PE Assignment Teenage Drinking
37 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

Obesity

OBESE Australians would be treated as if they have a disease and have their dietitian, personal trainer and physiotherapist bills subsidised by Medicare, under a radical plan proposed by the nation's top obesity experts.

 

 

Doctors are warning obesity can slash 13 years off a person's life and must be acknowledged as more than just a "lifestyle disorder".

"It's not too dissimilar to having cancer," Monash University Associate Professor John Dixon said.

IS BEING FAT A DISEASE OR A LIFESTYLE CHOICE? COMMENT BELOW

The push to declare obesity a disease and have Medicare rebates on services for sufferers will be discussed at the annual scientific meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Obesity Society, which consists of the top experts in the field, in Sydney this weekend.

FOUR IN 10 AUSTRALIANS DANGEROUSLY FAT - STUDY               

DON'T BLAME PEOPLE FOR BEING FAT - HEALTH EXPERTS               

Endocrinologist Dr Gerry Greenfield, from St Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, who will address the society's meeting, said obese patients simply won't get the Medicare funding they need for access to important health advice unless the condition is given the disease status it deserves.

More than a quarter of Australia's adult population is obese, and another 40 per cent overweight, a more than fourfold increase over the past thirty years.

Dr Greenfield said there was an under appreciation that obesity was "not just a lifestyle disorder but a chronic disease".

The Federal Government currently funds chronic disease management plans for people who have asthma, cancer, diabetes, heart disease and stroke.

But there are no such plans for obesity and although Medicare funds bariatric surgery such as lap bands very few public hospitals provide the surgery with just 10 per cent performed in public hospitals.

"It's been more of a political thing, if you define it as a disease you've got to pay for therapy," Prof Dixon said.

Providing chronic disease management plans for the obese could be very costly with more than five million Australians estimated to be obese.

If every obese Australia had a chronic disease management plan drawn up by a GP it would cost around $700 million, then Medicare would have to fund allied health services required by the plan.

A 50 per cent increase in bariatric surgery in public hospitals has been estimated to cost around $50 million over three years.

However Professor Dixon says it could save money in the long term with new research showing the surgery can reverse diabetes and save lives.

"It is almost negligent not to provide the treatment," he said.

The push comes after the American Medical Association controversially declared obesity a disease earlier this year.

Australian obesity experts are also calling for GPs to weigh patients and measure their waist circumference at every visit in the same way they routinely check blood pressure.

Just 46 per cent of obese patients were correctly categorised as such by their doctors, a University of Newcastle study released earlier this week found.

However, it also follows a study published this month in the American Journal of Epidemiology which showed older people who were overweight and obese were less likely to die than normal weight people who lost weight.

Professor Dixon said mildly obese could have a normal life expectancy but resources need to be focused on the super obese, those with a BMI over 35.

"If you have a condition that interferes with your ability to function, that reduces your length of life, that interferes with your quality of life - it's called a disease," he said.

People with a BMI over 35 have high levels of physical disability, they suffer stress, depression, are likely to have diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnoea and be unable to perform activities essential to daily living, Professor Dixon said.

A US study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found a 20-year-old male with a BMI over 45 faced a 13-year or 22 per cent reduction in life expectancy. For women in the same weight range life expectancy was cut by eight years.

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article talks about obesity and the dangers involved with it. Obesity is a lifestyle disease that effects a lot of Australians. This is a good article.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

PE Lifestyle Diseases

Non-communicable diseases are now the leading cause of death around the world, with developing countries hit hardest, according to a new report from the World Health Organisation (WHO).

WHO says the rise in "lifestyle" diseases can be blamed on tobacco use, poor diet and the harmful use of alcohol, and warns public policies are needed to prevent them.

Dr Ala Alwan, the organisation's director-general for non-communicable diseases, says lifestyle diseases are responsible for 63 per cent of global deaths based on WHO's estimates for 2008.

Dr Alwan 80 says per cent of deaths due to non-communicable diseases are actually taking place in low and middle-income countries.

He says premature death is an issue of major concern.

"What is of concern is the fact that 9 million of the 36 million people who die every year because of non-communicable diseases die before the age of 60 years," he said.

"Premature death and premature illness, disability at a young age has an impact on socioeconomic development. It reduces productivity. It also reduces household income in addition to the enormous negative, enormously negative health impact of non-communicable diseases."

Dr Alwan says non-communicable diseases include all chronic diseases except for HIV-AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.

He says the preventative strategies for non-communicable diseases are more or less the same.

"So we are talking about heart disease and strokes. We are talking about diabetes. We are talking about cancers and we are talking about chronic lung diseases," he said.

"Specifically these four groups of diseases share more or less the same risk factors which are: tobacco use, an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol."

Dr Alwan says the developing world is currently the hardest hit by non-communicable diseases.

He says it relates to the rising level of income and economic drivers such as urbanisation and globalisation.

"Nine out of every 10 deaths that occur before the age of 60 years are actually occurring in low and middle-income countries and there are factors that are driving this change in the pattern of diseases," he said.

"Planned and very often rapid urbanisation, globalisation of trade and marketing and also the aging of populations ... these drivers are causing an increase in the prevalence of risk factors like tobacco use and [unhealthy] diet, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol, which in turn cause higher rates of high blood pressure, higher rates of diabetes, higher rates of raised cholesterol level."

Dr Alwan agrees with the Federal Government's plan to introduce plain packaging for cigarettes.

He says it could be a good model for other countries to follow.

"I think this is very encouraging what Australia is doing and will hopefully be doing very soon in relation to regulations on tobacco use," he said.

"This is why there is a great deal of emphasis in this report on the need for low and middle-income countries to take concrete action and implement similar intervention if they want to see the rate of non-communicable diseases declining."

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article talks about different lifestyle diseases such as heart diseases, tobacoo, cigarettes, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. This also talks about the effects alcohol and smoking has on people and what diseases they would get.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

PE Assignment Sexual Activity and Safe Sex

PE Assignment Sexual Activity and Safe Sex | PE Assignment Teenage Drinking | Scoop.it

In fact its birthrate has tripled in just three years.

