This survey shows people recognize the importance of improving their software skills and staying safe on the web, and are motivated to master new skills and make themselves more digitally literate.

.

However, they are discouraged by time and cost restrictions, not knowing where to turn for help and feeling too embarrassed to admit inadequacies—even though they know these skills could help improve their lives.

.

Learn more:

.

https://gustmees.wordpress.com/2012/10/11/learning-basics-of-cyber-security-by-easy-to-follow-steps/


https://gustmees.wordpress.com/2012/11/29/cyber-hygiene-ict-hygiene-for-population-education-and-business/

Lúcio Botelho's curator insight, April 18, 7:14 AM

Pensar antes de publicar algo !!!!

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8 Strategies To Help Students Ask Great Questions

8 Strategies To Help Students Ask Great Questions | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

"Questions can be extraordinary learning tools.

A good question can open minds, shift paradigms, and force the uncomfortable but transformational cognitive dissonance that can help create thinkers. In education, we tend to value a student’s ability to answer our questions. But what might be more important is their ability to ask their own great questions–and more critically, their willingness to do so."


Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, April 15, 11:05 PM

How do you teach your learners to ask good questions? This post shares many resources to help you learn new skills that will assist you in teaching others.

The post begins with a visual, the Teach Thought Learning Taxonomy, which is a template for critical thinking that looks at cognition across six categories. This is described in depth.

Additional tools shared include:

* Socratic Discussion which includes a video from Tch (the Teaching Channel)

* Paideia Seminar - "an integrated literacy event built around formal whole class dialogue. The purpose for doing Paideia Seminar is to support students’ ability to think conceptually and communicate collaboratively." There is also a video.

* The Question Game (which was shared previously on this Scoop.it)

* Bloom's Taxonomy

* Question Formation Technique - See the visual at the top, or check out their website at The Right Question Institute. If this is of interest to you they are presenting a workshop in Boston in July. Information on this is available at their website.

* Universal Question Stems and Basic Question Stem Examples

This is actually part 2 of a two part post. The first post is A Guide to Questioning in the Classroom.

Mike Clare's curator insight, April 16, 5:16 PM

Great starting point.  

Dorothy Retha Cook's curator insight, April 17, 7:31 AM

SOME TIMES KNOWING THE RIGHT QUESTION TO ASK WILL GET THE RIGHT ANSWER FOR THE PROBLEM YOU ARE TRYING TO SOLVE!!  IF YOU DON'T KNOW WHAT TO ASK YOU MAY NOT GET THE RIGHT ANSWER FOR YEARS BUT THE ANSWER TO THE QUESTION THAT WAS ASKED!?!

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7 Beneficios de la Educación Basada en Competencias (EBC)

7 Beneficios de la Educación Basada en Competencias (EBC) | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

Una iHABLEMOS DE EDUCACIÓN ¿Por qué surge esta tendencia?, ¿Cuál es el rol del profesor?, ¿Hacia donde se dirige la Educación Basada en Competencias?. La Educación Basada en Competencias (EBC) es un mod...


Via Marta Torán
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Interesante informaría,  informe del tecnológico de monterrey y referencias asociadas

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Marta Torán's curator insight, February 13, 1:31 PM

Una infografía, un informe y referencias

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4 Predictions about the Age of Technology-Enhanced Learning

4 Predictions about the Age of Technology-Enhanced Learning | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

I've been thinking about the Arthur C. Clarke quote: "Anyone who can be replaced by a computer should be." and this led me to do some deep thinking about the consequences of technology for education...

enrique rubio royo's insight:

 Ante la robotización y automatización creciente de todo tipo de tareas... y después de mostrar cuatro predicciones en relación a la   'tecnología y el aprendizaje', se plantea  la autora la siguiente pregunta ...

 

"What does that leave for the institution and the instructor?


concluyendo, en relación al rol que el profesor debería tener, ...


"I posit that the role of an educator should shift from instructor to learning coach. A learning coach would focus time and energy on communicating, encouraging, monitoring, setting achievable (but challenging) goals, providing accountability to those goals, and guiding learners to see new insights for connecting concepts. In other words, educators should work with technology to (a) eliminate the repetitive tasks and (b) focus on the relationship-oriented things that improve the learning experience"...


No es fácil, pero inevitable reflexionar y concluir. Modestamente creo.



