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Epigenetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Epigenetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence; it also can be used to describe the study of stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable.

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Epigenetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Epigenetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence; it also can be used to describe the study of stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable.

G bouts's insight:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  For the unfolding of an organism or the theory that plants and animals (including humans) develop in this way, see epigenesis (biology). For epigenetics in robotics, see developmental robotics.

In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence; it also can be used to describe the study of stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable. Unlike simple genetics based on changes to the DNA sequence (the genotype), the changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype of epigenetics have other causes, thus use of the term epi-(Greek: επί- over, outside of, around) -genetics.[1] In more plain language, epigenetics is the study of changes in the expression of genes caused by certain base pairs in DNA, or RNA, being "turned off" or "turned on" again, through chemical reactions.

The term also refers to the changes themselves: functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlyingDNA sequence. Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These epigenetic changes may last through cell divisions for the duration of the cell's life, and may also last for multiple generations even though they do not involve changes in the underlyingDNA sequence of the organism;[2] instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently.[3] (There are objections to the use of the term epigenetic to describe chemical modification of histone, since it remains unclear whether or not histone modifications are heritable.)[4]

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Epigenetics Helps Explain Early Humans' Appearances - D-brief | DiscoverMagazine.com

Epigenetics Helps Explain Early Humans' Appearances - D-brief | DiscoverMagazine.com | PC | Scoop.it
Reconstructed epigenetics maps of Neanderthals and Denisovans reveal why their appearance and disease risk differ from ours.

Scientists have increasingly realized that DNA is only part of what makes us us — perhaps equally important is how our genes’ activity is modified by a process called epigenetics. Recently this cutting-edge field has turned its attention to some very old DNA: Researchers today announced they have reconstructed methylation maps for our extinct relatives. The findings might explain certain differences in appearances between Neanderthals, Denisovans, and us, as well as the prevalence of disease.

Epigenetics is a branch of science that explores how the expression of our DNA can be influenced by external factors without the DNA itself changing. Research in the field has focused on DNA methylation. This is when a chemical compound called a methyl group attaches to DNA. This can regulate an individual’s genetic expression and even be passed down through generations. DNA methylation has been linked to disease and also to an individual’s appearance and behavior. This is the first time, however, that an archaic pattern of methylation has been reconstructed for early humans.


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Scientists have increasingly realized that DNA is only part of what makes us us — perhaps equally important is how our genes’ activity is modified by a process called epigenetics. Recently this cutting-edge field has turned its attention to some very old DNA: Researchers today announced they have reconstructed methylation maps for our extinct relatives. The findings might explain certain differences in appearances between Neanderthals, Denisovans, and us, as well as the prevalence of disease.

Epigenetics is a branch of science that explores how the expression of our DNA can be influenced by external factors without the DNA itself changing. Research in the field has focused on DNA methylation. This is when a chemical compound called a methyl group attaches to DNA. This can regulate an individual’s genetic expression and even be passed down through generations. DNA methylation has been linked to disease and also to an individual’s appearance and behavior. This is the first time, however, that an archaic pattern of methylation has been reconstructed for early humans.

 

Sensitive Measures

Researchers set out to reconstruct the DNA methylation activity of Neanderthals and Denisovans, two species of archaic human that split from modern humans more than half a million years ago. The researchers could not use methyl measurement techniques that are currently standard procedure in labs because the methods require DNA to be destroyed, an impractical approach when dealing with rare archaic DNA samples.

Instead, the team turned to cytosines, one of the four nucleobases that are the building blocks of DNA. Over time, cytosines naturally decay into other nucleobases: unmethylated cytosines become uracils, while methylated cytosines decay to thymines. Because DNA methylation occurs primarily in cytosines, measuring their rate of decay in the archaic DNA allowed researchers to build a detailed picture of how archaic human DNA had methylated —

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Mother's diet affects the 'silencing' of her child's genes

Mother's diet affects the 'silencing' of her child's genes | PC | Scoop.it
A unique 'experiment of nature' that took place in The Gambia has now revealed that a mother's diet before she conceives has a permanent effect on her offspring's genetics. This is the first time the effect has been seen in humans, and is regarded as a major contribution to the field of 'epigenetics.'