Tammy Greenfield isn’t old enough to vote, nor can she drive a car unaccompanied, but she has just become a mum.

This sixteen-year-old is one of many teenagers to become a parent in the NSW/Victoria border town of Wodonga.

 

According to statistics the town is becoming Australia’s teen mum capital.

“Everyone wants to feel older and that's the way they go about it,” Greenfield said.

Her baby girl is one week old.

“I’m over the moon. Honestly it’s the best thing that’s ever happened to me.”

Most Australians are delaying having children, with the average age now 29 for women and 33 for men to have their first child.

But in this town it's become the trend for children to become parents.

Greenfield’s mum Alison says “there are thirteen-year-old girls in Wodonga that've had more sexual partners than me and my friends all put together.”

The fact that her daughter was sexually active came as a complete shock to her mum.

“It was like ‘oh my god you're sixteen, you're in school, and you're pregnant. What do we do?’”

In the last three years the teen mum birth recorded by Albury Wodonga Health has more than tripled, going from 32 to 100.

“Girls just want to do it to be cool and stuff, and it’s like if you're a virgin you're a loser,” said Greenfield.

Her mum sees the pressure that young girls are under. “I've actually heard that from boys. They go and look for the girls with low self esteem and peer pressure them – it’s full on.”

Despite her fast-transition to adulthood, Greenfield says “I feel I've matured a lot more, but I’m still a moody teenager.”

Greenfield and her baby have a lot of family support, with four generations now living under the one roof.

Teegan Jones is another local to become a teen mum.

“I made the choice to have a baby and I love him to pieces. I wouldn’t change him for the world,” she said.

But life is far from easy, caring for fourteen-month-old Jhett and trying to make ends meet.

Jones admits “I had a breakdown yesterday.”

Patience Harrington is from the City of Wodonga Council. She says there isn’t one specific reason for the rise in teen pregnancies.

“I know one issue raised is recreation and lack of things to do,” she said.

Across Australia the national average, according to the Australia Bureau of Statistics, is sixteen teenage births for every 100 babies born.

That's a sharp drop from 1975 when the teenager birth rate was more than 40.

But there are pockets of regional areas that are bucking the trend. In Queensland's north west the teenage birth rate is 95 babies for every 1000 born.

In the far west of New South Wales the rate is more than 42.

It’s over 23 in Victoria's Mallee region, and 31 in the Tasmania's south.

In the north of South Australia it’s more than 45, and 98 in the WA Kimberly region.

In the Northern Territory outback its almost 80.

Social commentator and clinical psychologist Dr Janet Hall says it’s about sticking with your friends. “One of them gets pregnant and the others think ‘well that would be a good idea, i’ll do that too’.

“But even though they're young, I've seen time and time again that the teen mums riss to the occasion.”

Support programs like Link Up Young Parents in Ballarat, run by secondary teacher Peter Iness, is helping teen mums get back to school and beat the welfare cycle.

“We had young mums who’ve gone from a year eight education, and we've been able to get them through university,” Iness said.

With her mum helping babysit, Jones is looking to complete a course in acrylic nails.

“I want to give him the best. I want to be able to give him things that he needs, to be able to put him in sports, and give him a good upbringing,” she said.

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article talks about some statistics that the Australian Bureau of Statistics have found out. It shows that in most areas the average teenage pregnancies has gone down. But in rural areas the trend is not continuing as in rural areas there are more teenage pregnancies than in cities. This also was on Today Tonight which would make more teenagers aware of this issue.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Peter Kyriakoudes from PE Assignment Teenage Drinking
Scoop.it!

Teenage Drinking Articles

Teenagers and alcohol are a deadly mix. More and more teens are finding ways to start drinking at earlier and earlier ages. Just one drink sets a teen up for a downward spiral of wanting to drink more and more. The trouble with teens is that once they decide they want to do something, nothing you say or do is going to keep them from finding a way to do it.

Teen drinking carries so many dangers with it; some of which can be deadly. Knowing the dangers for yourself can help you talk to your teen about them and hopefully keep them away from it. Being a parent is never easy and it certainly doesn’t end once your child starts taking care of himself. Parents need to be more involved than ever during the teen years; being the nosey over-bearing parent is sometimes the only way to make sure that your child does not become headline news.

Their Health

Drinking is detrimental to the overall health of a full grown adult, so just imagine what it is doing to your developing teenager. The teen years are when a lot of major changes take place and growth is developing at a rapid rate. It is during this phase of life when teens start to transition into adulthood. Hormones and changes that they do not quite understand make teens incredibly vulnerable. In a desperate attempt to fit in, they pick up that first drink and set themselves up for a long road of major problems.

Drinking effects nearly every organ; starting with the liver. Not only that, but your teen is growing mentally as well as physically. Drinking during this pivotal time can have major effects on their mental and emotional development. A major health risk that teenage drinking poses is sexuality; when thoughts are jumbled and judgment is clouded, sexual activity adds to the issue. Unprotected sex can lead to a number of health problems for your child. Most parents are only concerned about pregnancy, but aside from that there is a mile-long list of diseases; some that can be fatal.

Their Future

The effects of teenage drinking clearly manifest themselves in your child’s school performance. A once straight-A student can suddenly be failing everything in a short amount of time. Teens are starting to drink as young as 12 and 13 years old; the earlier they start, the more damaging the effects.

Teens who begin drinking while still in Junior High are at a higher risk for academic problems, delinquent behaviors, substance abuse, and violence. Kids and teens were not meant to consume alcohol; their bodies cannot properly process it and their developing minds cannot deal with the altering effects that alcohol has. Teen drinking has the potential to become something that haunts your child for the rest of their life and can be a habit that they never break. Individuals who start drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to become alcohol dependent or full blown alcoholics.

The teenage years are a time of rapid growth and development. Proper care during this time is vital to ensuring a healthy future. The effects of drinking have major behavioral effects on teens and can often cause a permanent change in personality and temperament. Teens are heavily influenced by what their friends are doing and are generally not willing to be the odd one out. Just one drink is often enough to bring your child’s once bright future to a screeching halt. Simply forbidding your child from drinking is not enough. This is one of those instances when you have to be the "mean parent," and do whatever it takes to keep your child away from the influence.

