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Macro encuesta de FRA sobre violencia de género/FRA survey on gender violence

Macro encuesta de FRA sobre violencia de género/FRA survey on gender violence | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2014/03/macro-encuesta-de-fra-sobre-violencia-de-genero/

 

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Los datos objetivos sobre violencia contra las mujeres son alarmantes, deberían serlo y deberían provocar reacciones inmediatas en las distintas administraciones que forman la Unión Europea.

Objective data on violence against women are alarming, and should be and should cause immediate reactions in the various administrations that form the European Union.

 

Las distintas organizaciones que a nivel europeo se encargan de luchar a distintos niveles contra esta lacra, celebran la publicación de los resultados de una macro encuesta a nivel de 42000 mujeres de la Unión Europea (1500 por cada país miembro de la Unión). La encuesta ha sido encargada y realizada por la Agencia de Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión Europea (FRA). Pinchando sobre el enlace, podrán descargar la encuesta completa.

 

Entendemos que se trata de un paso importantísimo, pero quizá se está percibiendo por parte de los profesionales que luchan a pie de calle contra la violencia de género y por la población general, un exceso de optimismo y un triunfalismo algo exagerado ante un indudable logro como es la publicación de datos objetivos comparativos a nivel de toda la Unión, lo que sin duda dará pie a la elaboración de estrategias de lucha contra este mal. No nos quedemos congratulándonos por el camino abierto. Toda nueva vía es inútil si no se recorre. La encuesta es, debe ser, el punto de inicio y no un fin en si mismo.

 

Es posible que la visión con la que hemos recibido en amplia-mente.com los resultados de la encuesta sean un tanto pesimistas, pero tal perspectiva no se debe a otra cosa que la observación de los resultados de la macro encuesta. Datos como:

 

Una de cada tres mujeres europeas haya sufrido violencia física o sexual desde los 15 años. El 22% de mujeres con una relación de pareja presente o pasada haya experimentado esta violencia.Una de cada veinte mujeres mayores de 15 años haya sido violada, solo una da cada tres mujeres agredidas lo haya denunciado si el agresor era la pareja o una cada cuatro si no lo era.El 55% ha sufrido acoso sexual.El 43% de las mujeres ha sido víctima de violencia psicológica.El 33% ha tenido alguna experiencia del tipo de violencia relatada en los puntos anteriores durante la infancia.

 

Lo sentimos, pero es que estos datos no nos permiten compartir el optimismo generado. Es cierto que se trata de una puesta en exposición de una serie de datos espeluznantes, pero si esta publicación no se sigue de compromisos reales mas allá de unas simples propuestas cargadas de buenas intenciones, la encuesta no habrá servido para nada. Visibilidad pública de la violencia de género, el reconocimiento de los múltiples medios por los que es posible el acoso, la preparación de los profesionales, la dotación de las distintas plataformas, las campañas publicitarias y el aliento de la Agencia Europea, son unas intenciones magníficas sobre las que trabajar, pero no hemos leído en ninguna de las noticias publicadas estos días al respecto, el compromiso de ningunos de los gobiernos integrantes de la Unión Europea al respecto de cambios sobre la situación actual.

 

En el otro extremo, el del optimismo, hemos de decir que podemos sentirnos orgullosos en España (desde donde se edita este blog) del nivel legislativo respecto a la lucha contra la violencia de género. La Ley Orgánica 1/2004, de 28 de diciembre, de Medidas de Protección Integral contra la Violencia de Género, ha sido puesta como ejemplo a seguir por los miembros de la agencia. Está claro, que la Ley, tiene flecos que pulir, sobre todo tras casi diez años de andadura, pero el informe generado tras la macro encuesta revela que países aparentemente mas avanzados socialmente hablando, no presentan legislación que siquiera se acerque al concepto de nuestra Ley Integral. Tengamos como ejemplo aportado el hecho de que en Lituania, “la violación dentro de l matrimonio no se considera delito y la mujer tampoco se considera víctima”, según refiere Pierrette Pape, coordinadora del Lobby Europeo de Mujeres.

 

Mientras se publicaban estos “esperanzadores” resultados, hemos de informar con pesar de la muerte de una mujer y su hijo en Sotogrande –Cádiz-, y en menos de 24 horas, de otra en Torremolinos –Málaga-, por parte de su ex pareja.  ¿Qué lectura damos a esto? Este es el motivo del pesimismo con el que hemos iniciado el artículo. Mientras discutimos sobre el origen del mal, tan solo durante la publicación de los resultados de la encuesta, tres personas han perdido la vida. ¿Será útil la encuesta?, pues el futuro lo dirá. Si no se sientan las bases para evitar muertes como estas tres últimas, creemos que no.

 

Como siempre estimados lectores, serán ustedes los que tengan la última palabra. ¿Está justificado el optimismo generado a pesar de los brutales resultados?.

 

Tengan un buen día.

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PATOLOGÍA FORENSE
Patologia forense, Toxicologia forense y Medicina Forense
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No hay peor ciego que el que no quiere ver/There´s none so blind as those that will not see

No hay peor ciego que el que no quiere ver/There´s none so blind as those that will not see | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/no-hay-peor-ciego-que-el-que-no-quiere-ver/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Es imposible o resulta inútil convencer a aquellos que cegados por una postura inamovible sobre cualquier tema se resisten a cambiar su postura. A pesar de lo que pueda parecer tras la lectura de esta entrada, hoy hablamos en torno a la violencia de género.

It is impossible or useless to convince those that blinded by a immovable stance on any topic are reluctant to change its position. In spite of what it may seem after reading this entry, we are talking today about gender-based violence.

Todo parte de la publicación del estudio “la percepción de la violencia de género en la adolescencia y la juventud” por parte del Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas para la Secretaría de Estado de Servicios Sociales e Igualdad del Gobierno de España.

The reflection today starts with the publication of the study “the perception of gender-based violence in adolescence and youth” on the part of the Center for Sociological Research to the Secretariat of State for Social Services and equality of the Government of Spain.

¿Por que mencionamos esta “ceguera” funcional? Por dos motivos. El primero de ellos se encuentra en el propio resultado del estudio. Resulta muy curioso observar como casi la totalidad de los sujetos estudiados considera inaceptable la violencia de género, pero no consideran violencia de género ciertas prácticas en el seno de algunas parejas.

Why do we mention this “blindness” functional? For two reasons. The first of them is in the result of the study. It is very curious to observe how almost all of the subjects considered unacceptable gender-based violence, but do not consider gender-based violence certain practices within some couples.

Es muy preocupante como actitudes físicas, verbales o sexuales son reconocidas como violencia de género y sin embargo conductas de control de la pareja no solo no son percibidas como conductas violentas sino que en el 32% de las chicas jóvenes y el 34% de los chicos lo consideran aceptable en determinadas circunstancias.

It is very disturbing attitudes as physical, verbal or sexual are recognized as gender-based violence and however behaviors of control of the couple not only are not perceived as violent behavior but in 32% of young girls and 34% of the guys the considered acceptable in certain circumstances.

Este dato es sumamente importante. Han sido innumerables las campañas y estrategias desde las distintas administraciones en las que se aborda la violencia de género. No se puede achacar a ninguna administración (de ninguna tendencia política) que no hayan abordado el tema con mayor o menos acierto. ¿Que falla entonces? A nuestro entender aquello en lo que llevamos insistiendo desde el nacimiento de amplia-mente.com, EDUCACIÓN. Se está confundiendo nuevamente instrucción académica y educación. Una forma parte de la otra, pero no implica que por mucha instrucción que se ofrezca a la población, ésta reciba los valores de igualdad que en este caso se pretenden difundir.

This data is extremely important. They have been numerous campaigns and strategies from the different administrations in addressing gender-based violence. No blame attaches to any administration (of any political tendency) that have not addressed the issue with more or less success. What fails then? We understand what we have been insisting since the birth of amplia-mente.com, EDUCATION. Is mistaking again academic instruction and education. One is inside the other, but does not imply that by much instruction that is offered to the population, it is the values of equality that in this case is intended to disseminate.

La educación en igualdad se empapa en la persona desde la cuna. No sirve de nada bombardear a la población con campañas de igualdad, si a la vez que los mas pequeños de la familia ven como de puertas del hogar para adentro se reproducen roles sexistas en los que por el simple hecho de ser hombre o mujer, se pertenece al grupo dominador o al sometido.

The education in values of equality, it soaks in the person from the cradle. There is no point in bombing the population with campaigns of equal, if at the same time that the youngest of the family come as doors for inside the home are reproduced in the sexist roles that for the simple fact of being man or woman, they belong to the dominant group or subject.

Amplia-mente.com se escribe desde España, esto es intrascendente en este caso, pero algunos de nuestros estimados lectores reconocerán “perlas” emitidas en televisión (suponemos que en todos los países pasará igual) como que un niño de doce años diga que no limpia algo que ha ensuciado porque habiendo chicas, ellas se encargan ya que “las mujeres están mejor dotadas genéticamente para limpiar”. Esto, se emitió hace pocas fechas en un programa de la televisión pública española y no es mas que el reflejo de la sociedad en la que vivimos. Ese niño no está “genéticamente programado” para decir frases de ese tipo, sino que las ha escuchado antes u observa conductas que así le hacen pensar. ¿Que puede pasar cuando ese niño pase a ser un adolescente o adulto joven en relación al sexo opuesto?

Amplia-mente.com are typed from Spain, this is irrelevant in this case, but some of our dear readers will recognize moments cast on television (we assume that in all countries will equal) as a child of twelve years say that does not clean something that has been contaminated because having girls, they are responsible for “the women are better equipped genetically to clean”. This episode, was issued a few dates in a program of the Spanish public television and is no more than the reflection of the society in which we live. That child is not “genetically programed” to say phrases of that type, but it has heard before or notes behaviors that make you think. What can happen when that child becomes a teenager or young adult in relation to the opposite sex?

Y si eso es malo, casi peor es que algunas mujeres jóvenes estén de acuerdo con estas aseveraciones o con que su pareja las controle “por amor”, porque eso implica un sometimiento que sufren y además van a transmitir a sus hijas como algo totalmente normal. Desgraciadamente es imposible erradicar una lacra social como es la violencia de género si la población (tanto agresores como víctimas) no reconocen que determinadas conductas abusivas (como es el control de la pareja) constituyen violencia de género y es precisamente la violencia de control la que suele aparecer en primer lugar y una vez instaurada, se constituye como plataforma de acceso a las demás (física, psíquica o sexual).

And if this is bad, almost worse is that some young women are in accordance with these assertions or with your partner the monitor ‘for love,” because that implies a subjection that suffer and will transmit to their daughters as something totally normal. Unfortunately it is impossible to eradicate a social scourge as is gender-based violence if the population (both aggressors as victims) do not recognize that certain abusive behaviors (such as the control of the couple) are gender-based violence and it is precisely the violence of the control that usually appears in the first place and once established, it is constituted as platform for access to the other (physical, mental or sexual).

Al principio de la reflexión de hoy, mencionábamos dos motivos por los que alegábamos a la “ceguera” respecto a la violencia de género. Hemos desarrollado el primero, pero ¿cual es el segundo? A nuestro entender es la tozudez ideológica de nuestros representantes políticos. Resulta totalmente impresentable como en un momento del año en el que se avecinan múltiples citas electorales, representantes políticos de todas las tendencias, se afanan mas en poner el foco de la culpa del fracaso de las políticas de educación en igualdad en los adversarios políticos que en aportar soluciones al problema. Mientras no haya un interés real por parte de nuestros políticos en acabar con esta lacra, difícilmente se injertará en el inconsciente colectivo una verdadera igualdad de género. La eterna lucha entre machistas y hembristas, no es mas que un mero ejercicio de entretenimiento de algunos para autoperpetuarse en situaciones de privilegio.

