As is common knowledge by this point, Google uses targeted advertising to power and fund its largely free services (e.g., Gmail, web search, YouTube, Picasa, apps on its Android phones). Instead of charging for those services, Google includes advertisements in its services to generate revenue. To serve ads that are more relevant to the user (and therefore more likely to be clicked, thereby generating more revenue), Google builds a user profile based on how each user interacts with its services. For example, a user who searches for new trucks may receive more ads for trucks, and a user who sends an email or watches a YouTube video about a ski trip may receive more ads about vacation properties in Tahoe. Prior to 2012, Google segregated this customer information by the services they used. Put another way, Google’s services didn’t ‘talk to each other’ in the advertising sense, and a user who searched the web for trucks would not be profiled for that behavior while using Gmail or YouTube. In 2012, Google improved the quality and accuracy of its advertising model by integrating its databases across all of its products and services. By merging this information, Google can profile its users by combining their information (including personally identifiable information, or “PII”) from its many services.