Teens just don’t understand that a few drinks and wild parties now are not worth sacrificing their entire future. It’s a shame to watch so many bright teenagers fall prey to the effects of underage drinking.

Their Life

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that 5,000 teens are dying each year due to the effects of underage drinking. Causes of these fatalities include car crashes, unintentional injury while intoxicated, murders, and suicides. Is this really something you want your teen to be at risk for?

A national US survey shows that over 10 million teens are drinking in the US alone. These teenagers are setting themselves up for a whole host of problems; many of which they probably don’t even understand or realize. Teens are still children; they have their whole lives ahead of them and the decisions that they make now are going to affect the rest of their lives. Drinking leads to academic problems, legal problems, sexuality, and sometimes even death.

Your child’s entire life is on the line when they pick up that first drink. As a parent, you have to do whatever it takes to make sure that you avoid the dangers completely; prevention is much easier than dealing with the aftermath.

 
Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article is about all the different areas that a teenager's life is affected by regular consumption of large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. The three main points are there health, future and life. Their short and long term health can be affected by binge drinking. This might include sexually transmited infections. Depression, alcohol dependent, sucide and other terrible things. Their future is also affected, its being proven that teenagers that binge drink regularly have a poor school peformance and attendance. The third and final point is their life. A American institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that 5,000 teens are dying each year due to underage drinking, whether thats from car accidents, fights or other means. This article tells teenagers that drinking is something that affects every part of your life.

more...
Peter Kyriakoudes's curator insight, May 9, 2013 3:54 AM

This article is telling us what to do as teenager underage. It tells us what might happen to us and our friends around alcohol. I chose this article, because this is a good articles for me because it actually has topics that affects me and other people my age.

Peter Kyriakoudes's curator insight, May 9, 2013 4:01 AM

This is article targeted at teenage girls. Girlfriend magazine made online poll of more than 20,000 girls revealing younger women were consuming alcohol younger than ever before. This article shows that underage drinkers aren't just boys, but a lot of girls drink a lot too. This is good article because it reveals that boys aren't the only ones that drink underage.

Chris reader's curator insight, May 13, 2013 8:20 PM

This Article is showing the satistics of 20,000 girls that have completed a poll on consuming alchol, they have said that "images of britney spears and lindsay lohan intoxicared outside clubs has got to be sending the wrong message" this shows that most teenage girls start drinking becuase they see celebrity's drinking. Within the pole it shows the statistics of tennage drinkers.

 

Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

Teenage Drinking Articles

Have you ever been offered an alcoholic beverage? What about someone saying “Don’t worry, just have one little sip”? Most people have their first drink by the time they’re 13. That first drink can be the start of a troubled life.

Drinking can make teens feel good, but that lasts only a short time. Teenagers on shows like “Gossip Girl” or “Degrassi” get drunk regularly, but those shows rarely ­explore the problems alcohol can cause. ­Alcohol clouds your brain and hinders your ability to make decisions. Excessive drinking literally makes your brain shrink and can cause serious damage. Binge drinking can cause learning disabilities and damage your memory. It distorts your ­vision and leads to blackouts. Teenagers often think that drinking will give you more energy, but alcohol isn’t an energy drink; it’s a depressant.

Drinking alcohol affects your inhibitions and makes you do things you wouldn’t if you were sober. Many girls get pregnant and drop out of school because they make the mistake of drinking too much and having unprotected sex. Twelve percent of 15- to 17-year-olds reported having unprotected sex when drinking or using drugs. Also, 24 percent said that because of drinking or drugs they had “done more” sexually than they had intended. 

Sometimes girls don’t have a choice. Rape also happens when people drink too much. It only takes one night to mess up your life.

Drinking and driving is one of the top causes of death for teen boys. An alcohol-­related motor vehicle crash kills one person every 33 minutes and injures someone every two minutes. The rate of teenagers driving drunk is so high that the government is trying to pass new laws restricting teen driving.

When we get to high school, friends start pressuring us to drink. High school students see alcohol as glamorous and a way to become popular. I created a survey at my school. Twenty-four of the 63 respondents predicted they would drink in high school. Eleven said maybe, and 28 said they don’t plan on drinking. 

Regardless of what they say now, things can change. Teens starting high school want to fit in. They ­often go from being top dog in junior high to being “fresh meat.” Some people will do anything to be accepted, including potentially hurting themselves. They think that one drink won’t do anything. A little bit of alcohol probably won’t kill you, but it can lead to poor decisions.

I’ve been pressured to do many things, ­including drinking. Drinking causes you to be vulnerable; be safe. High school is the time to experiment with what you want to do in life, but if you’re experimenting with alcohol you could hurt someone, including ­yourself.

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article is telling us what to do as teenager underage. It tells us what might happen to us and our friends around alcohol. I chose this article, because this is a good articles for me because it actually has topics that affects me and other people my age.

more...
Peter Kyriakoudes's curator insight, May 9, 2013 4:01 AM

This is article targeted at teenage girls. Girlfriend magazine made online poll of more than 20,000 girls revealing younger women were consuming alcohol younger than ever before. This article shows that underage drinkers aren't just boys, but a lot of girls drink a lot too. This is good article because it reveals that boys aren't the only ones that drink underage.

Peter Kyriakoudes's curator insight, May 9, 2013 4:08 AM

This article is about all the different areas that a teenager's life is affected by regular consumption of large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. The three main points are there health, future and life. Their short and long term health can be affected by binge drinking. This might include sexually transmited infections. Depression, alcohol dependent, sucide and other terrible things. Their future is also affected, its being proven that teenagers that binge drink regularly have a poor school peformance and attendance. The third and final point is their life. A American institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that 5,000 teens are dying each year due to underage drinking, whether thats from car accidents, fights or other means. This article tells teenagers that drinking is something that affects every part of your life.