At the beginning of the reflection today, we mentioned two reasons why we were talking about “blindness” with respect to gender-based violence. We have developed the first, but what is the second? Our view is that the ideological stubbornness of our political representatives. It is totally disgusting as in a time of the year in the upcoming electoral multiple appointments, political representatives of all the trends, juggling more to put the focus of the blame for the failure of education policies in equality in political adversaries who in finding solutions to the problem. As long as there is no real interest on the part of our politicians to put an end to this scourge, it is hardly being enlivened in the collective unconscious true gender equality. The eternal struggle between macho and radical feminists, is no more than a mere exercise of entertainment for some self-perpetuating in situations of privilege.

Dear readers, think about that and to act in conscience to their children.

Good weekend.

Estimados lectores, piensen en ello y actúen en conciencia ante sus hijos.

Buen fin de semana.

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Virtopsias en muertes por sumersión, nuevos datos/Virtopsies in deaths by drowning, new data

Virtopsias en muertes por sumersión, nuevos datos/Virtopsies in deaths by drowning, new data | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/virtopsias-en-muertes-por-sumersion-nuevos-datos/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

El pasado 21 de Julio recogíamos en nuestro blog, amplia-mente.com, la posibilidad de utilizar un TAC en aquellos sujetos fallecidos por sumersión, en el que veíamos  como el estudio que presentábamos en aquel post, tenía un gran problema y es que tan solo han realizado el estudio en 4 cadáveres, por lo que no podíamos considerarlo como definitivo ni concluyente. Hoy traemos nuevos datos.

On July 21st we gathered in our blog, amplia-mente.com, the possibility of using a TAC in those subjects who died by drowning, in which we saw as the study we presented at that post, had a big problem and how only the study have been conducted in 4 bodies, so we could not see it as definitive or conclusive. Today we bring new data.

Como ya decíamos en aquel post, el gran problema que se le presenta al patólogo forense ante un caso de muerte por sumersión, es la de determinar si esta sumersión ha sido vital o no, es decir, si el sujeto cuando cae al agua estaba vivo o ya era cadáver. Clásicamente se han establecido una serie de pruebas o indicadores indirectos, como la presencia de agua del medio de sumersión en duodeno, también se han utilizado como marcadores macroscópicos de vitalidad la presencia de más de 500 ml de agua del medio de sumersión en el interior del estómago, asociado a erosiones o desgarros de la mucosa gástrica. Así mismo la presencia de hemorragias en el oído medio y las celdillas mastoideas son frecuentes en los casos de sumersión si bien no pueden ser consideradas patognomónicas. Por otro lado se han usado algunos datos biológicos como la presencia de diatomeas en el parénquima de algunos órganos (hígado, bazo) o en la médula ósea, si bien su utilidad ha sido puesta en duda en muchas ocasiones.

As we said in this post, the big problem is presented to the forensic pathologist in a case of death by drowning, is to determine whether this submergence has been vital or not, ie, whether the subject when it hits the water was alive or was already dead. Classically established a series of tests or indirect indicators such as the presence of water drowning medium in duodenum, also have been used as markers vitality macroscopic presence of more than 500 ml of water drowning medium inside the stomach, associated with erosions or gastric mucosal lacerations. Also the presence of bleeding in the middle ear and mastoid cells are frequent in cases of drowning although can not be considered pathognomonic. On the other hand there are some biological data used as the presence of diatoms in the parenchyma of some organs (liver, spleen) or bone marrow, although its usefulness has been questioned many times.

En este marco de pruebas complementarias que no pueden garantizar siempre la posibilidad de llegar al diagnóstico correcto, se han publicado varios artículos en los que se propugna la realización de un TAC completo del cuerpo, centrándose en los cambios hallados en el aparto respiratorio y la cabeza, en la caja torácica y en el aparato digestivo. En concreto, traemos hoy a nuestro blog el artículo aparecido recientemente en la revista Forensic Science International, que recoge la investigación de un grupo de patólogos forenses de la Universidad de Gante, titulado “Post-mortem evaluation of drowning with whole body CT“. En ella se recoge una muestra mayor que la anteriormente mencionada, en concreto 41 ahogados y 9 ahorcados. En todos ellos se realizó una Tomografía Axial Computerizada post-mortem en el hospital de referencia, en tres partes diferentes, en una primera se incluía cabeza y cuello, en una segunda parte desde la cabeza a la pelvis y un escáner final desde la pelvis hasta los pies. por último los investigadores procedieron a realizar una reconstrucción de las imágenes multiplanar procediéndose a su estudio por parte de radiólogos y patólogos forenses a doble ciego.

In this framework further tests can not always guarantee the possibility of reaching the correct diagnosis, have published several articles in which performing a full body CT advocates, focusing on the changes found in the respiratory tract and head in the rib cage and in the digestive tract. Specifically, today we bring to our blog article recently appeared in the journal Forensic Science International, which includes the investigation of a group of forensic pathologists at the University of Ghent, entitled “Post-mortem evaluation of drowning With whole body CT“. In it one that the aforementioned bulk sample is collected, namely 41 drowned and 9 hanged. In all post-mortem Computed Tomography was performed at the referral hospital in three different parts, in a first head and neck are included in a second part from head to pelvis and final scan from the pelvis to feet. Finally the researchers proceeded to perform a reconstruction of multiplanar images Provisions are studied by radiologists and forensic pathologists double blind.

Entre los resultados que presentan en el estudio destaca la presencia de un exceso de líquido en los senos paranasales (98%), en la faringe nasal (98%), en la orofaringe (95%), en la tráquea (83%), se apreciaron imágenes en vidrio deslustrado en el pulmón (89%), aumento del líquido pleural (71%) y  del líquido pericárdico (59%), presencia de líquido en esófago (81%), con distensión del estómago (71%), y líquido a nivel duodenal (34%) y distensión yeyunal (31%) se presentaron de forma más frecuente entre los casos de ahogamientos que en los caso del grupo de asfixia mecánica por ahogamiento. En los casos de ahogamiento destaca una hemodilución de la sangre en el 79%. La presencia de una disminución de la densidad en el bazo, indicativo de hemodilución y la detección de un aumento en la cantidad de líquido pericárdico, sólo se ve en las víctimas de ahogamientos.

Among the results presented in the study highlights an excessive fluid in the paranasal sinuses (98%), nasal pharynx (98%), oropharynx (95%), trachea (83%), ground glass opacities in the lung (89%), pleural fluid (71%), pericardial fluid (59%), esophageal fluid (81%), stomach fluid and distension (71%), duodenal (34%) and jejunal distension (31%) were the most frequent drowning related imaging findings which significantly differed from the group of mechanical asphyxia by hanging. In cases of fresh water drowning haemodilution was present in 79%. New and up to now unpublished findings were lower density in the spleen, indicative for haemodilution and detection of a pronounced amount of pericardial fluid, only seen in drowning victims.

With these results, from amplia-mente.com we pose the following questions, should we start using routinely these new complementary tests in our autopsies in everyday?, what cost-benefit ratio would have the use of these tests versus not using them?, Is feasible the practice of postmortem CT in our settings? We will continue alert.

Con estos resultados, desde amplia-mente.com nos planteamos las siguientes preguntas, ¿debemos empezar a utilizar de forma rutinaria estas nuevas pruebas complementarias en nuestras autopsias en el día a día?, ¿qué relación coste-beneficio tendría la utilización de estas pruebas frente a la no utilización de las mismas?, ¿es factible la práctica del TAC postmorten en nuestros entornos? Seguiremos atentos.

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New Insects Revealed in Entomological Decomposition

New Insects Revealed in Entomological Decomposition | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Entomological Society of America

Sebastian Diaz's insight:
Fans of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and similar TV shows know that forensic entomology involves the use of insects and other arthropods in legal matters, including homicide cases. Entomologists who are properly trained can find clues about a corpse — for example, time of death and whether a body has been moved — by observing the insects on and around it. Forensic entomologists rely on certain insects that are typically found on corpses. Blow flies, for examples, can hone in on dead animals and lay eggs within minutes, and forensic entomologists can gather clues by examining the developmental stages of the larvae and the pupae. Dermestid beetles are also associated with dead bodies. In fact, their larvae are sometimes used by museums and by taxidermists to strip the flesh off of bones. A new study published in the Journal of Medical Entomology shows that other insects — ones that are not normally associated with human corpses — also interact with dead bodies, which may provide more clues for forensic entomologists in the future. As part of her master's thesis, Natalie Lindgren, a student at Sam Houston State University, studied cadavers at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and made some unusual observations. In two of the case studies, the researchers observed insect interactions that had not been previously documented on human cadavers. In the first one, scorpionflies (Panorpa nuptialis) were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed cadaver. "It's significant that Panorpidae (scorpionflies) were the first insects to feed upon a freshly-placed corpse," said Dr. Jason Byrd, President-Elect of the North American Forensic Entomology Association, who was not involved with the research. "Entomologists rely on insect succession to help them determine portions of the postmortem interval, and having a study that indicates that Panorpidae are early-arriving species will certainly assist forensic entomologists in their investigations." In another case, Natalie and her colleagues saw a caterpillar (Spodoptera latifascia) in the family Noctuidae chewing and ingesting dried human skin. "The report of the noctuid caterpillar found chewing and ingesting dried human skin is interesting because we need to interpret the various postmortem artefacts that manifest on human remains," said Byrd. "Roaches, ants, crayfish, starfish, bees, and wasps all leave characteristic markings as a result of their scavenging behavior. Knowledge that a noctuid is an opportunistic scavenger will be beneficial to entomologists because the pattern of scavenging is likely different than that of other insects, and it should not be accidentally attributed to a pattern injury from a human perpetrator." 
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FBI Files Tell How Addicted Agent was Able to Get the Drugs

FBI Files Tell How Addicted Agent was Able to Get the Drugs | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Peter Hermann, The Washington Post

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FBI agent Matthew Lowry checked out Item 1B4 from the evidence room at the bureau’s Washington field office on an August morning in 2013. He wrote “to lab” on a log sheet to explain why he was taking drugs that had been seized in an undercover operation dubbed Midnight Hustle. But it was nearly a year later when he delivered the drug package to the lab. For 10 months, court records show, the heroin had gone unaccounted for and unmissed. When the package made it back to the FBI office in September, it weighed 1.1 grams more than when it had been seized. Someone had tampered with the contents, prosecutors said later.Read more.
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A vueltas con el nitroso/Nitrous oxide, again

A vueltas con el nitroso/Nitrous oxide, again | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/3075/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

En alguna ocasión, hemos escrito en este nuestro/su blog, que la nocividad de ciertas sustancias radica mas que en el producto en si, en el uso con el que se consuma. Esta misma idea, ya la plasmó en su momento en Dr. Díaz en el artículoNada es veneno, todo es veneno: la diferencia está en la dosis.

Previously, we have already written in this our/your blog, that the harmfulness of certain substances lies more than a product in itself, in use with the consumed. This same idea, already translated in his time in Dr. Diaz in the article Nothing is poison, everything is poison: the difference is in the dose.