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"While a child's genes are inherited directly from their parents, how these genes are expressed is controlled through 'epigenetic' modifications to the DNA. One such modification involves tagging gene regions with chemical compounds called methyl groups and results in silencing the genes. The addition of these compounds requires key nutrients including folate, vitamins B2, B6 and B12, choline and methionine."

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Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2012 - 2018 - Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Industry Overvi...

Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2012 - 2018 - Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Industry Overvi... | PC | Scoop.it
[112 Pages Premium Report] Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2012 - 2018 - Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Industry Overview, Market Segmentation...

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Transparency Market Research's curator insight, June 28, 2013 6:04 AM

According to a new market report published by Transparency Market Research "Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2012 - 2018," the global epigenetic drugs and diagnostic technologies market was valued at USD 1.6 billion in 2011 and is estimated to reach a market worth USD 5.7 billion in 2018 at a CAGR of 19.4% from 2012 to 2018.

The growth of the epigenetics market is driven by factors such as increase in aging population, as there is a strong correlation between cancer and aging. According to WHO, it is estimated that global population over the age of 60 years would double from 11% (2000) to 22% (2050). People aged 60 and above are more prone to cancer. Hence, countries are advocating early detection of cancer through screening kits (Epi Procolon, Epi ProLung) which are driving the epigenetic drugs and diagnostic technologies market.

 

Browse Report : http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/epigenetics-market.html

 

Epigenetic drugs make it possible to reverse the aberrant gene expression which leads to various disease states. The inhibitors, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) are responsible for regulating the cellular expression. Out of the two inhibitors, DNMT accounts for a larger share as these inhibitors offer an improved access for targeting the cancerous cells. Currently, four drugs are approved by FDA and are commercially available. Two of them are DNMT inhibitors: Celgene's Vidaza (azacitidine) and Eisai's Dacogen (decitabine) for the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and the other two are HDAC inhibitors: Merck's Zolinza (vorinostat) and Celgene's Istodax (romidepsin) both for treatment of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL).

Epigenetics is a rapidly developing field not only in oncology but also in non-oncology indications (Alzheimer's and arthritis). Due to the increase in disease identification, manufacturers are taking initiatives in development of varied epigenetic diagnostic techniques. DNA methylation technique in the diagnostic segment accounts for the largest share as compared to histone modification techniques, as the research on DNA methylation has been carried out since decades, and is thus mostly preferred. Furthermore, with the corresponding advancements in research and technology, histone code hypothesis technique came into existence only in late 1980s. Hence, with the surge in interest, there is also an increase in investment for the research and development of histone modifications.

 

North America accounts for the largest share of the epigenetics market. It is expected that North America will dominate around half of the global epigenetics market due to increasing incidence of cancer and other non-oncology indications. Oncology and other non-oncology indications (Alzheimer's and arthritis) are associated with epigenetics; thus the increasing incidence of cancer supports the growth of the epigenetics market. Asia accounts for nearly half of the new cancer cases worldwide.

The rising incidence of cancer cases in the Asian region would boost the demand for epigenetic drugs and diagnostic technologies in this market. Australia, China, Japan and South Korea are the largest markets for these therapies. Japan dominates the epigenetics market in Asia-Pacific due to a significant presence of companies in the therapeutics segment such as Eisai Pharmaceuticals and Oncolys Biopharma. These companies are taking initiatives for the development and commercialization of epigenetic drugs. Various research institutes and investments from these companies would drive the epigenetics market.

Some of the key players in this market include Celgene Corporation, Merck, Eisai Pharmaceuticals, Exact Sciences, Epigenomics and others. Manufacturers are entering into strategic alliances with numerous research institutions and other players for the development and commercialization of new and innovative drugs, which might see new players in the market looking to carve out a share of the market for themselves.