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Personalize Learning: Infographic: 10 Trends to Personalize Learning in 2015

Personalize Learning: Infographic: 10 Trends to Personalize Learning in 2015 | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Infographic on the 10 Trends to Personalize Learning that
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How to make learning and personal development a regular part of your life | INTO MIND

How to make learning and personal development a regular part of your life | INTO MIND | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Indispensable... perfil eAprendiz

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5 reflexiones sobre el desarrollo de cursos eLearning

5 reflexiones sobre el desarrollo de cursos eLearning | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

Cinco pensamientos que ofrecen refrescantes ideas para la creación de contenido que va más allá de los cursos eLearning convencionales.


Via SHIFT eLearning
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The Best Leaders Are Insatiable Learners

The Best Leaders Are Insatiable Learners | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
You have no excuse for being bored.
enrique rubio royo's insight:

“We have to face the fact that most men and women out there in the world of work are more stale than they know, more bored than they would care to admit,” he said. “Boredom is the secret ailment of large-scale organizations. Someone said to me the other day ‘How can I be so bored when I’m so busy?’ I said ‘Let me count the ways.’ Look around you. How many people whom you know well — people even younger than yourselves—are already trapped in fixed attitudes and habits?”...

 

So what is the opposite of boredom, the personal attribute that allows individuals to keep learning, growing, and changing, to escape their fixed attitudes and habits?... “Personal Renewal,”

 

 

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Personalized PBL: Student-Designed Learning

Personalized PBL: Student-Designed Learning | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Project-based learning may be the best vehicle for personalized learning as teachers move beyond "course-based" approaches and open the way for student-designed curriculum.

 

Not every teacher may be ready to jump into this type of personalization. To make it work, they'll be required to adopt a different teaching role. They'll need strong management skills and a commitment to disruptive innovation. In addition, the current constructs of the education system may hold us back. What if we could make this dream of personalized PBL a reality?


===> I say that we work toward it, creating a push on the system that demands change in the education of our students. <===




Via Amy Burns, Dean J. Fusto, Gust MEES
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Kim Flintoff's curator insight, August 21, 2014 9:13 PM

An art teacher and I (drama teacher) started to use a negotiated approach with students about 15 years ago.  By working with students to be aware of curriculum expectations and discussing "what would this look like" we assisted students with developingntheir own learnign pathways and expressions of their learning - in keeping with the legislated requirements of curriculum.  I've also noted over the years that elements of the International Baccalaureate - particularly the project work from MYP - reflects a similar approach.

Without reference to research literature, I'd speculate that this speaks to engagement, authenticity and relevance... and needn't be confined to K-12 contexts.... well-documented project work could be conducted outside the confines of formal classes and evidenced against formal assessment criteria.

Durriyyah Kemp's curator insight, August 22, 2014 11:10 AM

Project-Based Learning is a great vehicle for allowing student to gain social and emotional learning (SEL) skills.  The five core competency skills for SEL (self-awareness, social awareness, relationship skills, responsible decision-making, and self-management) can be easily integrated into any project-based learning opportunity.

Edgar Mata's curator insight, August 25, 2014 12:48 AM

El alumno determina los proyectos en los cuáles va a trabajar.

 

La gestión es compleja pero los resultados lucen prometedores.

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One Style Does Not Fit All: How Personality Differences Affect Learning

One Style Does Not Fit All:  How Personality Differences Affect Learning | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Share this infographic on your site!
Source: Top10OnlineColleges.org

One Style Does Not Fit All: How Personality Differences Affect Learning


Education is (...)
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Tipos de personalidad (indicadores MBTI) vs estilos de Aprendizaje  vs  modos efectivos de comunicacion... http://www.sociedadytecnologia.org/pages/view/220408/personality-types-vs-learning-styles

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Are We Living In An eLearning Revolution? - eLearning Industry

Are We Living In An eLearning Revolution? - eLearning Industry | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
6 Tips To Engage Passive Learners In eLearning
How To Create A Meaningful eLearning Experience: 6 Tips For eLearning Professionals
5 Tips To Enhance Motivation In eLearning
Why To Use Professional Voice Actors In eLearning
eLearning Interactivity: The Ultimate Guide For eLearning Professionals
enrique rubio royo's insight:

¿Estamos viviendo una revolución en el Aprendizaje en RED (eLearning)?,

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LA ESCUELA DE LA OPORTUNIDAD - Magazine INED21

LA ESCUELA DE LA OPORTUNIDAD - Magazine INED21 | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
MANIFIESTO DE LA ESCUELA DE LA OPORTUNIDAD
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Excelente y auténtica reflexión de la autora.

 

Debemos comprender y ser conscientes de la verdadera dimensión del tiempo, nos dice, la que los griegos denominaban 'Kairós': la oportunidad presente, en cada instante.