Al respecto de sustancias ideadas con un fin, pero usadas con fines recreativos, les ofrecimos óxido nitroso. Uso como droga recreativa de una sustancia de uso profesional, en el que nos hacíamos eco de una práctica cada vez mas habitual en locales de ocio en los que se ofrece desde los propios negocios el uso de una sustancia legal que usada de un modo para el que no fue comercializada, otorgaba al consumidor unos efectos euforizantes muy atractivos por un bajo precio.

In this regard of substances designed for a purpose, but are used for recreational purposes, we offered them nitrous oxide. Use as recreational drug of a substance for professional use, which we endorsed an increasingly common practice in entertainment places where it is offered from the own business, to use a legal substance that used a mode for which it was not marketed, gave the consumer a euphoriant effects very attractive for a low price.

Hoy les traemos el recuerdo a nuestra mención de hace mas de un año sobre el óxido nitroso debido a la reciente publicación en la revista Biological Psychiatry del artículo Nitrous Oxide for Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: A Proof-of-Concept Trial. Nuevamente vemos como el uso de esta sustancia “todoterreno” se adapta a una situación distinta de aquella para la que hasta hace pocos años era su uso habitual como gas anestésico. En esta ocasión, se vuelve a usar como elemento de apoyo en la praxis médica.

Today we bring you the memory of our mention more than a year ago on the nitrous oxide due to the recent publication in the journal Biological Psychiatry article Nitrous Oxide for Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: A Proof-of-concept Trial. Again we see how the use of this substance “all terrain” fits into a different situation than that for which until a few years ago, it was its typical use as anesthetic gas.

En el estudio ofrecido en el anteriormente enlazado artículo, que por cierto es ofrecido en Open Access por sus autores, se concluye que el óxido nitroso se perfila como una terapia potencial contra la depresión resistente al tratamiento mediante métodos clínicos “habituales”. El óxido nitroso tiene la particularidad farmacocinética de que es eliminado del organismo muy rápidamente. Es por ello que los autores, concluyen que la mejoría sintomática objetivada en los pacientes que recibieron esta nueva terapia , una semana después no se debe a los efectos euforizantes del óxido nitroso sino a una mejoría real de la sintomatología depresiva resistente a otros tratamientos.

In the study offered in the above linked article, offered in Open Access by their authors, it is concluded that the nitrous oxide is emerging as a potential therapy against depression resistant to treatment through “classic” clinical methods. Nitrous oxide has the particularity pharmacokinetics of that is removed from the body very quickly. The authors therefore conclude that the objectified symptomatic improvement in patients who received this new therapy , a week after is not due to the euphoriant effects of nitrous oxide but to a real improvement of depressive symptomatology resistant to other treatments.

Ya vimos en Gases nobles, pero ¿inertes?, como los investigadores van usando este tipo de sustancias tradicionalmente ligadas a la anestesia, como nuevas armas contra alteraciones de índole psiquiátrica. A la inmediatez de acción de los gases implicados, se une una consideración práctica que no es nada desdeñable en tanto este tipo de gases, generalmente van a ser de aplicación ambulatoria pero en el ámbito de un hospital o consulta médica, lo que implica una asistencia del paciente a que le sea administrado su tratamiento y por tanto se asegura una correcta aplicación del mismo y un cumplimiento terapéutico bastante mas exacto en un tipo de pacientes que por concepto pueden presentar un autoseguimiento del tratamiento mas “relajado” o abiertamente incorrecto.

As we saw in noble gases, inert gases?, as the researchers are using this type of substances traditionally linked to the anesthesia, as new weapons against psychiatric disturbances. To the immediacy of action of the gases involved, joins a practical consideration that is not negligible as such gases, usually going to be ambulatory application but in the context of a hospital or physician’s office, which implies assistance the patient that you are given treatment and thus ensures proper application thereof and a rather more accurate adherence to a type of patients that concept may have a self-monitoring of treatment more “relaxed” or outright wrong.

Desde amplia-mente.com nos resultan interesantísimos este tipo de estudios, que si bien no afectan directamente a la praxis habitual de un médico forense, si que deben ser conocidos por todos aquellos cuyas tareas cotidianas estén relacionadas con la medicina legal, en base a que los planteamientos médicos en relación al mundo de la Justicia no son mas que el reflejo de la sociedad que esa Justicia debe arbitrar. Sospechamos que no ha de pasar mucho tiempo hasta que se empiecen a plantear peritaciones en las que se pregunte al médico forense sobre cuestiones en las que una de las vías terapéuticas sea el uso de este tipo de gases que hoy exponemos como novedad clínica, al menos en lo que respecta a sus “nuevos usos”.

From amplia-mente.com, we are very interesting such studies of this type, which while not directly affect the customary practice of a forensic physician, if that should be known by all those whose daily tasks are related to the legal medicine, on the basis that medical approaches in relation to the world of justice are not more than the reflection of the society that justice must arbitrate. We suspect that it will not be long until you begin to raise in the exacting standards that will ask the medical examiner on issues in which one of the therapeutic ways is the use of this type of gases that today we expose as novelty clinic, at least with regard to their “new uses”.

We see, now more than ever, as we must be attentive and open to new ways that are opening in the vast horizon of the medicine. Paracelsus has already pointed out in his time to say that nothing is poison or all can be involved depending on the dosage. Today we see as any substance used in a medical context you may have another application more to the already known, there is only to be found.

Without more than expose on this occasion, we take this opportunity to wish you all a good weekend.

Vemos, ahora mas que nunca, como debemos estar atentos y abiertos a las nuevas vías que se van abriendo en el inmenso horizonte de la medicina. Paracelso ya lo apuntó en su momento al afirmar que nada es veneno o todo puede serlo según la dosis implicada. Hoy vemos como toda sustancia usada en un contexto médico puede llegar a tener otra aplicación mas a las ya conocidas, solo hay que encontrarla.

Sin mas que exponer en esta ocasión, aprovechamos para desearles un buen fin de semana.

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¿Hasta donde vamos a llegar?/How far will we get?

¿Hasta donde vamos a llegar?/How far will we get? | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/hasta-donde-vamos-a-llegar/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Estimados lectores, en este principio de año, en amplia-mente.com queremos hacer una predicción de futuro y trataremos de responder a la pregunta del título, ¿hasta dónde vamos a llegar en las muertes asociadas al consumo de drogas de abuso?

Dear readers, in this beginning of year, amplia-mente.com want to make a prediction for the future and try to answer the title question, how far will we get in deaths associated with drug abuse?

El consumo de sustancia estupefaciente es un grave problema a nivel mundial, se calcula que en 2012 entre 162 y 324 millones de personas, es decir del 3,5% al 7,0% de la población de entre 15 y 64 años, consumieron por lo menos una vez alguna droga ilícita, principalmente sustancias del grupo del cannabis, los opioides, la cocaína o los estimulantes de tipo anfetamínico. El consumo de drogas problemático −por consumidores habituales y personas que sufren trastornos de consumo o dependencia− se mantiene estable en una cifra situada entre los 16 y los 39 millones de personas. Sin embargo, subsisten deficiencias en la prestación de servicios, y en los años recientes solo uno de cada seis consumidores de drogas problemáticos del mundo ha tenido acceso a tratamientos de desintoxicación y deshabituación a estas sustancias.

El consumo de drogas sigue causando un daño considerable, reflejado en la pérdida de vidas valiosas y años productivos de muchas personas. En 2012 la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la droga y el delito (UNODC) informó de un total aproximado de 183.000 muertes relacionadas con las drogas (margen de variación: 95.000 a 226.000). Esa cifra se corresponde con una tasa de mortalidad de 40,0 (margen de variación: 20,8 a 49,3) muertes por millón en la población de entre 15 y 64 años. Aunque ese cálculo es inferior al de 2011, dicha reducción puede atribuirse al número menor de fallecimientos que indicaron algunos países de Asia.

The consumption of psycotropic substance is a serious problem worldwide, it is estimated that in 2012 between 162 and 324 million people, ie from 3.5% to 7.0% of the population between 15 and 64 years, consumed by at least once illicit drugs, mainly cannabis group substances, opioids, cocaine or amphetamine type stimulants. Problematic drug consumption for regular users and people living or dependence use disorders remained stable at a figure lying between 16 and 39 million people. However, there are gaps in the provision of services, and in recent years only one in six problem drug users in the world had access to drug treatment and addiction to these substances.

Drug use continues to cause considerable damage, reflected in the loss of valuable lives and productive year for many people. In 2012 the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reported a total of 183,000 drug-related (variation margin: 95000-226000) deaths approximate. That figure corresponds to a mortality rate of 40.0 (variation margin: 20.8 to 49.3) deaths per million population aged between 15 and 64 years. Although this estimate is lower than in 2011, this reduction can be attributed to fewer deaths than indicated some countries in Asia.

Según el Observatorio Europeo para las drogas y las adicciones, en su informe de 2014, recoge que para el año 2011, la tasa de mortalidad media por sobredosis en Europa se estimó en 18 casos por millón de personas de 15 a 64 años del edad (aunque se notificaron tasas de más de 40 muertes por un millón de personas). La mayoría de los países notificaron una tendencia al alza de las muertes por sobredosis desde 2003 hasta 2008/2009, en el que los niveles se estabilizaron en general y luego comenzaron a disminuir. En conjunto, se notificaron unas 6 500 muertes por sobredosis en 2011, lo que supone un descenso respecto a los 7 000 casos de 2010 y los 7 700 de 2009. En todo caso, la situación varía de unos países a otros y algunos todavía comunican aumentos.

Pero, a la vista de estos datos, nos planteamos la pregunta del título de este post, ¿hasta donde estamos dispuestos a llegar en el número de muertes inútiles y que provocan un grave problema social y económico?

According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addictions, in its 2014 report, reflects that for 2011, the average rate of overdose mortality in Europe was estimated at 18 cases per million persons aged 15 to 64 years of age (although rates of over 40 deaths were reported per million people). Most countries reported an increasing trend in overdose deaths from 2003 to 2008/2009, in which levels stabilized in general and then began to decline. Altogether, about 6500 overdose deaths were reported in 2011, representing a decrease from the 7000 cases, 2010 and 7700 to 2009. In any case, the situation varies from country to country and some still communicate increases.

But, in view of these data, we considered the question in the title of this post, how far are we willing to go in the number of unnecessary deaths and cause serious social and economic problem?

Un artículo recientemente publicado en la revista Injury Epidemiology titulado “Applying Farr’s Law to project the drug overdose mortality epidemic in the United States”, trata de dar respuesta a esta pregunta que nos hacemos hoy en nuestro blog. En dicho artículo se intenta de establecer un modelo matemático en el que se hace una aproximación a lo que puede ocurrir en el futuro en cuanto a las muertes asociadas al consumo de drogas de abuso en la población de Estados Unidos, siempre partiendo de la base de los datos recogidos acerca de estos fallecimientos en los últimos 25 años. El propósito de este estudio es estudiar la trayectoria de la epidemiología de las muertes relacionadas con el consumo de drogas en los Estados Unidos mediante la aplicación de la Ley de Farr y el Bregman-Langmuir (o Ley de Epidemias) en la que se basándose en los datos de mortalidad entre los años 1980 y 2011, se realizan los cálculos para proyectar y extrapolar las tasas de mortalidad anuales por consumo de drogas a partir de 2012 hasta el año 2035.