 

The epigenetics drugs and diagnostic technologies market is segmented as follows:

Epigenetics Drugs Market, by Mechanism of Action DNMT InhibitorsEpigenetics Diagnostic Technologies Market, by Types DNA Methylation

           Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Technology

Epigenetics Technologies Market, by Geography North America, Europe Asia-Pacific,RoW

 

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I AM A {SOCIAL} LIBRARIAN infographic

I AM A {SOCIAL} LIBRARIAN infographic | PC | Scoop.it
Social today means so much more than sending a tweet or posting to Facebook. The social librarian is enmeshed in the fabric of the Internet of Things as curator, educator, filter and beacon. In this complex, dynamic and demanding environment, librarians are extending themselves and empowering library users. In recognition of this, Elsevier's Library Connect Newsletter and Joe Murphy, Librarian & Technology Analyst/Trend Spotter, offer up a visual portrait of The Social Librarian, and invite you to download and post, share on your social streams, and discuss with your library stakeholders.
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The 7th Annual SAPH Pulmonary Hypertension Assembly, 12-14 April 2014 | Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI)

The 7th Annual SAPH Pulmonary Hypertension Assembly, 12-14 April 2014 | Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) | PC | Scoop.it
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Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract

Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract | PC | Scoop.it

Background Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia is a heterogeneous group of defects, characterised by diverse sources of flow of blood to the lungs, which often include multiple systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries. Controversy surrounds the optimal method to achieve a biventricular repair with the fewest operations while basing flow to the lungs on the native intrapericardial pulmonary arterial circulation whenever possible. We describe an individualized approach to this group of patients that optimizes these variables.

Methods Over a consecutive 10-year period, we treated 66 patients presenting with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia according to the source of the pulmonary arterial flow. Patients were grouped according to whether the flow of blood to the lungs was derived exclusively from the intrapericardial pulmonary arteries, as seen in 29 patients, exclusively from systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries, as in 5 patients, or from both the intrapericardial pulmonary and collateral arteries, as in the remaining 32 patients. We divided the latter group into 9 patients deemed simple, and 23 considered complex, according to whether the pulmonary arterial index was greater than or less than 90 millimetres squared per metre squared, and whether the number of collateral arteries was less than or greater than 2, respectively.

Results We achieved complete biventricular repair in 58 patients (88%), with an overall mortality of 3%. Repair was accomplished in a single stage in all patients without systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries, but was staged, with unifocalization, in the patients lacking intrapericardial pulmonary arteries. Complete repair without unifocalization was achieved in all patients with the simple variant of the mixed morphology, and in 56% of patients with the complex variant. The average number of procedures per patient to achieve complete repair was 1, 2.2, 3.8, and 2.6 in patients with exclusively native intrapericardial, simple and mixed, complex and mixed and exclusively collateral pulmonary arterial flow, respectively.

Conclusions An individualized approach based on the morphology of the pulmonary arterial supply permits achievement of a high rate of complete intracardiac repairs, basing pulmonary arterial flow on the intrapericardial pulmonary arteries in the great majority of cases, and has a low rate of reoperation and mortality.


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Epigenetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Epigenetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene activity that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence; it also can be used to describe the study of stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable.

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DNA Methylation

DNA Methylation | PC | Scoop.it
What is DNA Methylation? . DNA methylation is a biochemical reaction that adds a methyl group to DNA nucleotides. The methylation of DNA has been found to alter the expression of genes in cells dur...

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DNA Methylation
BY KLAUS D. LINSE on MAY 15, 2013 • ( 0 )
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What is DNA Methylation?

.

DNA methylation is a biochemical reaction that adds a methyl group to DNA nucleotides. The methylation of DNA has been found to alter the expression of genes in cells during development.

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The DNA in higher eukaryotic cells is known to contain methylated cytosine residues. Most of these methylation sites are found within CG dinucleotides called CpG motifs or elements. The CpG sequence motif is sometimes also called a HTF island and is a classical genetic feature usually found associated with upstream sequence regions of transcriptionally active genes. HTF stands for “HpaII tiny fragments.”

Methylation of Cysteines

Overview of how methylation of cytosines influences biological processes.

The methyl group on cytosine can either directly or indirectly change the DNA biochemistry. The biochemical modifications can serve as molecular signals for chromosome functions. The resulting effects determine development, physiology, and pathology of an organism. (Source: Franchini et al. 2012).