 

De ahí y de la generación de significado y valor acumulado durante su experiencia como docente, nos propone a modo de narrativa persuasiva, su 'Manifiesto de la escuela de la oportunidad'.

 

Mi agradecimiento y felicitación pública a la autora, a quien no tengo el gusto de conocer.

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España, bate récord con 29 Pencil Winners en los D&AD

España, bate récord con 29 Pencil Winners en los D&AD | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Este 2015 debemos celebrar el alto nivel de creatividad española en los D&AD con 29 Pencil Winners (lápices ganadores).
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Por medio de  Pedro Villarrubia  he tenido conocimiento de la noticia y la alegría consiguiente. 

 

Pensamiento crítico y creativo en el curriculum... no nos fustiguemos mas de la cuenta y deseemoslo como propósito.

    
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Digital Literacy in America

Digital Literacy in America | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Imprescindible... Lenguaje y Cultura DIGITAL, aprovechar las oportunidades, evitando  los riesgos (Aprender / Enseñar cultura ciudadana digital).

Interesante infografía.

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10 Best Places To Get Free Images

10 Best Places To Get Free Images | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

Where can you find free, good quality images that are cleared to use for your blog posts or social media content?

More and more, you can find images online that allow for use on your blog, or in any creative work, without copyright restrictions or having to pay for licenses.

Searching for stock images can be a difficult and time-wasting task. So take a look at these websites to save you time and possibly frustration.


Via Vicki Kossoff @ The Learning Factor
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Damien O'Dwyer's curator insight, February 12, 6:38 AM

With I.Stock being owned by G.etty now, cost of images rising fast. Here are some free alternatives!

calliope kritikou's curator insight, February 13, 3:31 AM

πολύ αναλυτικό και ενδιαφέρον!

Nedko Aldev's curator insight, February 19, 4:36 AM

 

316
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Connected Mind- A Good Mind mapping app for Teachers and Students ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

Connected Mind- A Good Mind mapping app for Teachers and Students ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

Via Marta Torán
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Marta Torán's curator insight, February 13, 1:47 PM

Una aplicación para realizar Mapas mentales. 

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The Invasive Valley of Personalization

The Invasive Valley of Personalization | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
About 9 months ago, I gave a presentation at the World Future Society Conference called The Promise and Perils of Personalization. After thinking, reading, discussing, and musing about personalizat...
enrique rubio royo's insight:

 Muy interesante reflexión acerca de los peligros y amenazas de la personalización creciente (entendida como monitorización creciente de la actividad personal, basada en los datos que la tecnología actual permite capturar a partir de la interacción del individuo con el medio físico y digital), hasta el punto de que los PLOS (Personal Life Operating System) pudieran gestionar nuestra vida, en todo momento, indicándonos qué toma de decisión sería la mas acertada en cada situación (considerando que se haya alcanzado el almacenamiento del 100%  de nuestros datos personales, previa definición de los patrones personales correspondientes de interacción con el entorno).  Muy interesante  y didáctico el PREZI que se ofrece 'The Promise and Perils of Personalization.'  Muy recomendable reflexión,

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9 easy ways to start living a simpler, more intentional life | INTO MIND

9 easy ways to start living a simpler, more intentional life | INTO MIND | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Cómo llevar a cabo una práctica minimalista en tu vida...

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Storytelling para eLearning: La técnica Flashforward

Storytelling para eLearning: La técnica Flashforward | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
El Storytelling es una técnica poderosa de enseñanza, le recomendamos ponerla en práctica en el desarrollo de sus cursos eLearning.
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The Power of Storytelling in eLearning by Jennifer Neibert : Learning Solutions Magazine

The Power of Storytelling in eLearning  by Jennifer  Neibert : Learning Solutions Magazine | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Artículo sencillo, sintético y bien escrito, que aborda la importancia de incorporar, como estrategia de diseño, el  'storytelling' en el aprendizaje, y que nos dice la conveniencia de complementar la 'ortodoxia instruccional', contando 'situaciones' o historias, con sus personajes y contexto, que sean relevantes, que tengan que ver con la audiencia y que se focalicen en aquello que los estudiantes necesitan aprender o hacer, mostrando el cómo llevarlo a cabo.

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PEDAGOGÍA DE LA FELICIDAD

PEDAGOGÍA DE LA FELICIDAD | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
Pensar en los demás: pedagogía de la felicidad

Via Marta Torán
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Marta Torán's curator insight, August 20, 2014 2:36 AM

Beatriz Montesinos escribe en INED21 un artículo que hace pensar sobre lo que de verdad importa aprender... Muy bueno!