A recently published in the journal Injury Epidemiology article entitled “Applying Farr’s Law to project the drug overdose mortality epidemic in the United States,” attempts to answer this question we ask today on our blog. In this article attempts to establish a mathematical model in which an approximation of what might happen in the future in terms of deaths associated with drug abuse in the US population, always starting from the base becomes data collected about these deaths over the past 25 years. The purpose of this study is to study the trajectory of the epidemiology of deaths related to drug use in the United States by applying the Law of Farr and Bregman-Langmuir (or Law of Epidemics) which is based on mortality data between 1980 and 2011, the calculations are performed to design and extrapolate annual mortality rates for drug use from 2012 until 2035.

Mortalidad por sobredosis de drogas de abuso en EEUU (extraído de Darakjy et al. Injury Epidemiology 2014, 1:31)

En los resultados de este estudio destaca que desde 1980-2011, la mortalidad anual por consumo de drogas de abuso aumentó de 2,7 a 13,2 muertes por cada 100.000 habitantes y año. La proyección que alcanzaría esta mortalidad, llegaría a su punto máximo en 2016-2017 con 16,1 muertes por cada 100.000 habitantes y año y luego comenzaría a disminuir progresivamente hasta llegar a 1.9 muertes por cada 100.000 habitantes en 2035. Si bien este método puede tener ciertas limitaciones, por ejemplo, la Ley de Farr se ha propuesto para epidemias por enfermedades infecciosas que siguen un patrón establecido, sin embargo no se había aplicado con anterioridad a otras enfermedades o factores de riesgo, por lo que no se tiene claro si los resultados obtenidos podrán ser totalmente fiables. Además esta curva que se obtiene es para una población específica y para unas circunstancias concretas, por lo que el cambio de los datos demográficos o cambios en el área poblacional a la que se apliquen o cualquier otro cambio, como la aparición de nuevas sustancias de abuso o nuevas tendencias en el consumo pueden hacer que los datos estimativos obtenidos no sirvan de nada.

The results of this study noted that from 1980-2011, the annual mortality for drug abuse increased from 2.7 to 13.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The projection would reach this mortality, its peak in 2016-2017 with 16.1 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants per year and then will begin to decline progressively to 1.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in 2035. While this method can have limitations, eg the Act Farr has been proposed to epidemics of infectious diseases that follow a set pattern, but had not been previously applied to other diseases or risk factors, so it is not clear whether the results may be entirely reliable. Besides this curve is obtained for a specific population and particular circumstances, so that changing demographics or changes in the population area to which they apply or any other change, such as the emergence of new substances of abuse or new trends in consumption may cause the estimated data obtained do not serve anything.

Therefore, if we focus strictly to what this study tells us, possibly in two or three years we will reach a high mortality related to drug abuse, but later they will start to decrease progressively following a Gaussian curve to reach minimum again around the years 2034-2035. Another factor that can modify this curve and accelerate the decline in mortality may be the education of our youth and children about drugs and their use. So let’s get to work and make the predictions are fulfilled. We will continue alert.

Por tanto, y si nos acogemos estrictamente a lo que este estudio nos dice, posiblemente en unos dos o tres años alcanzaremos la máxima mortalidad relacionada con el consumo de drogas de abuso, pero que posteriormente van a empezar a decrecer progresivamente siguiendo una curva de Gauss, hasta alcanzar de nuevo mínimos alrededor de los años 2034-2035. Otro de los factores que pueden modificar esta curva y acelerar el descenso de la mortalidad puede ser la educación de nuestros jóvenes y niños acerca de las drogas y de su uso. Por tanto pongámonos manos a la obra y hagamos que no se cumplan las predicciones. Seguiremos atentos.

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Enfermedades neurodegenerativas y delincuencia/Neurodegenerative diseases and crime

Enfermedades neurodegenerativas y delincuencia/Neurodegenerative diseases and crime | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/enfermedades-neurodegenerativas-y-delincuencia/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Retomamos la actividad del blog tras la pausa navideña. Desde amplia-mente.com les damos de nuevo la bienvenida a este espacio común en el que exponer la actualidad informativa médica, en especial la relacionada con el ejercicio de la medicina legal y forense.

We reprise the blog activity after the Christmas break. Since amplia-mente.com them welcome back to this common space in which expose the present medical information, especially those related to the exercise of the legal and forensic medicine.

En no pocas ocasiones hemos traído a las personas mayores al foco de nuestra atención; en la inmensa mayoría de los casos como una realidad social necesitada de protección. Maltrato a ancianos, Alzheimer, Polimedicación o los cuidados generales de la población encuadrada dentro del periodo final de la vida han sido los temas habituales en relación con las personas mayores. Hoy les traemos un enfoque novedoso en la relación del médico legista con el sujeto anciano.

In not a few occasions we have brought to the elderly to the focus of our attention; in the vast majority of cases as a social reality in need of protection. Abuse of the elderly, Alzheimer’s, Polypharmacy or the general care of the population within the final period of life have been the usual subjects in relation to the elderly. Today we bring you a novel approach to the relationship of the forensic physician with the elderly patient.

La evidente y natural disminución de capacidades de las personas mayores las hace especialmente vulnerable a determinadas situaciones adversas, pero un recientísimo estudio publicado en JAMA Neurology, nos muestra como pacientes con determinadas enfermedades neurodegenerativas tambien pueden ser sujetos activos de determinadas conductas delictivas.

The obvious and natural decline of capabilities of the elderly makes it especially vulnerable to certain adverse situations, but a recent study published in JAMA Neurology, shows us how patients with certain neurodegenerative diseases can also be active subjects of certain criminal behavior.

Según el contenido expresado en el artículo Criminal Behavior in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Disease, la alteraciones el funcionamiento de áreas cerebrales implicadas en el pensamiento, emociones, conducta sexual o autoconciencia, entre otros, puede llegar a producir un comportamiento delictivo.

According to the content expressed in the article Criminal Behavior in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, the alterations the functioning of brain areas involved in the thought, emotions, sexual conduct or self awareness, among others, can produce a criminal behavior.

En el estudio, llevado a cabo entre casi 2500 pacientes, en torno al 8,5% de ellos, mostraron un comportamiento compatible con conductas catalogables como delictivas durante el periodo sintomático de sus respectivas patologías. Enfermedad de Alzheimer, demencia fronto temporal, el grupo mas numeroso, afasia progresiva primaria o enfermedad de Huntington constituyeron el universo de estudio reflejado en el artículo.

In the study, conducted among almost 2500 patients, at around 8.5 % of them showed a behavior consistent with criminal behaviors classified as during the symptomatic period of their respective pathologies. Alzheimer’s Disease, fronto temporal dementia, the largest group, primary progressive aphasia or Huntington’s disease were the universe of study reflected in the article.

El artículo refleja dos cuestiones principales a tener en cuenta. Por una parte, la enorme responsabilidad que recae sobre los cuidadores de estas personas que además de ser dependientes padecen un tipo de trastorno que tras la objetivación del estudio mencionado, se constituyen como un riesgo para si mismos y para la sociedad. Robos, transgresiones de tráfico o delitos contra la libertad sexual resultaron los delitos mas comúnmente cometidos por el grupo estudiado.

The article reflects two main issues to take into account. On the one hand, the tremendous responsibility on the caregivers of these persons that in addition to being dependent suffer from a type of disorder that after the objectification of the above-mentioned study, it constitute as a risk for themselves and for society. Theft, traffic violations or crimes against sexual freedom were the most commonly committed offenses by the studied group.

Es precisamente la mención de los tipos delictivos mayormente encontrados por los autores lo que nos lleva a la segunda gran consideración desde el punto de vista médico legal, que no es otra que el estudio de las bases psicobiológicas de la imputabilidad penal. Y es que en pocas ocasiones se encontrará el médico forense con patologías que dando lugar a sintomatología de índole psiquiátrica, sean tan objetivables desde el punto de vista médico. Cuadros de este tipo, evidentemente como todos, han de estar presentes en el momento de la presunta comisión del delito de modo que en condiciones normales y en base a un diagnóstico previo no deberían ser “excusas” propuestas por las defensas de los presuntos delincuentes por si pueden ser usados como “rendija legal” para la atenuación o anulación de la consideración del hecho delictivo.

It is precisely the mention of the criminal types mostly found by the authors which leads to the second great consideration from a medical point of view legal, that is no other than the study of the psychobiological bases of criminal responsibility. And is that on a few occasions you will find the forensic doctor with pathologies that giving rise to symptoms of psychiatric nature, be as objectifiable from a medical point of view. Pathologies of this type, of course as we all have to be present at the time of the alleged commission of the crime so that in normal conditions and on the basis of a previous diagnosis should not be “excuses” proposed by the defenses of the alleged offenders by if they can be used as “legal gap” for the attenuation or the cancellation of the account of the offense.

Como todo avance en el campo de la psiquiatría forense, es muy posible que se preste al uso de modo torticero del lado oscuro del avance publicado; de modo que habrá que discriminar muy celosamente por parte de todos los actores implicados en el proceso penal incoado tras la presunta comisión del hecho, y en especial por parte del médico forense, la veracidad de la comisión del hecho por parte del sujeto afecto de la enfermedad neurodegenerativa de turno.

As progress in the field of forensic psychiatry, it is quite possible that they will provide the use of mode circumvention of the dark side of the forward published; so they have to be discriminating very jealously on the part of all of the actors involved in the criminal proceedings after the alleged commission of the fact, and in particular by the coroner, the veracity of the commission established by the person affected by the shift of neurodegenerative disease.

Es importantísimo por parte del perito médico, la puesta en relación del hecho imputado con el sujeto de estudio. Atendiendo al tipo de patología con la que tratamos, en no pocas ocasiones nos podremos encontrar con hechos que resultan física u operativamente imposible que hayan sido cometidos por individuos que requieran ayuda en las actividades básicas de la vida diaria. No consideremos el avance hoy expuesto como una patente de corso en la que tan solo la alegación de una enfermedad neurodegenerativa suponga un archivo de las diligencias incoadas, pues pudiera pasar que, por ejemplo, en un delito contra la seguridad del tráfico, se pretenda identificar como conductor a un anciano que no es capaz de realizar actividades psicomotrices con un mínimo de eficacia.

It is very important on the part of the medical expert, the implementation in relation to the offense with the subject of study. Depending on the type of pathology with which we are dealing, in not a few occasions we can expect to find with facts that are physical or operationally impossible that have been committed by individuals that require assistance in basic activities of daily living. Do not consider the forward today exposed as a patent of corso in which only the allegation of a neurodegenerative disease suppose a file of the proceedings, it could happen that, for example, in a crime against the security of the traffic, it is intended to identify as a driver for an old man who is not capable of performing psychomotor activities with a minimum of efficiency.

Let us bear in mind, dear readers, that in spite of the download of anguish by responsibility that we assume the increasingly present facts objectification of clinical medical study object of legal, we must not relax the exploratory voltage necessary and required in the case of study of alterations of the criminal responsibility for medical reasons.

 Have a great weekend and a great 2015.

Tengamos en cuenta, estimados lectores, que a pesar de la descarga de angustia por responsabilidad que nos suponga la cada vez mas presente objetivación de hechos clínicos objeto de estudio médico legal, no debemos relajar la tensión exploratoria necesaria y exigible en los casos de estudio de alteraciones de la responsabilidad penal por causas médicas.

Tengan un buen fin de semana y un gran año 2015.

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¡¡¡¡FELIZ NAVIDAD!!!!

¡¡¡¡FELIZ NAVIDAD!!!! | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it
¡¡¡¡FELIZ NAVIDAD!!!! QUE LA MAGIA DE LA NAVIDAD COLME VUESTROS CORAZONES DE PAZ, AMOR Y FELICIDAD. FELIZ NAVIDAD.  
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What are the difficulties in detecting bath salts, their effects and how do we test for them?