Chris reader's curator insight, May 13, 2013 8:20 PM

This Article is showing the satistics of 20,000 girls that have completed a poll on consuming alchol, they have said that "images of britney spears and lindsay lohan intoxicared outside clubs has got to be sending the wrong message" this shows that most teenage girls start drinking becuase they see celebrity's drinking. Within the pole it shows the statistics of tennage drinkers.

 

Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

Scientific Article

Avoiding physical exertion, watching sport on television, eating well, enjoying alcohol, smoking cigarettes and being outside in the sun are all part of the Australian way of life, to a greater or lesser extent, for most of us. There is now a solid body of evidence that these so-called ‘lifestyle’ behaviours are major, modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease, and for breast and colon cancer.
National and state government health instrumentalities and key non-government organisations - including the Heart Foundation, Diabetes Australia and the Cancer Councils of Australia - clearly understand the importance of these behavioural risk factors. They identify behaviour change as the central challenge for their preventive strategies. Thus, the discipline and the profession of psychology have much to contribute to disease prevention and health promotion.
Australian health psychologists have made strong contributions to many of the successful preventive health programs that have been carried out in this country. Their contributions have been extremely helpful elements of the body of work that has been done to understand and influence the social, environmental, and public policy factors that act to determine these behaviours in whole populations. Health psychologists have been key members of the teams that have developed effective mass media campaigns, self-help resources, community programs, and environmental and policy initiatives to change these behaviours.
While much remains to be learned about precisely how behaviours act to influence health outcomes, there is now general agreement among public health researchers and health authorities that action is needed on many fronts: large scale, preventive initiatives to influence these behaviours in whole populations are now well-justified by the relevant scientific evidence. Over the past 20 years, we have seen an increasing number of large-scale disease prevention initiatives. These include graphic anti-smoking advertisements on television; mass-media promotions on physical activity; workplace and hospitality-industry bans on smoking; walking and bicycle paths being developed in local communities; and, many other initiatives.
The key questions for continuing to improve on these initiatives are: How may large numbers of people be influenced, in order to make the relevant behavioural changes? How can this be done in ways that are effective and affordable? How do we know if these preventive efforts are making a difference? Thus, the relevant approaches must be evidence-based. Psychological measurement methods and theories of health behaviour change have been impressively influential in shaping the knowledge base that is needed for evidence-based disease prevention and health promotion programs.
While psychology has much to contribute, the development, implementation and evaluation of these large-scale approaches to the prevention of ‘lifestyle’ diseases exceeds the capacities of any single discipline or profession. Consequently, health psychologists working in health promotion and disease prevention carry out their research and engage in practical initiatives as part of interdisciplinary teams.
In universities, health psychologists may be more likely to be found in schools of Population Health, Health Promotion, or Exercise Science, than in schools of Psychology.
In the real world, they work for government and non-government organisations concerned with preventing diabetes, heart disease and cancer. In those practical settings, they research, develop, and evaluate innovative health behaviour change programs and services. In the facilities where health psychologists do their behavioural research studies and where they pursue their practical efforts on important public health initiatives, we also find epidemiologists, nutritionists, exercise scientists, health educators, endocrinologists and other medical specialists, physical educators, and also experts from social marketing, policy analysis and a range of other professions.
Here, I describe a rather idiosyncratic selection of health psychology research, and its applications to public health policy and practice. My aim is to illustrate some of the ways in which health psychology has provided helpful conceptual and methodological guidance, and has helped to develop practical approaches to disease prevention and health promotion. The examples that I use are from my own work, and from a selection of my colleagues, dealing with physical activity and aspects of tobacco control. There is, of course, excellent work by many other Australian health psychologists, in many other areas of health promotion and disease prevention, to which I cannot do justice here.
These somewhat personal examples are intended to highlight how research by psychologists can influence the content and focus of health-behaviour programs; can improve how such programs are planned and delivered; how they may be systematically evaluated; and, how our efforts can also help to influence public-health policy.

Health psychology and behavioural epidemiology
How may we characterise these interdisciplinary domains in which health psychologists make their contributions to disease prevention and health promotion? The five main phases of the ‘behavioural epidemiology’ framework (Sallis & Owen, 1999), developed with my health psychologist colleague James Sallis from San Diego State University, can be helpful for this purpose.

Phase 1: Identify the relevant health-related behaviours Given the large public health investment required for population-wide prevention programs, it is crucial that the relevant behaviours be identified clearly and explicitly. For example, cigarette smoking may appear to be a simple, unambiguous behaviour. However, when we consider variations in patterns of smoking in populations, we find that there are many adults who do not identify themselves as smokers, but who nevertheless regularly consume cigarettes. Occasional smoking, social smoking, or tobacco ‘chipping’ is common among many groups of young adults, that can be a stable pattern of behaviour or can lead to regular, higher rate, dependent smoking. Earlier population-based behavioural studies in South Australia with Melanie Wakefield and colleagues identified some relevant attributes of these groups (Owen, Kent, Wakefield & Roberts, 1995), and have helped to inform how public campaigns and policy initiatives can be pursued. More recent studies from our group in Brisbane, led by Liane McDermott, have focused on life-stage factors and social influences that can shape patterns of tobacco uptake among young adults (McDermott, Dobson & Owen, 2006).
Taking the case of physical activity as another example, it might seem self-evident that ‘exercising’ for fitness is the most relevant behaviour. However, the epidemiological evidence shows that, on a population-wide basis, the greatest preventive gains among adults will result from ‘activating the sedentary’. The goal is to increase the rates of regular, moderate-intensity physical activities, particularly walking, among the more than 50 per cent of Australian adults who are insufficiently active in their leisure time for health benefits (Cerin, Leslie, Bauman & Owen, 2005).
Recent Australian studies have also identified the public health importance of sedentary behaviours as entities distinct from a lack of physical activity (Salmon, Owen, Crawford, Bauman & Sallis, 2003). Using data from the national AusDiab survey, studies with David Dunstan, Jo Salmon and colleagues at the International Diabetes Institute in Melbourne have found abnormal blood glucose levels to be more prevalent among those who watch more than two hours of television a day, independent of their leisure time physical activity levels (Dunstan, Salmon, Owen, Armstrong, Zimmet, Welborn, Cameron, Dwyer, Jolley & Shaw, 2004).