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A HTF island is a tiny DNA fragment, approximately 1000-2000 base pairs long which is usually found associated with expressed genes and is characterized by the relatively rare CpG dinucleotide that occurs unmethylated. Digesting DNA with the restriction nuclease HpaII generates the fragment. For example, chromosome walking together with pulsed field gel electrophoresis allowed to verify the presence of clusters of CpG dinucleotides within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genomic region in the past and there characterization. These findings suggested that a number or multiples of HTF-islands can be present in genetic DNA regions. Scientists now know that CpG islands surround the promoters of housekeeping genes which encode enzymes involved in essential metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and others. There is increasing experimental evidence that indicate that the state of methylation of CpG islands affect the expression of genes. The recognition that the enzymatic methylation of the cytosine base plays a crucial role in the regulation of chromatin stability, gene regulation, parental imprinting, and X chromosome inactivation in females has led to the new scientific field of epigenetics.

Furthermore, the findings that erroneous DNA methylation may lead to cancer, other diseases and is involved in the aging process suggests that this type of methylation is a major important regulatory epigenetic event. Therefore we can conclude that the analysis of the cytosine methylation status is of great importance for our understanding of gene expression and regulation mechanisms.

Structures of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine.

C a mC

The cytosine is methylated at the C5 position: Note that the addition of a methylgroup to the cytosine increases the mass of the base by 14.01565 mass units (Da).

The methylation of the cytosine base on the C5 position was the first identified modification of DNA. This type of methylation has been intensively investigated during the last 40 to 50 years and it has now become clear that the major eukaryotic DNA methyl-transferase, Dnmt1, accurately maintains genome-wide methylation patterns and plays an essential role in the epigenetic network that controls gene expression and genome stability during cellular development. The family of DNA methyltransferases (DNA MTase) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to DNA bases such as cytosine. DNA methylation has now been identified in a wide variety of biological functions. The methyl-group donor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is the donor for all the known DNA methyltransferases.

DNA methylation 1The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) uses S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is the leaving molecule which acts as an inhibitor of the transferase. The methylation metabolism converts SAH back to SAM. DNMT can copy methylation patterns from one strand of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) to the complementary strand thereby maintaining methylation pattern. However, DNMT can also create new methylation patterns. In general, methylation patterns are well maintained in stable differentiated cells in vivo.

SAM (S-adenosylmethionine,or AdoMet) is a methyl donor for many methyltransferases that modify DNA, RNA, histones and other substrates. It is an important cofactor involved in the transfer of a methyl group. The methyl group (CH3) attached to the methionine sulfur atom in SAM is chemically reactive which allows the donation of this group to acceptor molecules. The molecule was first discovered by G. L. Cantoni in Italy in 1952. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and methionine by the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.6). Most SAM is produced and consumed in the liver.

Many metabolic reactions involve the transfer of a methyl group from SAM to various substrates, such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and secondary metabolites. The compound S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) is generated by the demethylation of SAM during the methyl group transfer reaction as shown in the figure below.

SAM t SAHAll these molecules are part of the genetic mechanisms that control replication, transcription and translation fidelity, and are involved in nucleotide pair mismatch repair, chromatin remodeling, epigenetic modifications and imprinting. Furthermore, these are topics of great interest and importance in cancer research and aging.

CpG islands are involved in gene silencing. It has been found that the methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of a gene inactivates the gene. The de-methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of a gene activates the gene. Misregulation of this mechanism in tissue and cells has been implicated to initiate cancer in humans.

The crystal structure of HaeIII methyltransferase convalently complexed to DNA was solved by Reinisch et al in 1995. It revealed the location of the extrahelical cytosine and the rearrangement of DNA base pairing within the active site of the protein.

HaeIII Methyltransferase structure

Structure of the HaeIII Methyltransferase, MMDB ID: 71850. PDB ID: 1DCT. This structural information provides detailed insights into the inner workings and possible regulation of this intriguing enzyme. (Left) The DNA double helix with the flipped out cytosine is shown. (Right) The DNA-enzyme complex is shown. The DNA duplex is bound so that the major groove faces the small and the minor groove faces the large enzyme domain. (Source: Reinisch et al. 1995). The following table lists the molecules and their interactions in the complex.