What are the difficulties in detecting bath salts, their effects and how do we test for them? | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Dr. Joanne Darragh

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

What are Bath Salts?
"Bath Salts", the newest drug to hit the Web/streets, is the latest addition to a growing list of items that users can obtain to get high. The drug is a synthetic powder which has been developed over the past ten years but grown rapidly in popularity. Due to its synthetic structure, the drug can be easily produced with dealers or users producing the drug in their own home or drug houses. Bath salts are packaged in a powder form in a small plastic or foil packages of 200 to 500 milligrams. They are sold for roughly $20 per package. Most packages are labeled "not for human consumption". The bath salts powder appears white, off-white, or slightly yellow-colored. Dealers sell the drug under various names such as "Ivory Wave," "Purple Wave," "Red Dove," "Blue Silk," "Zoom," "Bloom," "Cloud Nine," "Ocean Snow," "Lunar Wave," "Vanilla Sky," "White Lightning," "Scarface," and "Hurricane Charlie. As these drugs are made in makeshift labs, there is no consistency with the chemicals being used in their production. Most often bath salts contain the chemicals mephedrone, methylone, or 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (known simply as MDPV), but current estimates suggest there may be over 100 different chemicals being marketed as bath salts. With users unaware of what exactly is in these drugs adds to their appeal. With drug dealers producing these in house they are now trying to refine these drugs to give certain effects, causing them to use more drugs which they do not know the dangers of.

Bath salts are typically taken orally, inhaled, or injected, with the worst outcomes being associated with snorting or needle injection.

Effects may occur with doses as low as 3 to 5 milligrams, but average doses range from 5 to 20 milligrams. There is a great risk for overdose because packages may contain up to 500 milligrams. If ingested orally, absorption is rapid with a peak at 1.5 hours with the effect lasting 3 to 4 hours. Like drugs such as Cocaine there is a hard “crash” when the drug wears off.

Users of bath salts have reported experiencing symptoms including headache, heart palpitations, nausea, and cold fingers. Hallucinations, paranoia, and panic attacks have also been reported. News media have reported associations with; violent behavior, heart attack, kidney and liver failure, an increased tolerance for pain, dehydration, and breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. In several cases of suicide in the U.S. and UK drugs which are commonly used in Bath Salts have been found in the toxicology reports.

The Law
The Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act is part of the FDA Safety and Innovation Act of 2012, signed into law by President Obama. The law permanently places 26 types of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). It also doubled the maximum period of time that the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can administratively schedule substances under its emergency scheduling authority, from 18 to 36 months.

The Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act of 1986 allows many synthetic drugs to be treated as controlled substances if they are proven to be chemically and/or pharmacologically similar to a Schedule I or Schedule II controlled substance.

In 2011, DEA exercised its emergency scheduling authority to control three of the synthetic substances used to manufacture synthetic cathinones. In 2012, all but one of these substances were permanently designated as Schedule I substances under the Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act, and the remaining substance was permanently placed into Schedule I by DEA regulation.

At least 44 states have taken action to control one or more synthetic cathinones.

Bath Salts Usage
The American Association of Poison Control Centers statistics shows that in 2011 the amount of cases peaked to 6,137, with cases decreasing in 2012 to 2,691 and 2013 to 996. The reason for the decrease in cases being reported corresponds with the legal implications on the drug. However due to the amount of chemicals being used in the drugs, these are becoming harder to detect. With limited toxicology products available to detect the increased variety in these drugs, detection is rapidly decreasing.

Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2011 National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits reported that from 2009–2011 there was an increase of 38% in visits to the ED relating to illicit drugs.

It has also been reported over the last ten years that there has been a dramatic increase in arrests for illicit drugs in the U.S. From 2002 to 2013 the arrests for possession of synthetic cathinones has increased by 23,000 arrests according to "Crime in the United States 2012 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, September 2013), p. 1.

Detection of Bath Salts
With bath salts being a new product with no exact chemical composition, toxicology companies have struggled to produce a detection technique. As many bath salts are made up of a large drug concoction, with current tests only detecting an individual drug and not a variety of drugs, this also decreases the possibility of detection.

Due to the high demand for detection of these bath salts, brands on the market have begun to step up to the demand. Below is a report which was written about the detection of bath salts and which brands detected the designer drugs. From the findings it shows that the only brand to produce fully comprehensive results for bath salts was the drug specific kit. 

In September 2013 Anthony P. DeCaprio1,2, W. Lee Hearn3, and Madeleine J. Swortwood produced the report Comprehensive Forensic Toxicological Analysis of Designer Drugs. The aim of the report was to evaluate the performance of commercially available screening immunoassays, for detecting a wide range of designer drugs.

In this project, 16 different ELISA reagents from Immunalysis, Neogen, OraSure, and Randox were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of thirty designer drugs, including 24 phenylethylamines (including MDPV and eight cathinone derivatives), three piperazines, and three tryptamines in serum. In addition, two EMIT reagents were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of these same compounds in urine. The study determined the percentage cross-reactivity for the compounds in commercial immunoassays targeting; amphetamine, methamphetamine and/or MDMA, benzylpiperazine, mephentermine, methylphenidate, ketamine, MDPV, mephedrone, methcathinone, PCP, and cotinine. To further examine cross reactivity, serum samples spiked in a blind study were analyzed by ELISA and LC/MS to determine false positives or false negatives that may have occurred and to compare the presumptive ELISA results to confirmatory LC/MS analysis.

Two primary hypotheses were tested in this project: 1) Some amphetamine-like designer compounds would not be detected using conventional assays, even when multiple immunoassay platforms were utilized (i.e., false negatives), and 2) Some designer compounds would be detected in assays that theoretically target only amphetamine and methamphetamine (i.e., false positives). In a working toxicology laboratory, a negative result as in (1) would generally not be further analyzed or confirmed with other methods, with the consequence that the drugs may be overlooked. In contrast, a positive result as in (2) would trigger a confirmatory analysis, although an unknown designer drug would generally not be identified without proper reference standards or a comprehensive chromatographic method. A focus was placed on amphetamine and methamphetamine/MDMA reagents, as one or both of these types of assays are used in routine drug screens by a majority of laboratories. Since presumptive methods, like ELISA and EMIT, are the first line of screening methods for detecting drugs of abuse, it is necessary to understand how these important drugs can be detected, if at all, by currently available immunoassays, even where cross-reactivity is not expected.

Upon analysis by the sixteen ELISA reagents in Task 1, several kits did not exhibit cross-reactivity with any of the analytes of interest: Neogen Ketamine, Neogen Methylphenidate, OraSure PCP, and OraSure Cotinine. This was not unexpected, due to the structural differences between the analytes targeted by the kit and those under investigation here. Upon investigation of the amphetamine-targeting kits, it became apparent that these reagents are quite selective. After examining the analytes of interest by methamphetamine-based reagents, it was evident that the results were comparable to those using kits targeting amphetamine, except with regard to the cathinone derivatives. The Immunalysis Methamphetamine, Neogen Methamphetamine/MDMA, and OraSure Methamphetamine kits displayed positive test results for MDEA, MDMA, and ethyl-amphetamine at low concentrations, with cross-reactivities between 15 and 250%. While cross-reactivity was less than 2% for the cathinone derivatives using the Immunalysis or Neogen methamphetamine reagents, with positive test results at levels of 1,250 ng/mL. The OraSure assay demonstrated greater cross-reactivity for this class of compounds. Positive test results for mephedrone, methcathinone, methylone, 4-MEC, flephedrone, butylone, and methedrone were still observed at concentrations as low as 40–450 ng/mL, with cross-reactivity values in the range of 2–25%.

While these findings indicate that the OraSure methamphetamine reagents are less specific than those from Immunalysis or Neogen, they also demonstrate that this assay kit may be an available screening tool for presumptively detecting “bath salts” in biological fluids at concentrations that can be encountered in forensic specimens, without necessarily targeting overdose levels. It is important to note that the OraSure Methamphetamine kit is designed for screening in oral fluid, so it may not be commonly used by laboratories screening other matrices and may require additional validation. The Randox MDPV kit was extremely selective, with only butylone demonstrating cross-reactivity at levels as low as 150 ng/mL. The Randox Mephedrone/Methcathinone kit was less specific, since the other cathinone derivatives were still positive at 150 ng/mL when compared to the positive cut-off control.

The second hypothesis, i.e. that some designer compounds would be detected in assays that target only amphetamine and methamphetamine, was also confirmed, although cross-reactivity with untargeted drugs was generally limited. MDA, MDMA, ethyl-amphetamine, and AMT demonstrated cross-reactivity at low concentrations, but results were consistent with those published by the manufacturer or as reported in the literature. Cross-reactivity toward the cathinone derivatives was also found to be limited. However, the cathinone derivatives did demonstrate cross-reactivity at low concentrations (<150 ng/mL) when analyzed against the Randox Mephedrone/Methcathinone kit. While this reagent seemed less selective, there was no cross-reactivity with other amphetamine-like compounds. This finding suggests that the Randox kit may be useful for detecting a wide range of “bath salts” in post-mortem specimens, without the usual interference from putrefactive amines formed during decomposition. Overall, a majority of the kits analyzed, particularly those targeting phenethylamines, did not exhibit cross-reactivity with the compounds of interest, particularly the cathinone derivatives.

An important conclusion from this data is that current immunoassay-based screening methods may not be ideal for presumptively identifying most designer drugs, including the “bath salts”. Laboratories should be aware of the issue of cross-reactivity (or the lack thereof) when performing routine screens so that these types of compounds are not overlooked.

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Cocaína y Muerte Súbita/Cocaine and Sudden Death

Cocaína y Muerte Súbita/Cocaine and Sudden Death | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2014/12/cocaina-y-muerte-subita/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Aunque en muchas ocasiones hemos tocado en nuestro blog amplia-mente.com el tema de la cocaína, nos hemos centrado más en aspectos psiquiátricos y de consumo y no tanto en su lesionología cardiovascular, que puede llevar incluso a la muerte súbita.

Although many times we played on our blog amplia-mente.com the theme of cocaine, we focused more on psychiatric and consumer aspects rather than on their cardiovascular lesions, which can even lead to sudden death.

Como decimos, la cocaína ha sido recurrente en nuestro blog, en artículos como “La cocaína ‘enseña’ al cerebro a seguir consumiendo“, “Aprendizaje neuronal y consumo de cocaína” o “Cocaína y biomarcadores, objetividad al fin” hacíamos referencias a aspectos relacionados con los mecanismos de adicción y consumo de la cocaína y de como se produce la adaptación neuronal a dicho consumo, produciéndose los fenómenos de tolerancia y habituación al consumo. Además se recogía en estos post la posibilidad de determinar la adicción al consumo de cocaína mediante la determinación de biomarcadores genéticos. En otras de las entradas, recogíamos la posibilidad de determinar los niveles de cocaína en sangre mediante el estudio de la misma en el aire espirado. Pero como vemos no nos hemos referido en ninguno de los artículos de la relación entre la cocaína y la muerte súbita.