Phase 2: Develop and apply measures of health behaviours in populations It is crucial that we have solid evidence on the population prevalence, trends over time, and the variations within the population in relevant health behaviours. Health psychologists have made important contributions to the development of behavioural risk factor surveillance systems in Australia. This has included state and national surveys on tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and physical activity.
For example, studies led by our epidemiologist colleague Adrian Bauman have provided the basis for local and international population surveillance systems on physical activity. We now have the standard ‘Active Australia’ survey methodology that is used for population surveys and for campaign evaluations (Bauman, Bellew, Owen & Vita, 2001). This measurement methodology identifies moderate- and vigorous-intensity behaviours, plus walking, using brief survey items. It has been built on an analysis of the epidemiological evidence on the most relevant behaviours (Bauman, Owen & Leslie, 2000), and on laboratory and field studies by our team of exercise physiologists, epidemiologists and health psychologists, who have examined the measurement properties of the population survey items used in the Active Australia method (Booth, Owen, Bauman & Gore, 1996).
There is also new evidence on the health-related energy expenditures that are associated with moderate-intensity household and garden tasks; these will be important behaviours to assess in future population studies as rates of sedentary time use and obesity continue to increase (Gunn, Brooks, Withers, Gore, Owen, Booth & Bauman, 2002).

Phase 3: Understand the modifiable determinants of health behaviours If we understand the factors that make it more or less likely that people will engage in health-risk behaviours, then, in order to change the behaviours, we must change the relevant determinants. For example, a recent review led by our exercise scientist colleague Stewart Trost has identified new behavioural studies on the correlates of physical activity participation. These show that confidence about being physically active, plus social norms about physical activity, are both strongly associated with adults being active (Trost, Owen, Bauman, Sallis & Brown, 2002).
Health behaviour theories, particularly social cognitive theory and related models, help us to apply this knowledge from the relevant research on the determinants of behaviour (Sallis & Owen, 1999). For example, using social cognitive theory constructs, studies have found that self-efficacy (confidence) can be enhanced by providing a program that is made up of a series of small steps that lead to gradual success in becoming habitually more physically active (Marcus, Owen, Forsyth, Cavill & Fridinger, 1998). In Australian mass media campaigns on physical activity, particularly those that have targeted middle-aged and older adults, social cognitive theory has been used to guide how carefully selected, moderately overweight older adults may be used in social modelling interventions via television advertisements and in other campaign materials (Owen, Bauman, Booth, Oldenburg & Magnus, 1995).
To comprehensively examine the determinants of health behaviour, broader conceptual models are needed that will help to take into account the multiple levels of influence on health behaviours, and identify how relevant theoretical constructs such as self-efficacy or social support operate in the context of other relevant determinants of behaviour (Sallis & Owen, 2002). Ecological models of health behaviour are helpful for this purpose. These models identify a range of domains of influence on health behaviours: in the beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and skills of individuals; in the proximal social environment; in social norms; in organisational and community social structures; and, in relevant attributes of physical environments (Owen, Humpel, Leslie, Bauman & Sallis, 2004). The determinants of health-related behaviour choices operate at all of these levels, and different factors will act in different ways to influence particular behaviours.

Phase 4: Develop and evaluate population health interventions When we have clearly identified behavioural targets, have good population data on, for example, the social groups who are more likely to smoke or to be physically inactive, and we have an understanding of the determinants of the relevant behaviours, then evidence-based public health interventions can be developed. Such interventions ideally should be able to be made available to large numbers of people at an affordable cost. Mass media campaigns have, in societies like our own, a key role to play in informing people about behavioural health risks, in setting an agenda to change, in influencing social norms, and in drawing attention to the availability of the relevant programs and services.
Mass-reach tobacco control strategies in Australia have made use of innovative combinations of telephone, print, and internet media to deliver health behaviour change programs. These include, for example, the QuitLine, which uses telephone counselling and print materials with behavioural advice for smokers who are trying to quit (Borland, Balmford, Segan, Livingston & Owen, 2003). In Australia, we have high quality smoking cessation materials based on health behaviour theories that are distributed on an as needed basis through health professionals, by mail, or are used as adjuncts to telephone delivered advice. There is also the Quit Coach website (www.thequitcoach.org.au), which generates a unique program for each individual smoker through its internal logic. It is based on a conceptual model of behaviour change developed by health psychologist Ron Borland, to guide the automated delivery of detailed and highly personalised online advice.
For physical activity, printed self-help materials and website programs, based on psychological studies of the determinants of motivational readiness, have been tested in large-scale controlled trials (Marshall, Leslie, Bauman, Marcus & Owen, 2003). Such programs that are being developed and tested for public health implementation in Australia are strongly evidence-based. This is due in large part to the efforts of health psychologists, who together with experts from other disciplines have built a solid knowledge base using the relevant health behaviour theories, and have tested interventions in large-scale controlled trials and in practical evaluation studies.