HaeIII Methyltransferase Interactions

(Source: Pubmed, Structure Database: MMDB ID: 71850. PDB ID: 1DCT)

Many organisms expand the information content of their genome through enzymatic methylation of cytosine residues. Reinisch et al in 1995 reported the 2.8 A crystal structure of a bacterial DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (DCMtase), M. HaeIII, bound covalently to DNA. The structure shows that in the complex, the substrate cytosine is flipped out from the DNA helix and inserted into the active site of the enzyme.The DNA is bound in a cleft between the two domains of the protein and is distorted from the characteristic B-form conformation at its recognition sequence. During the recognition process the remaining bases in its recognition sequence undergo an extensive rearrangement in their pairing in which the bases are unstacked, and a gap 8 Å long opens in the DNA.

More recently the multiple steps of the methyl transfer reaction have been worked out for the related prokaryotic enzymes in molecular detail. Takeshita et al. in 2011 solved the crystal structure of a mammalian Dnmt1 (mouse) that contained the complete catalytic domain and most of the N-terminal regulatory region. The structure revealed the spatial arrangement and possible functional interactions of Dnmt1 domains. The methylgroup transfer reaction involves the flipping out of the target cytosine of the DNA double helix followed by the formation of a covalent complex with the C6 cytosine position to activate the C5 position for transfer of the methyl group from SAM. After that the enzyme is released by β-elimination and the methylated base is flipped back into the DNA double helix. To do this the enzyme requires the N-terminal region for activation. In vivo, Dnmt1 associates with the replication machinery via a PCNA-binding domain (PBD) and a targeting sequence mediates association with heterochromatin. The N-terminal target sequence (TS) was found to be inserted into the DNA-binding pocket of the catalytic domain. Complementary electrostatic surface potentials appear to anchor the TS domain in the catalytic DNA-binding pocket. This structure is further stabilized by specific hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it was found that hydrophobic interactions between the peptide stretch, connecting the TS and the zinc finger (CXXC) domains, and the PCQ-loop at the catalytic center appear to stabilize the position of the TS domain by narrowing the entrance of the DNA-binding pocket. The PCQ loop appears to represent a sequence module for protein−DNA interactions found in methyltransferases.

Selected References

Don-Marc Franchini, Kerstin-Maike Schmitz, and Svend K. Petersen-Mahrt; 5-Methylcytosine DNA Demethylation: More Than Losing a Methyl Group. Annual reviews of genetics. Vol. 46: 419–441.

Carina Frauer and Heinrich Leonhardt; Twists and turns of DNA methylation PNAS 2011 ; published ahead of print May 18, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1105804108.

Jamie A. Hackett, Roopsha Sengupta, Jan J. Zylicz, Kazuhiro Murakami, Caroline Lee, Thomas A. Down, M. Azim Surani; Germline DNA Demethylation Dynamics and Imprint Erasure Through 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine. Science 25 January 2013: Vol. 339 no. 6118 pp. 448-452. DOI: 10.1126/science.1229277

Hussain Z, Khan MI, Shahid M, Almajhdi FN; S-adenosylmethionine, a methyl donor, up regulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in colorectal cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2013 Apr 10;12(2):1106-18. doi: 10.4238/2013.April.10.6.

Reinisch KM, Che

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Epigenetics 101: a beginner’s guide to explaining everything

Epigenetics 101: a beginner’s guide to explaining everything | PC | Scoop.it
Cath Ennis: The word ‘epigenetics’ is everywhere these days, from academic journals and popular science articles to ads touting miracle cures. But what is epigenetics, and why is it so important?

Epigenetics is one of the hottest fields in the life sciences. It’s a phenomenon with wide-ranging, powerful effects on many aspects of biology, and enormous potential in human medicine. As such, its ability to fill in some of the gaps in our scientific knowledge is mentioned everywhere from academic journals to the mainstream media to some of the less scientifically rigorous corners of the Internet.

The basics

Epigenetics is essentially additional information layered on top of the sequence of letters (strings of molecules called A, C, G, and T) that makes up DNA.

If you consider a DNA sequence as the text of an instruction manual that explains how to make a human body, epigenetics is as if someone's taken a pack of highlighters and used different colours to mark up different parts of the text in different ways. For example, someone might use a pink highlighter to mark parts of the text that need to be read the most carefully, and a blue highlighter to mark parts that aren't as important.

