States are sometimes said to have ‘denationalised’ under the pressure of global cities. These cities are no longer integrated with entire national economies. Instead, they form intersections between global cities and transnational actors. They are ‘glocal’, says Erik Swyngedouw – at once global and local. They are turned ‘inside-out’, says Edward Soja – oriented to outside forces, so the outside becomes their own core. They might even have ‘seceded economically’ from the national economy, says Peter Taylor – especially when the latter is in decline.