Phase 5: Inform and shape public-health policy It is crucial that broader use be made of the knowledge gained through defining behaviours, through behaviour risk factor monitoring, through understanding the determinants of behaviours, and through what we have learned from developing and evaluating public health interventions. Health psychologists in Australia have had a strong influence on the public health agenda in several key areas relating to chronic disease prevention.
Health psychology researchers and practitioners have taken on demanding and time consuming service roles in order to translate evidence-based approaches to health behaviour change into public health policy and practice. Individuals and groups of health psychologists can be identified as highly influential in several key areas, particularly so in the field of tobacco control. One such health psychologist is David Hill, AM, Executive Director of the of the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria and President of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), who has made wide ranging contributions to tobacco control research, has chaired national tobacco control initiatives, and has made extensive international contributions to tobacco control research and advocacy. His scientific and policy contributions have been recognised by national and international bodies, including the Australian Psychological Society, through the Ian Matthew Campbell Award.
For physical activity, Australian health psychologists - working in collaboration with epidemiologists, exercise physiologists, and physical educators - have been part of initiatives that have helped to consolidate the evidence base for new physical activity programs and policies. The ‘Getting Australia Active’ document for the National Public Health Partnership (www.nphp.gov.au) is a guide for Australian health promotion practitioners and planners, in developing and delivering evidence-based physical activity programs (Bauman, Bellew, Vita, Brown & Owen, 2002). The challenges for dissemination and diffusion of such evidence-based programs in public health are considerable. Successful dissemination and diffusion requires the practical application of behaviour change principles in organisational and advocacy contexts, as well as in the community and health care settings where programs are delivered (Owen, Glanz, Sallis & Kelder, 2006).
Studies by health psychologist Nancy Humpel at the University of Wollongong, together with the compelling evidence from Billie Giles-Corti’s group in Western Australia (Giles-Corti, Timperio, Bull & Pikora, 2005), have shown how built environment attributes of communities are associated with walking. This evidence is now having a significant influence on the advocacy strategies of non-government bodies. These evidence-based physical activity advocacy efforts aim to shape public policy to positively influence transport infrastructure, urban design, and the provision of local community amenities for physical activity.

Australian health psychology has a healthy future
In Australia, we have made some excellent progress through public policy and environmental initiatives in reducing population smoking prevalence. Cigarette advertising is now banned, exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, hospitality venues and other public places is now uncommon, and cigarette packs now have graphic warning labels. The needs of individual smokers are not ignored: high-quality information and advice via telephone, the internet, and other modalities is available to smokers trying to quit. For physical activity, we still have some way to go as this is a relatively new area of public health research and action, but the knowledge base in Australia for future large-scale physical activity initiatives is well established.
In all of the major tobacco control and physical activity initiatives in Australia, there have been strong and positive influences from the discipline of psychology, and from the practical efforts and resourcefulness of many Australian health psychologists.
While much progress has been made, health psychologists still have many exciting and important opportunities to contribute to reducing the burden of premature death, disability and the impaired quality of life that result from largely preventable chronic diseases. The prevention of these ‘lifestyle diseases’ requires persistent, systematic and specific approaches that are designed to change the relevant behaviours in whole populations. These can be addressed in a disciplined and practically effective fashion, using the conceptual, methodological, and professional tools of our discipline. Psychology has much to contribute, particularly if those contributions are pursued in collaboration with colleagues from other public health disciplines and professions - colleagues who can inform, stimulate and guide us in making the very best use of our relevant knowledge and skills.

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article is about the scientific reasearch in trying to find out about diabetes and other lifestyle diseases. This article was made by a professor which makes this article very trustworthy. This is a very long article and took a while to read it which is the only downfall to this brilliant, ingenious article.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

Female Contraceptions

In the days following the birth of your baby - especially if it is your first - you may find it difficult to imagine ever wanting to have sex again and contraception will, no doubt, be the last thing on your mind.

Despite what you may have heard - that breastfeeding is protection against pregnancy - note that it is not guaranteed. Plus, because your fertile time is two weeks before your period starts, and because your period may not return for between four to 10 weeks (often much longer), there is no reliable way to predict exactly when you will be fertile again.

It is a good idea to discuss contraception options with your GP at your 6-8 week check-up but if have sex before your next period arrives, it's safest to use a simple method of contraception, such as a condom, until you and your partner come to a decision about long-term contraception for the future.

Contraceptive ChoicesCombined Pill

This is over 99% effective and uses a combination of two hormones - progestogen and oestrogen - to prevent ovulation. It is not recommended if you are breastfeeding as it can reduce your milk flow.

Mini Pill

The progestogen-only version of oral contraceptive can be used while breastfeeding and is still 99% effective. It works by thickening the mucus at the entrance to the uterus - preventing sperm from entering.

Condoms

The easiest method for use soon after the birth as using condoms is as simple as remembering to keep a pack handy. To put your mind at ease, used properly, condoms are over 98 per cent effective.

Because many women experience dryness and discomfort after having a baby, it's a good idea to use a lubricating jelly too - just make sure that it is water-soluble and won't damage the condom.

An alternative to a regular male condom is a female condom - known in Australia as Femidom. It works by sitting inside the vagina, around the outside of the labia. If you have had an episiotomy during the birth, or have any tears or bruising, it may not feel comfortable. If used correctly, the female condom is around 95% effective but make sure that, during intercourse, the penis has entered your vagina into the condom, rather than between the condom and your vaginal wall.

Injections

If you don't like swallowing tablets every day, or think that your busy schedule as a mother might make you forget to take it every 24 hours, an alternative to the pill is to have injections.

The injection - known in Australia as Depo-Provera - works by releasing progestogen into the muscle over a period of weeks. Because it only lasts twelve weeks it is important to schedule an appointment for your next injection. Be aware that, although research has shown it doesn't do any harm, small amounts of the progestogen hormone will be passed on to your baby if you are breastfeeding.

If you are planning a pregnancy in the future, note that, after stopping injections, it can take several months before your fertility is back to normal. Irregular bleeding is one possible side-effect.

Implants

Deciding to take this option requires careful consideration as implants offer a long-term contraception solution and can last for around three years - not the right choice if you are planning other children close together.

Under local anaesthetic, a small, thin plastic rod containing the hormone progestogen is inserted into your arm. In Australia, this is known as Implanon.

It works because the hormone is slowly released into the body, preventing eggs from being released, sperm from reaching an egg or an egg settling into the womb. Doctors claim that it won't affect breastfeeding as only a small amount of the hormone goes through to your breast milk. It provides around 99% effectiveness and can be used about 6 weeks after your baby has been born. Not all doctors insert or remove implants so check with your GP before you make your appointment.

Be aware that the implant may shift, under your skin, from its original position. Using implants may cause your period to become irregular or stop altogether.

IUD or IUS System

An IUD is a small plastic and copper intrauterine device (commonly known as Multiload® in Australia), usually shaped like a ‘T', that is fitted into the uterus by a doctor. The fitting of it will only take a couple of minutes and it can stay in place for up to five years.