There are different types of epigenetic marks, and each one tells the proteins in the cell to process those parts of the DNA in certain ways. For example, DNA can be tagged with tiny molecules called methyl groups that stick to some of its C letters. Other tags can be added to proteins called histones that are closely associated with DNA. There are proteins that specifically seek out and bind to these methylated areas, and shut it down so that the genes in that region are inactivated in that cell. So methylation is like a blue highlighter telling the cell "you don't need to know about this section right now."


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Jumping Genes versus Epigenetics: Driving Evolution | Jon Lieff, M.D.

Jumping Genes versus Epigenetics: Driving Evolution | Jon Lieff, M.D. | PC | Scoop.it
Not mutations in genes, or even mutations in regulatory DNA, but the real drivers of evolution may be jumping genes and epigenetics evolving together.

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Remarkably, bacteria seem to create virus like particles, a piece of DNA or RNA and a protein, with a mechanism to transfer them. One very dramatic mechanism is called the secretion IV systems, and appears like a syringe, almost identical to the phage virus, in order to inject DNA into another cell. With this mechanism, after packing and stuffing the syringe, they can shoot a piece of DNA to another cell.

Some bacteria, under threatening condition, can create their own phage viruses with the purpose of killing another microbe. One study showed that E. Faecalis makes many phage viruses to kill off other competitors.

Bacterial Intelligence and Virus Intelligence

Multiple posts have shown that microbes demonstrate decision making, group communication, even altruism, and have a primitive form of consciousness. A post on viruses shows that viruses also show primitive cognitive processes. Symbiosis has been seen to be ubiquitous in microbes and now with microbes and higher order cells, in eukaryotes basic structure. It is not unreasonable to suppose that this symbiosis occurs also with viruses, viroids, and bacteria.

But, what are viruses? They are strands of RNA or DNA with protein coatings.

What are jumping genes? They are pieces of DNA with the same associated protein enzymes that are needed to copy themselves and move.  

Jumping genes in our chromosomes are in fact, similar to viruses. They are a strand of DNA with associated proteins and enzymes to move and copy themselves just as viruses are. If viruses have a form of cognition, then what about pieces of DNA in our genome that are the major driving forces of evolution?

Jumping Gene Intelligence – Cellular Self Editing

- See more at: http://jonlieffmd.com/blog/jumping-genes-versus-epigenetics-the-real-drivers-of-evolution#sthash.Sm0GSIP1.dpuf

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Professor Mandy MacLean adds to long list of honours with latest ...

Professor Mandy MacLean adds to long list of honours with latest ... | PC | Scoop.it
“Prof MacLean, who directs a research group studying the pharmacology of the pulmonary circulation will examine the roles of serotonin, gender and oestrogen in pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is a disease that causes ...”
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UC Davis library to lead transformation of cataloging

UC Davis library to lead transformation of cataloging | PC | Scoop.it
The University of California, Davis, will lead the way for research libraries to transform how they catalog their collections to improve how online researchers can find and use them, thanks to a half-million dollar grant. UC Davis will work with other national and international institutions involved in library software, standards and practices to provide a route that, like GPS directions, can be recalculated or continuously updated as new data models, standards, workflows and practices evolve. The partner organizations include the Library of Congress, the OCLC global library network, the National Information Standards Organization, Kuali OLE and development partner Zepheira Inc., based in Dublin, Ohio. The project would investigate the entire library operation from initial acquisition or licensing, through cataloging, processing, and digitization, and on to indexing and visualization of the data for search and resource discovery on the Web.
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The 6th National Congress on Pulmonary Embolism and Pulmonary Vascular Diseases & 4th International Symposium on Pulmonary Circulation Disorders | Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI)

The 6th National Congress on Pulmonary Embolism and Pulmonary Vascular Diseases & 4th International Symposium on Pulmonary Circulation Disorders | Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) | PC | Scoop.it
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The Grover Conference

The Grover Conference | PC | Scoop.it
Register for the longest-standing conference on pulmonary circulation, 2013 Grover Conference, Sept 4-8. Info here: http://t.co/9bPEqXGJwq
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good veg by begging bitty buggy hhhujk. Hhhujk buggy fee goths high bbhhhg buggy seer qwer hybridhybrid

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