As we say, the cocaine has been an appellant in our blog, in articles as ” The Cocaine ‘teaches’ the brain to continue consuming“, “Learning neuronal and consumption of cocaine” or “Cocaine and biomarkers, objectivity at last” we were referring to aspects related to the mechanisms of addiction and consumption of the cocaine and of since the adjustment takes place neuronal to the above mentioned consumption, producing the phenomena of tolerance to him and habituación to the consumption. In addition there was gathered in these post the possibility of determining the addiction to the consumption of cocaine by means of the determination of genetic biomarkers. In others of the income, we were gathering the possibility of determining the levels of cocaine in blood by means of the study of the same one in the exhaled air. But since we see have not referred in any of the articles of the relation between the cocaine and the sudden death.

La cocaína es la sustancias psicotrópica estimulante más consumida en Europa, según el Observatorio Europeo sobre drogadicción se estima que aproximadamente 2´5 millones de jóvenes la consumen en Europa, aproximadamente 1´9% de la población de esta edad, siendo los países donde más se consume esta sustancia en Reino Unido, España, Dinamarca e Irlanda. Aunque se detecta un pico en el año 2.008 en el número de consumidores, este ha ido disminuyendo desde entonces hasta hoy. Así mismo se han descrito un aumento del número de cuadros cardiovasculares que requirieron atención médica urgente como angor, infarto de miocardio, arritmias o hemorragias cerebrales.

The cocaine is the psychotropic stimulant sustancias most consumed in Europe, according to the European Monitoring Centre of Drugs and Drugs Adicction register that approximately 2 ‘ 5 million young people consume it in Europe, approximately 1 ‘ 9 % of the population of this age, being the countries where more this substance is consumed in United Kingdom, Spain, Denmark and Ireland. Though a peak is detected in the year 2.008 in the number of consumers, this it has been diminishing since then up to today. Likewise there have been described an increase of the number of cardiovascular pictures that needed medical urgent attention as angor, heart attack of myocardium, arrhythmias or cerebral hemorrhages.

A pesar de que se han escrito muchos artículos en las revistas especializadas, sin embargo, los autores describen únicamente los hallazgos patológicos presentes y no proporcionan datos epidemiológicos en relación a la presencia o ausencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular ni de la frecuencia con que se presentan estos cuadros patológicos cardiovasculares. Esta carencia se ha visto suplida por la publicación del artículo “Recent cocaine use is a significant risk factor for sudden cardiovascular death in 15–49-year-old subjects: a forensic case–control study“, publicado por los Médicos Forenses del Servicio de Patología Forense del Instituto de Medicina Legal del País Vasco, junto a otros investigadores de la Universidad del País Vasco, en la revista Addiction.

In spite of the fact that they have written to themselves many articles in the specialized magazines, nevertheless, the authors describe only the pathological present findings and do not provide epidemiological information in relation to the presence or absence of factors of cardiovascular risk not with the frequency with which they present these pathological cardiovascular pictures. This lack has met replaced by the publication of the article “Recent cocaine uses is to significant risk factor for sudden cardiovascular death in 15-49-year-old subjects: to forensic marries control study“, published by the Forensics Doctors of the Service of Forensic Pathology of the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Basque Country, together with other investigators of the University of the Basque Country, in the magazine Addiction.

Los investigadores han recogido las autopsias realizadas en el mencionado Instituto de Medicina Legal, entre Enero de 2.003 y Diciembre de 2.009, en las que se ha producido un cuadro de muerte súbita cardiovascular en sujetos entre 15 y 49 años de edad, desechando todas aquellas muertes súbitas de origen no cardiovascular. En todos estos casos se realizó una autopsia completa con un estudio químico-toxicológico y un estudio histopatológico. Considerándose como consumidores recientes a todos aquellos en los que se obtuvieron resultados positivos a cocaína o a benzoilecgonina en sangre. Así mismo se tuvieron en cuenta otros factores de riesgo de muerte súbita cardiovascular como la obesidad, la hipertensión arterial, la existencia de diabetes mellitus o si el sujeto era o no fumador. Con estos datos, se recogieron 311 casos de muerte súbita cardiovascular y 126 casos de muerte súbita no cardiovascular. Dentro del grupo de las muertes súbitas cardiovasculares, destacan la enfermedad isquémica cardiaca seguida de la enfermedad miocárdica, la enfermedad hemorrágica encefálica y las muertes de origen desconocido. En comparación con los datos estimados de la población general, la prevalencia del consumo reciente de cocaína en las personas con muerte súbita de origen cardiovascular, fue de entre 13 a 58 veces mayor. Además se nos hace ver que en muchas ocasiones los cuadros patológicos cardiovasculares no presentan síntomas durante su vida, siendo en muchas ocasiones la muerte súbita la manifestación inicial de la enfermedad, siendo por tanto muy difícil evitarlas. Por tanto se podrían basar las campañas de prevención de consumo de cocaína en la presencia de esta patología y la posibilidad de la muerte súbita.

The investigators have gathered the autopsies realized in the mentioned Institute of Legal Medicine, between January of 2.003 and December of 2.009, in which there has taken place a picture of sudden cardiovascular death in subjects between 15 and 49 years of age, rejecting all those sudden deaths of not cardiovascular origin. In all these cases a complete autopsy was realized by a chemical – toxicological study and a study histopatológico. being considered to be recent consumers to all those in which positive results were obtained to cocaine or to benzoilecgonina in blood. Likewise there were born in mind other factors of risk of sudden cardiovascular death as the obesity, the arterial hypertension, the existence of diabetes mellitus or if the subject was or not smoker. With this information, there were gathered 311 cases of sudden cardiovascular death and 126 cases of sudden not cardiovascular death. Inside the group of the sudden cardiovascular deaths, they distinguish the disease isquémica cardiac followed from the disease miocárdica, the hemorrhagic encephalic disease and the deaths of unknown origin. In comparison with the information estimated of the general population, the prevalencia of the recent consumption of cocaine in the persons with sudden death of cardiovascular origin, was of between 13 to 58 times major. In addition one makes us see that in many occasions the pathological cardiovascular pictures do not present symptoms during his life, being in many occasions the sudden death the initial manifestation of the disease, being therefore very difficult to avoid them. Therefore there might be based the campaigns of prevention of consumption of cocaine on the presence of this pathology and the possibility of the sudden death.

Who writes today to you, for approximately 10 years tries to make see the doctors dedicated to the treatment of the consumers of drugs of abuse, between them to the consumers of cocaine, the need to realize a cardiological exploration, which at least includes the visit to the cardiologist and the accomplishment of an electrocardiogram, to detect the possible presence of pathological cardiovascular signs that could be the origin of the sudden death between the consumers. The incorporation of this exploration, in spite of treating itself about asymptomatic patients, might perform great importance to detect initial pictures and to avoid the fatal conclusion. From amplia-mente.com we will be alert to this topic.

Este que hoy les escribe, desde hace unos 10 años trata de hacer ver a los médicos dedicados al tratamiento de los consumidores de drogas de abuso, entre ellos a los consumidores de cocaína, la necesidad de realizar una exploración cardiológica, que al menos incluya la visita al cardiólogo y la realización de un electrocardiograma, para detectar la posible presencia de cuadros patológicos cardiovasculares que puedan ser el origen de la muerte súbita entre los consumidores. La inclusión de esta exploración, a pesar de tratarse de pacientes asintomáticos, podría ser de gran importancia para detectar cuadros iniciales y evitar el desenlace fatal. Desde amplia-mente.comseguiremos atentos al tema.

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This is the Maggot: Nature's Crimefighter

This is the Maggot: Nature's Crimefighter | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

WBIR

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

In criminal investigations, each piece of evidence gets law enforcement one step closer to solving the crime. A laboratory at Texas A&M University is one of a few in the country able to help them do that, with bugs. They work with flies and maggots, nature's "recyclers."

 Meaghan Pimsler's curiosity for bugs started at a young age. The Ph.D. candidate at Texas A&M decided to study bugs to help people. "We're talking about justice, and service to the people of Texas and the United States," says Pimsler. "We're talking about somebody going free who may of done it, or somebody going to jail for something they haven't done." "I'm training individuals to help society," said Associate Prof. Jeff Tomberlin. "We attempt to understand how people die or when they die, to help solve crimes." Tomberlin oversees the FLIES facility at the university.They help law enforcement better understand insect evidence in criminal investigations. Tomberlin has worked on 90 to 100 cases from around the country, ranging from serial killings to neglect cases. 
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DNA Analysis Identifies Bone Fragment as that of Missing Mexican Student

DNA Analysis Identifies Bone Fragment as that of Missing Mexican Student | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

The New York Times

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

The blur of scientific talk from the investigators washed over him — something about a bone fragment, DNA testing, probability — as he sat dazed in an abandoned classroom at the teachers college his son attended.

But Ezequiel Mora — who, like other parents of the college’s missing students, had been waiting weeks for word of their children — wanted to know only one thing: Was his son Alexander, a 19-year-old who had sought escape from the farming life to become a teacher, dead or not?

“I stopped them and asked them to give it to me straight,” he said Sunday at his home here, referring to his meeting late Friday with Argentine forensics experts working with Mexico on the case of 43 students missing since September. “Then they told me it was my son, and that he was dead.”

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DNA Identifies Richard III

DNA Identifies Richard III | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it


 

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Scientists say there is "overwhelming evidence" that a skeleton found under a parking lot is that of England's King Richard III, but their DNA testing also has raised questions about the nobility of some of his royal successors.

The bones of the 15th-century king were dug up in the city of Leicester in 2012, and experts have published initial data suggesting they belong to Richard, including an analysis of his curved spine and the injuries that killed him.

Richard was the last English monarch to die on a battlefield, in 1485.

In the new study — probably the oldest forensic case ever solved — scientists compared DNA from the skeleton to living relatives and analyzed DNA data identifying eye and hair color, which they matched to the earliest known portrait of the king.

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Investigators Search for Cervantes among the Bones of Many

Investigators Search for Cervantes among the Bones of Many | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

This photo taken on Saturday, January 24, 2015 and provided by Aranzadi Science Society, shows a team of archaeologists and anthropologists working on the remains of a coffin found on unidentified graves in the chapel’s crypt of the closed order Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians in Madrid's historic Barrio de las Letras, or Literary Quarter. Experts searching for the remains of Miguel de Cervantes, the author of 'Don Quixote' who was buried in 1616 at the Convent but the exact whereabouts of his grave are unknown, have found a casket bearing the initials “M.C.” with bones inside it in crypt underneath a cloistered convent. Archeologists say they made the find over the weekend after excavations to solve the centuries-old mystery of where the great Spanish writer was laid to rest. AP Photo/Aranzadi Scienc

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Experts searching for the remains of Miguel de Cervantes said Monday that they found wooden fragments of a casket bearing the initials "M.C." with bones in and around them in a crypt underneath the chapel of a cloistered convent in Madrid.