The IUD has a fine nylon string attached to it which comes out through the cervix. The IUD works by preventing sperm from meeting an egg, or by preventing an egg settling in the uterus. IUDs can be used as an emergency method of contraception within five days of unprotected intercourse, or five days after expected ovulation.

The IUD may be fitted six weeks after having a baby (eight weeks if you had a caesarean) They are 98-99% effective.

In Australia, IUS is commonly known as Mirena - a small, plastic, T shaped device with a cylinder around its stem that releases the hormone levonorgestrel to prevent pregnancy. As it releases hormones, it is referred to as a system - different from the IUD which has no release of hormones.

Just like an IUD, though, the IUS is placed inside the uterus by a doctor and can stay in place for up to five years. Removal is relatively easy, due to the nylon string attached to it. At regular check-ups - initially at six weeks after insertion and then again at one year - the length of the string should be checked to make sure that the IUS has not shifted.

It is over 99% effective and, in some women, using IUS will cause ovulation to stop altogether.

Diaphragms

The diaphragm, or cap, is a circular dome made of rubber, which is fitted over your cervix before having sex. It acts as a barrier to stop sperm getting through to the uterus and should be used with either a spermicide cream, jelly or pessaries, which contain a chemical that destroys sperm. To use one for the first time, you will need to have it fitted by a doctor or nurse to make sure you have the size that's right for you and some instruction on how to use it effectively.

The diaphragm does not affect your menstrual cycle and it may protect against cancer of the cervix. Like other barrier methods, you need only use it when you are sexually active.

The diaphragm must stay in place for six hours after sex and remember that, if you do have sex again before this time is up, you will need to insert more spermicide. For some women, spermicides may cause irritation or an allergic reaction.

If used correctly a diaphragm can be 92% to 96% effective.

Even though you may have been fitted for a diaphragm before, because having a baby may have affected the shape and size of your cervix, you should make an appointment with your GP to check and discuss before using again.

Natural Family Planning

No matter how accurate you believe your fertility charting to be, and how carefully you have pinpointed your fertile days, this is not a 100% reliable method of contraception and works best when trying to conceive, rather than trying not to.

With proper training from a natural family planning expert, though, it can be done and, if adhered to carefully, can be around 98% effective.

Female Sterilisation

This is performed by laparoscopic surgery, where a small incision is made in the lower abdomen in a position where any scarring will be virtually invisible. A portion of the fallopian tubes, which carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus, are then either removed or clamped with a clip, preventing the sperm's path to ever fertilising an egg again. Although the procedure only takes about 15-20 minutes, it does require a hospital stay and some recovery time. Like all surgical procedures, there are some small risks so be sure to ask your doctor to discuss these with you.

Female sterilisation is over 99% effective, does not interfere with sex and is free from hormonal side-effects.

Vasectomy (male sterilisation)

This is a permanent, surgical technique in which the vas deferens (the tubes that carry the sperm) are sealed - ensuring that no sperm are no longer present in semen when a man ejaculates.

Although sperm is still produced by the testicles, its passage to the penis is blocked and it is left to be reabsorbed by the body.

Having a vasectomy has no effect on orgasm, ejaculation, the production of male hormones or sex drive.

This procedure takes about 15-20 minutes and requires some special care in the days immediately following. Be aware that, because sperm can take a few months to disappear from the ejaculatory fluids completely, you should use another method of contraception (condoms) Done properly, it is over 99% effective.

Emergency Contraception

Had unprotected sex,? Had a condom come off or break during intercourse? To help avoid a pregnancy you might not be ready for just yet, ‘emergency' contraception can be taken up to three days (72 hours) after sex. The earlier it is taken after the unprotected sex, the more effective it will be.

Some women experience side-effects, with the most common being nausea and vomiting. Breast tenderness, vaginal bleeding and headaches may also occur but are not as common.

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article is about contraceptions women use. This article also states the pros and cons of using each different type of contraception. It also shows its effictiveness. This article is good because it shows a variety of effective contracpetions that females could use.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Peter Kyriakoudes
Scoop.it!

PE Assignment Sexual Diseases and Safe Sex

The number of teenage mothers has jumped after decades of steady decline and  NSW has had the most significant increase.

The teen fertility rate in NSW rose 15 per cent from 2007 to 2008, according  to the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Nationally, the number of teenagers giving birth rose 10 per cent, from  11,204 to 12,326.

While the increase concerns some health professionals, others say it is in  line with the overall baby boom.

<iframe id="dcAd-1-4" src="http://ad-apac.doubleclick.net/N6411/adi/onl.smh.lands/lands/life;cat1=life;ctype=article;cat=lands;pos=3;sz=300x250;tile=4;ord=9.0107024E7?" width='300' height='250' scrolling="no" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" allowtransparency="true" frameborder="0"> </iframe>

Dr Patricia Weerakoon, co-ordinator of the University of Sydney's graduate  program in sexual health, said teenagers were becoming sexually active earlier  and putting themselves at risk of sexually transmissible illnesses and unplanned  pregnancies.

''The rates of sexually transmissible infections in young people are rising  because they are having unprotected sex. That is also reflected in the rising  number of teenagers having babies.''

While young people are reaching puberty earlier, their brains do not fully  develop until they are in their late teens or early 20s.

''Their hormones are saying they are ready to become sexually active but  their brains won't fully mature for another few years,'' Dr Weerakoon said.  ''Young teenagers do not have a well-developed control mechanism which is why  they engage in risky behaviour. They don't think about the long-term  consequences of their behaviour.

''They go for instant gratification first and don't worry too much about the  long-term consequences of having an unplanned pregnancy.''

Australia's teenage fertility rate of 17 births per 1000 teens is lower than  the rate in the US (51 per 1000), Britain (27 per 1000) and New Zealand (26 per  1000).

But it is higher than many countries including Germany (10 per 1000), France  (eight per 1000) and the Netherlands (four per 1000).

Associate Professor Juliet Richters, of the University of NSW school of  public health and community medicine, said teenagers, particularly those from  lower socio-economic backgrounds, needed more information about sexual  health.