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Metacognition | Center for Teaching | Vanderbilt University

Metacognition | Center for Teaching | Vanderbilt University | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it

"Metacognition is, put simply, thinking about one’s thinking.  More precisely, it refers to the processes used to plan, monitor, and assess one’s understanding and performance. Metacognition includes a critical awareness of a) one’s thinking and learning and b) oneself as a thinker and learner."


Via Beth Dichter
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Excelente post, relativo a la necesidad de incorporar,  en general, 'metacognición' en la actividad de cada sistema social humano (personas, equipos, organizaciones, etc)  y  como consecuencia la importancia de incorporar Metacognición en el Aula, con el objetivo de facilitar la formación de futuros ciudadanos (expertos pensadores y aprendices 'conectados' ), todo ello en el contexto de la era cognitiva y del aprendizaje en red (modelo Suricata, basado en perfiles competenciales... eAprendiz, eEstudiante, eProfesor, eCiudadano). 

 

En particular, el post muestra cómo llevar a cabo, en la práctica, la metacognición del estudiante y del profesor en el aula, aconsejando el desarrollo de una cultura de metacognición en la citada aula ('Deep learning vs surface learning...').

 

Muy recomendable.

 

Figura... from  Metacognitive Learning Skills https://www.epiconline.org/Issues/metacognition/

 

 

 

 

 

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niftyjock's curator insight, July 28, 2014 6:26 PM

Being a man, I'm very poor at reflection, but by breaking it into metacognitive practices helped me think about my thinking. 

David Baker's curator insight, July 29, 2014 6:13 PM
The recommendations for developing a “classroom culture grounded in metacognition” are great teaching insights and this serves as a powerful link to the research. The following excerpt is one nugget."Giving Students License to Identify Confusions within the Classroom Culture:  ask students what they find confusing, acknowledge the difficultiesIntegrating Reflection into Credited Course Work: integrate short reflection (oral or written) that ask students what they found challenging or what questions arose during an assignment/exam/projectMetacognitive Modeling by the Instructor for Students: model the thinking processes involved in your field and sought in your course by being explicit about “how you start, how you decide what to do first and then next, how you check your work, how you know when you are done” (p. 118)

To facilitate these activities, she also offers three useful tables:

Questions for students to ask themselves as they plan, monitor, and evaluate their thinking within four learning contexts—in class, assignments, quizzes/exams, and the course as a whole (p. 115)Prompts for integrating metacognition into discussions of pairs during clicker activities, assignments, and quiz or exam preparation (p. 117)Question"
Ness Crouch's curator insight, April 7, 1:19 AM

Metacognition is one of the hardest aspects of student's learning to get from them. Children find it difficult to communicate about their thinking and teacher's find it difficult to teach these skills. This is well worth a read to help develop our own understanding of metacognition. 

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Socratic Method Research Portal

Socratic Method Research Portal | Pensamiento crítico y su integración en el Curriculum | Scoop.it
The Socratic Method Research Portal is the product of over 30 years of research and experimentation with the Socratic method.
enrique rubio royo's insight:

Why Use the Socratic Method?

         Education is much more than force feeding information to students and measuring how well they regurgitate that information back to us on command. Education is more than teaching the art of complying with minimum requirements. Living is more than survival. The Socratic method is a powerful tool to inspire students to take a deep interest in their own joyously willful education and thriving in life. The Socratic method, within its influence on the structure of communication, inspires people to embrace the importance of their own thinking and doing as they create a future worth living.

         We cannot be content merely fostering the existence of good students, we desperately need excellent citizens. Character traits such as deep curiosity, fearless inquiry, and the passion for gaining understanding and self improvement are a natural result of the successful use of the Socratic method. These traits are developed as students experience regular exposure to parents/guardians and teacher's who are able to engage in a Socratic style of discourse. Such conversations help make better citizens. Socratic inquiry focuses vigorously on thinking about what it means to live well. It lavishes attention on important life questions that everybody needs to consider. As such, it is foundational to human moral development. Vlastos and Graham offer an important insight into the value of the Socratic method: "Why rank that method among the great achievements of humanity? Because it makes moral inquiry a common human enterprise, open to everyone. Its practice calls for no adherence to a philosophical system, or mastery of a specialized technique, or acquisition of a technical vocabulary. It calls for common sense and common speech. And this is as it should be, for how a human being should live is everyone's business."

Gregory Vlastos, & Daniel W. Graham (1971)

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