 Archeologists made the find over the weekend during excavations to solve the centuries-old mystery of where the famed Spanish writer was laid to rest. The initials on a plank of the coffin were formed with metal tacks imbedded into the wood. The bones of at least 10 people were found inside the niche containing the broken wooden planks of the coffin, though some of the remains belonged to children, said forensic anthropologist Francisco Etxeberria, who participated in the autopsy that confirmed the suicide of former Chilean president Salvador Allende. Etxeberria and others will now start examining the bones to try to determine whether Cervantes' are among them. Cervantes was 69 when he died and investigators have solid clues to work with as they conduct their probe. The investigation will refer to the author's portraits and his own stories, in which he relates that shortly before dying he only had six teeth. But the most obvious marks will be the battle wounds that Cervantes sustained. In 1571, the writer was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto, which pitted Ottoman Turkish forces against the Holy League, led by Spain. Aboard the ship La Marquesa, Cervantes was hit with three musket shots, two in the chest and one in his hand. He spent several months in a hospital in Sicily, but managed to recover. Cervantes is a towering figure in Spanish culture. His novel "The Adventures of the Ingenious Nobleman Don Quixote of La Mancha" changed Spanish literature. The "Don Quixote" author was buried in 1616 at Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians in Madrid's historic Barrio de las Letras, or Literary Quarter. But the exact whereabouts of his grave within the convent chapel were unknown.
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Drug-filled Drone Crashes Near US-Mexico Border

Drug-filled Drone Crashes Near US-Mexico Border | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

In this image released by the Tijuana Municipal Police on Wednesday January 21, 2015, a drone loaded with packages containing methamphetamine lies on the ground after it crashed into a supermarket parking lot in the city of Tijuana on Tuesday January 20, 2015. According to police, six packets of the drug, weighing more than six pounds, were taped to the six-propeller remote-controlled aircraft. Authorities are investigating where the flight originated and who was controlling it. He said it was not the first time they had seen drones used for smuggling drugs across the border. Other innovative efforts have included catapults, ultralight aircraft and tunnels. AP Photo/Secretaria de Seguridad Pública Municipal de Tijuana

Sebastian Diaz's insight:
Police in a Mexican border city said Wednesday that a drone overloaded with illicit methamphetamine crashed into a supermarket parking lot. Tijuana police spokesman Jorge Morrua said authorities were alerted after the drone fell Tuesday night near the San Ysidro crossing at Mexico's border with California. Six packets of the drug, weighing more than six pounds, were taped to the six-propeller remote-controlled aircraft. Morrua said authorities are investigating where the flight originated and who was controlling it. He said it was not the first time they had seen drones used for smuggling drugs across the border. Other innovative efforts have included catapults, ultralight aircraft and tunnels. In April, authorities in South Carolina found a drone outside the fence of a prison that had been carrying cellphones, marijuana and tobacco.
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Libre albedrío, libertad y genética

Libre albedrío, libertad y genética | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/libre-albedrio-libertad-y-genetica/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua, se define albedrío como la voluntad no gobernada por la razón, sino por el apetito, antojo o capricho. Puntualiza en la misma entrada del diccionario, que el libre albedrío es la potestad de obrar por reflexión y elección, es decir, se trata de la capacidad del individuo de elegir o tomar un decisión sin estar condicionado por antecedentes, necesidad o predeterminación divina.

According to the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy of the Language, defines will as the will not governed by reason, but by the appetite, whim or caprice. Spelled out in the same dictionary entry, that free will is the power to act by reflection and choice, that is to say, it is the ability of individuals to choose or take a decision without being constrained by background, need or divine predetermination.

Casi desde el principio de los tiempos en que el Hombre dejó de correr detrás de su sustento, o delante de los depredadores que pretendían convertirlo a su vez en su propio sustento; se paró a pensar sobre conceptos más elevados  y surgieron las dos corrientes filosóficas opuestas que explican la libertad absoluta del individuo frente a la predeterminación como son el libertarismo frente al determinismo (evidentemente estos nombres paradigmático surgieron mucho después de las primeras discusiones filosóficas al respecto).

Almost from the beginning of time when the man stopped running behind their livelihood, or in front of predators who wanted to convert it to turn in their own living; he stopped to think about higher concepts and emerged two opposing philosophical currents that explain the absolute freedom of the individual against the predetermination like libertarianism versus determinism (obviously these paradigmatic names emerged long after the first philosophical about discussions).

¿A qué viene esta reflexión en un blog de índole médica? Naturalmente, estimados lectores, no vamos a entrar en una discusión filosófica al respecto del libre albedrío, la voluntad o la libertad del Hombre, pues no es el objetivo de esta publicación, pero como podrán comprobar, el tema de reflexión que hoy les proponemos tiene mucho que ver con esta cuestión filosófica.

What is this reflection in a medical blog of medicine? Of course, dear readers, we are not going to engage in a philosophical discussion of the free will, or the freedom of man, because it is not the aim of this publication, but as you can see, the theme of reflection that today we propose has much to do with this philosophical question.

El pasado octubre de 2014, la revista Molecular Psychiatry, publicaba un interesante artículo titulado Genetic background of extreme violent behavior, fruto de la investigación de un grupo de trabajo del departamento de neurociencia del Instituto Karolinska en Estocolmo, Suecia.

Last October of 2014, the journal Molecular Psychiatry, published an interesting article entitled Genetic background of extreme violent behavior, the result of the investigation of a working group of the department of neuroscience of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.

El trabajo de investigación fue basado en el estudio de 800 ciudadanos finlandeses condenados por algún tipo de delito, de los que más de 500 se consideraron como violento o extremadamente violentos. Se utilizaron mas 2000 personas también finlandesas como grupo de control.

The research work was based on the study of 800 finnish citizens convicted of some type of crime, of which more than 500 were considered as violent or extremely violent. It is used more than 2000 people also finnish as a control group.

En el estudio, se objetivaron dos mutaciones genéticas que finalmente resultaron significativas entorno al 10% de los eventos violentos estudiados.

In the study, were observed two genetic mutations that finally proved significant environment 10% of the violent events studied.

Una de ellas, en relación con el gen MAOA, provoca una anomalía en el metabolismo y control de la dopamina, cuyo exceso se encontró especialmente significativo en especial en relación con el abuso de alcohol y/o otras drogas. La segunda mutación estudiada estaba en relación con el gen CDH13 que impedía una normal interconexión neuronal y el control de los impulsos.

One of them, in relation to the MAOA gene, causes a malfunction in the control and metabolism of dopamine, the excess was found especially significant in particular in relation to the abuse of alcohol and/or other drugs. The second mutation was studied in relation to the CDH13 which would have prevented a normal neuronal interconnection and impulse control.

¿Podrían este tipo de mutaciones, y las que se vayan descubriendo con posterioridad, limitar la libertad del individuo para elegir no realizar un acto violento? Se abre un interesante campo de debate, ahora más allá del campo de la filosofía del Derecho. Situémonos.

How could this type of mutations, that have been and will continue to be discovered later, limiting the freedom of the individual to choose to not make a violent act? Opens an interesting field of discussion, far beyond the field of philosophy of law. Let us rise.

En el vigente Código Penal español (recuerden que amplia-mente.com se escribe desde España), consta en su artículo 20.1 que está exento de responsabilidad penal el que al tiempo de cometer la infracción penal, a causa de cualquier anomalía o alteración psíquica, no pueda comprender la ilicitud del hecho o actuar conforme a esa comprensión. Y aclara que el trastorno mental transitorio no eximirá de pena cuando hubiese sido provocado por el sujeto con el propósito de cometer el delito o hubiera previsto o debido prever su comisión.

In the current Spanish Penal Code (remember that amplia-mente.com are typed from Spain), appears in his article 20.1 that is exempt from criminal liability the who at the time of committing a criminal offense, because of any fault or mental disturbance, not able to comprehend the wrongfulness of the act or act according to that understanding. And clarifies that the transitional mental disorder does not exempt from penalty when it would have been caused by the subject with the intent to commit the crime or had foreseen or foreseen your commission.

Este punto, nos deja claro que aquel individuo que aun teniendo la mutación, hecho a día de hoy inalterable terapéuticamente, puede evitar farmacológicamente el exceso de producción de dopamina (el disulfiram ha sido usado con bastante éxito en la adicción al alcohol y se está usando también para paliar el exceso de dopamina generado en cocainómanos).

This point makes it clear that that individual that even taking the mutation, a fact today unalterable therapeutically, you can avoid pharmacologically excess dopamine production (disulfiram has been used quite successfully in the addiction to alcohol and is also being used to mitigate the excess dopamine generated in addicted to cocaine).

Además el estudio revela que este exceso de dopamina se relaciona con el crimen violento en especial cuando se da una asociación a consumos importantes de alcohol y /o drogas, por lo que tenemos otro factor asociado a la libertad del individuo.

In addition, the study reveals that this excess of dopamine is associated with violent crime in particular when there is a significant association with consumption of alcohol and /or drugs, so we have another factor associated with the freedom of the individual.

De la lectura del interesante artículo enlazado, se desprende que el presente trabajo no está dotado de sensibilidad y/o especificidad para suponer una base solida para tratar o prevenir el crimen violento, pero supone un interesantísimo punto de partida para una serie de investigaciones que pusieran luz en la “enfermedad social” que supone la violencia.

Reading the interesting article linked, it is clear that the present work is not endowed with sensitivity and/or specificity to assume a solid basis to treat or prevent violent crime, but it is a very interesting starting point for a series of investigations to bring light in the “social disease” of the violence.

¿Y qué hay del trabajo cotidiano en Juzgados y Tribunales? Como todo en el mundo judicial será usado de una manera correcta o incorrecta según la voluntad de los usuarios de la Justicia. Posiblemente, cuando este tipo de investigaciones se encuentren bastante más desarrolladas, nos encontremos con una avalancha de peticiones de las defensas de los imputado para diagnosticar la posible alteración genética de sus defendidos. Tal y como hemos aclarado antes, entendemos que a pesar de la alteración, siempre le queda al individuo la libertad de elegir entre las circunstancias que le llevan a delinquir frente a las que no lo llevan por el camino de la violencia.

And what of the daily work in courts and tribunals? Like everything else in the world court will be used for right or wrong way according to the will of the users of the Justice. Possibly, when this type of research are much more developed, we are faced with an avalanche of requests for the defenses of the accused to diagnose possible genetic alteration of their clients. As we have explained before, we understand that in spite of the alteration, you can always the individual the freedom to choose between the circumstances that lead him to commit an offense compared to those not carried by the path of violence.

As you can see, these discoveries (and those who will come) in the field of genetics, opened an interesting discussion not only interested in the world of medicine or law, but that may ultimately reopen old discussions between philosophical doctrines such as opposing the libertarianism and determinism.

What do you think, dear readers?

Good weekend.

Como ven, estos descubrimientos (y los que vendrán) en el campo de la genética, abren un interesante debate que no solo interesa al mundo de la medicina o del derecho, sino que puede en última instancia reabrir antiguas discusiones entre doctrinas filosóficas tan opuestas como el libertarismo y el determinismo.

¿Ustedes que opinan, estimados lectores?

Buen fin de semana.

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Contención física y farmacológica en ancianos/ Physical and pharmacological restraint in elderly people

Contención física y farmacológica en ancianos/ Physical and pharmacological restraint in elderly people | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

 http://amplia-mente.com/2015/01/contencion-fisica-y-farmacologica-en-ancianos/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

En una sociedad como la actual, en un país desarrollado y en pleno siglo XXI, se hace difícil comprender qué nos puede llevar a seguir conteniendo a las personas durante su estancia en centros hospitalarios o en centros para mayores.

In a society like today, in a developed country and in the XXI century, it is difficult to understand what can we carry still restraint people during their stay in hospitals or senior centers.

La Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OMS, definió las contenciones como un «método extraordinario con finalidad terapéutica, que según todas las declaraciones sobre los derechos humanos referentes a psiquiatría, sólo resultarán tolerables ante aquellas situaciones de emergencia que comporten una amenaza urgente o inmediata para la vida y/o integridad física del propio paciente o de terceros, y que no puedan conjurarse por otros medios terapéuticos». A pesar de todas estas limitaciones recogidas en la definición de la OMS, en España, en el año 2011, el 25% de las personas mayores que vivían en residencias llevaba alguna sujeción restrictiva que les impedía moverse. Llegándose a utilizar en algunos centros residenciales en más del 50% de los internos.