''Australia is only doing medium well in terms of providing support and sex  education to young women,'' she said.

''We are not doing as well as the Netherlands or Scandinavia in terms of  helping teenagers manage sex and fertility.''

She was not alarmed by women in their late teens having babies but said  mothers in their early teens were a cause for concern. ''Young women in the 14,  15, 16-year-old age group who become pregnant tend to be at risk … A lot of them  don't necessarily want to have the baby.''

Medicare data suggests half of all teenagers who conceive do not proceed with  the pregnancy. Up to 60 per cent of those who give birth do not have a male  partner at the time.

NSW Health data shows that teenage pregnancies are clustered in rural and  lower socio-economic areas of Sydney.

The Greater Western Area Health Service has the highest rate of teenage  mothers, recording 8.1 per cent of NSW births, followed by the Hunter and New  England area and the North Coast (both with 6.7 per cent), the Greater Southern  area (6.6 per cent), Sydney West (3.8 per cent), Sydney South West (3.1 per  cent), South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra (2 per cent) and North Sydney and  Central Coast (1.8 per cent).

Suggestions the federal government's $5000 baby bonus may have been  encouraging teenagers to have babies prompted the lump sum payment to be changed  to instalments for mothers aged under 18.

Professor Anthony Smith, from the Australian research centre in sex, health  and society at La Trobe University, said supporting teenage mothers was  important, particularly when it came to helping them complete their  education.

''Programs for young mothers in schools have been running for about 15 years  now,'' he said. ''Before, if a young woman became pregnant while at school that  was the end of her education full stop.

''But over the past decade or so people have moved towards lifelong learning  and a recognition that for many women there will be an interruption to that  process through child-bearing whether it happens earlier in life or later in  life.''

The NSW Education Department has made the successful young mothers program  implemented at Plumpton High School in western Sydney available to all high  schools.

However, most women under 20 who have babies are in their late teens and the  pregnancies may be planned as part of a committed relationship, Professor Smith  said.

''One of the problems is as soon as you mention teen pregnancy everyone  thinks of a 14-year-old when in fact most of the teen pregnancies … occur in the  18, 19-year age bracket.''

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/life/teenage-baby-boom-sparks-call-for-better-sex-education-20100828-13wvc.html#ixzz2iZEZCCGE

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This article is about how more Australian teenagers are having unsafe sex and are getting unplanned babies. This article shows that Australia has to have people more educated about sexual activity in their early teens, espically around poorer areas. This article shows that Australia as a whole around about the average of teenagers having babies. I think that more education is required and that in poorer areas real life examples of teenagers having a unwanted baby should be shown so that teenagers use a method of contraception if they are going to have sex with someone.

more...
Tian Molnar's curator insight, November 25, 2014 10:57 PM

This article is about how more Australian teenagers are having unsafe sex and are getting unplanned babies. The article shows that Australia has to have people more educated about sexual activity in their early teens, espically around poorer areas. This article shows that Australia as a whole around about the average of teenagers having babies. I think that more education is required and that in poorer areas real life examples of teenagers having a unwanted baby should be shown so that teenagers use a method of contraception if they are going to have sex with someone.

Rescooped by Peter Kyriakoudes from PE Assignment Teenage Drinking
Scoop.it!

Teenage Drinking Articles

The online poll of more than 20,000 girls by Girlfriend magazine also revealed young women were consuming alcohol younger than ever before.

Girlfriend deputy editor Erica Bartle said widespread binge boozing was aided by the proliferation of mixed drinks, which teens said taste better, and stars misbehaving.

"Images of Britney Spears and Lindsay Lohan intoxicated outside clubs has got to be sending the wrong message," Bartle said.

Paul Dillon from Drug and Alcohol Research and Training Australia said the survey, which found 49 per cent of teenage girls drank too much at weekends, reflected what he saw among young people.

"Research shows the average age of first drinking is lowering and we see children as young as 11 saying they drink alcohol regularly," Mr Dillon said.

 

When asked the question, "When you head out to party with your girls you . . ." the survey revealed:

30 PER CENT admitted they "get a little too tipsy".

19 PER CENT "get crazy drunk/wasted."

ONLY 17 per cent said they stayed sober because drinking wasn't good for them.

In the article, Point Zero youth workers reported seeing children as young as 12 drinking in public places.

Youth workers said that parents seemed to be oblivious to the drinking.

"Point Zero couldn't fathom why parents aren't more aware of what their teenagers are doing," Bartle said.

Peter Kyriakoudes's insight:

This is article targeted at teenage girls. Girlfriend magazine made online poll of more than 20,000 girls revealing younger women were consuming alcohol younger than ever before. This article shows that underage drinkers aren't just boys, but a lot of girls drink a lot too. This is good article because it reveals that boys aren't the only ones that drink underage.

more...
Peter Kyriakoudes's curator insight, May 9, 2013 3:54 AM

This article is telling us what to do as teenager underage. It tells us what might happen to us and our friends around alcohol. I chose this article, because this is a good articles for me because it actually has topics that affects me and other people my age.

Peter Kyriakoudes's curator insight, May 9, 2013 4:08 AM

This article is about all the different areas that a teenager's life is affected by regular consumption of large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. The three main points are there health, future and life. Their short and long term health can be affected by binge drinking. This might include sexually transmited infections. Depression, alcohol dependent, sucide and other terrible things. Their future is also affected, its being proven that teenagers that binge drink regularly have a poor school peformance and attendance. The third and final point is their life. A American institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that 5,000 teens are dying each year due to underage drinking, whether thats from car accidents, fights or other means. This article tells teenagers that drinking is something that affects every part of your life.

Chris reader's curator insight, May 13, 2013 8:20 PM

This Article is showing the satistics of 20,000 girls that have completed a poll on consuming alchol, they have said that "images of britney spears and lindsay lohan intoxicared outside clubs has got to be sending the wrong message" this shows that most teenage girls start drinking becuase they see celebrity's drinking. Within the pole it shows the statistics of tennage drinkers.