The World Health Organization, WHO, defined contentions as an “extraordinary method for therapeutic purposes, which by all declarations on human rights concerning psychiatry, only become tolerable to those emergencies conduct an urgent or immediate threat life and/or limb of the patient himself or others, and they can not be averted by other therapeutic means”. Despite all these limitations contained in the definition of the WHO, in Spain, in 2011, 25% of older people living in nursing wearing any restraint that prevented them from moving. Getting itself to use in some residential centers in more than 50% of internals.

En muchos casos se utilizan estos medios de contención sin el conocimiento del enfermo o el consentimiento de sus representantes. Estos medios se utilizan, en la mayoría de los casos, con fines organizativos del centro (para cumplir los horarios, para utilizar menos personal en el cuidado de los ancianos, para tener controlados a los ancianos y estos no estén dispersos por el centro) y además se utilizan de forma indefinida.

In many cases these methods of restraint are used without the knowledge of the patient or the consent of their representatives. These methods are used, in most cases, for organizational purposes the center (to meet schedules, to use less staff in caring for the elderly, to have controlled the elderly and these are not dispersed by the center) and also used indefinitely.

Estas sujeciones constituyen un tema conflictivo en la asistencia geriátrica por sus implicaciones morales, éticas, sociales y jurídicas, pese a ello no existe una legislación unificada en nuestro país. Además expertos en la atención gerontológica, cada vez discuten más sobre si es más o menos eficaz el uso de este tipo de técnicas de sujeción, ya que no solo, no previenen las caídas ni sus consecuencias sino que además pueden aumentarlas provocando lesiones graves (como lesiones de plexos braquiales, isquemia de miembros superiores), incluso mortales (generalmente por asfixia restrictiva o muertes súbitas durante un cuadro de agitación).

These restraints are a contentious issue in geriatric care for their moral, ethical, social and legal implications, nevertheless there is no unified law in our country. Also experts in gerontology, increasingly discussed whether it is more or less effective use of this type of fastening techniques, as not only not prevent falls and their consequences but also can enlarge causing serious injury (as brachial plexus injuries, upper limb ischemia), even fatal (usually by restrictive choking or sudden deaths during an agitation).

Pero además de las contención física, destacamos la utilización de sustancias farmacológicas para mantener a un sujeto inmovilizado, no existiendo una base de evidencia científica ni de investigaciones clínicas que demuestren que estos medios no presentan complicaciones a largo plazo por su utilización, ya que se pueden plantear interacciones o potenciación de efectos con otros fármacos incluidos en el tratamiento habitual de los ancianos.

Además de todo esto, ya hemos hablado en algún otro post de nuestro blog, amplia-mente.com, como en “No durmamos a nuestros ancianos“, de la posibilidad de aumentar o agravar el deterioro cognitivo de los ancianos asociados al tratamiento con ansiolíticos o hipnóticos de forma descontrolada.

But besides the physical restraints, we highlight the use of pharmacological substances to keep an immobilized subject, there exists a basis of scientific evidence and clinical research demonstrating that these means uncomplicated long-term use because they can be raise or enhancement effects interactions with other drugs included in the routine treatment of the elderly.

Besides all this, we have already discussed in another post on our blog, amplia-mente.com, as in “Let us not sleep our seniors,” the ability to increase or exacerbate cognitive impairment in the elderly associated with treatment with anxiolytics or hypnotics of control.

Traemos a nuestro blog este controvertido tema, aprovechando la publicación en la Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología en su número de Enero, del artículo “Sujeciones mecánicas y farmacológicas en servicios y centros geriátricos y gerontológicos” en el que la Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología decide crear el Comité Interdisciplinar de Sujeciones constituido por miembros de algunos grupos de trabajos o comités de dicha Sociedad y por profesionales externos de grupos, entidades y asociaciones de expertos en sujeciones e integrar en él a los principales movimientos “antisujecciones”. Con motivo de la creación de este comité se elabora un Documento de Consenso sobre sujeciones mecánicas y farmacológicas, que debería de seguir como guía de buenas prácticas para los profesionales que trabajan en este campo.

We bring to our blog this controversial issue, taking advantage of the publication in the Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología in its January issue, the article “Physical and pharmacological resfriantes in geriatric and gerontological services and centers” where the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology decides to create the Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraint consisting of members of some working groups or committees of the Company and external professional groups, organizations and associations restraint experts and integrate it to the main movements “anti-restraint”. On the occasion of the establishment of this Committee a Consensus Document on mechanical and pharmacological restraints, which should follow as a guide to good practice for professionals working in this field is made.

Para este grupo de trabajo, el uso de sujeciones mecánicas o farmacológicas debe de ser excepcional y solo se justifica su uso en la aplicación de terapias esenciales para su subsistencia y que sean rechazadas por el paciente. También se considera autorizado su uso en casos de agitación, irritabilidad, agresividad, intentos autolíticos o en inmovilizaciones tras una fractura, en las que se agotan otros recursos terapéuticos y ambientales y siempre que se garantice que no suponen un riesgo vital para el anciano.

For this task force, the use of mechanical or pharmacological restraints must be exceptional and only use in the application of essential therapies for their livelihood and they are rejected by the patient is warranted. Also considered approved for use in cases of agitation, irritability, aggression, suicide attempts or assets after fracture, in which other therapeutic and environmental resources are depleted and which ensure that pose no risk to life for the elderly.

El dispositivo utilizado debe de ser homologado y se utilizarán siempre durante el tiempo estrictamente necesario y siempre siguiendo un plan de cuidados y supervisión complementario y extraordinario, con mayor control del paciente de lo habitual.

The device used must be approved and is always used when strictly necessary and always following a plan of care and complementary and extraordinary supervision, patient monitoring more than usual.

Al ser una privación de libertad del sujeto, si este está capacitado, se deberá de solicitar el consentimiento informado del paciente y si este fuese incapaz de dar dicho consentimiento, se deberá de informar al Juez de forma inmediata para que este sea quien autorice o rechace esta medida, dentro del marco de los internamientos involuntarios, pidiendo informes previos al Médico Forense, quien debería de informar a Su Señoría sobre la necesidad de utilizar estos medios de contención y el tiempo necesario que habría que mantener dicha sujeción, para así garantizar los derechos del anciano inmovilizado.

As a deprivation of liberty of the subject, if it is trained, he must ask for the patient’s informed consent and if this were incapable of giving such consent must inform the Judge immediately so that this is who authorizes or rejects this measure within the framework of involuntary commitment, before asking to the Forensic Doctor who should inform the Judge on the need to use these methods of restraint and the time required would have to maintain this restriction, to guarantee the rights of the elderly immobilized.

Faced with this document, just hope it is applied and the use of indiscriminate means of containment and physical or pharmacological in residential care homes fixation decreases. We will continue alert.

Ante este documento, solo esperamos que sea aplicado y se disminuya la utilización de forma indiscriminada de los medios de contención y fijación física o farmacológicas en los centros residenciales de mayores. Seguiremos atentos.

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More on NJ's Lethal New Drug Brands

More on NJ's Lethal New Drug Brands | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Sean Allocca

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Six people have already overdosed by ingesting a highly lethal combination of drugs that are packaged and sold to look like heroin, NJ State Police Sergeant Jeff Flynn told Forensic Magazine, although sometimes, the drugs contain no heroin at all.

The “wax folds” are actually a lethal cocktail of very harmful compounds, which can make reviving victims of an overdose very problematic for medical personnel. First responders usually administer Narcan, an opioid antagonist that counteracts the effects of heroin, including depression of the central nervous system, and dangerously low blood pressure. But without heroin present in the victim’s system, Narcan is ineffective.

“If this other combination of drugs is causing the overdose,” said Flynn, “and not heroin, then Narcan just isn’t going to work.”

The exact names and quantities of the drugs in these new brands remain confidential because of the ongoing nature of the case, but police are confident that these new drug combinations are “highly potent” and “not typically seen.”

Officials identified and recognized the pattern of these new drug brands at the NJ Regional Operations Intelligence Center (ROIC) in West Trenton. The center includes personnel from the FBI, US Department of Homeland Security, FEMA, the NYPD, county and municipal law enforcement, and non-governmental agencies.

“In particular with this case, there were three brands that were identified in the region,” said Flynn in an exclusive with Forensic Magazine. “After analyzing the stamps, investigators found the contents inside were highly lethal, and that in some cases, heroin was not even present at all.”

Seized packages of the drugs contained labels like “Taliban” and “Strike Dead” and pictures of an AK-47 and the Grimm Reaper, respectively.

“This stuff was packaged and branded as heroin,” said Flynn, who wants to make sure that information about the lethal drug brands gets to those who might use the drugs, before it’s too late.

“You might think its heroin, but it’s not,” Flynn said. “We’re not endorsing drug use, that if you don’t have these brands, then it’s OK. But if you do, just don’t take it. We don’t want any more overdoses.”

Through the help of the Drug Monitoring Initiative, these brands of drugs have been properly identified, and the police have released a public service announcement, as well as, taken to social media in an effort to warn as many prospective users as possible.

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French Police Hunt for Two Brothers in Charlie Hebdo Attack

French Police Hunt for Two Brothers in Charlie Hebdo Attack | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

This photo provided by The Paris Police Prefecture Thursday, January 8, 2015 shows the suspects Cherif, left, and Said Kouachi in the newspaper attack along with a plea for witnesses. Police hunted Thursday for two heavily armed men, one with possible links to al-Qaida, in the methodical killing of 12 people at a satirical newspaper that caricatured the Prophet Muhammed. France began a day of national mourning for what its president called "an act of exceptional barbarism. AP Photo/Prefecture de Police de Paris

Sebastian Diaz's insight:
With tensions high across Paris, French authorities hunted Thursday for two heavily armed brothers they feared would strike again after the methodical killing of 12 people at a satirical newspaper that caricatured the Prophet Muhammad. France's prime minister said the possibility of a new attack "is our main concern" and announced several overnight arrests as the country began a day of national mourning. The most senior security official abandoned a top-level meeting after just 10 minutes to rush to a shooting on the city's southern edge that killed a policewoman. The shooter remained at large and it was not immediately clear if her death was linked to Wednesday's deadly attack on the Paris newspaper Charlie Hebdo, where two police were among the 12 dead. France's prime minister, Manuel Valls, said the two suspects still at large in the Charlie Hebdo slayings — Cherif Kouachi, 32, and his 34-year-old brother Said Kouachi — were known to intelligence services and preventing them from carrying out another attack "is our main concern." Police swarmed a gas station in the northern Aisne region where the two men were reportedly spotted early Thursday and helicopters hovered above the site. Valls told RTL radio several people had been arrested overnight; a security official put the total at seven, speaking on condition of anonymity because the investigation was ongoing. A third suspect in the Charlie Hebdo killings has already turned himself in. Fears have run high in Europe that jihadis trained in warfare abroad would stage attacks at home. The French suspect in a deadly 2014 attack on a Jewish museum in Belgium had returned from fighting with extremists in Syria; and the man who rampaged in the south of France in 2012, killing three soldiers and four people at a Jewish school in Toulouse, received paramilitary training in Pakistan. "France has been struck directly in the heart of its capital, in a place where the spirit of liberty — and thus of resistance — breathed freely," President Francois Hollande said Thursday. The attack Wednesday took place midway between France's Bastille and the city's enormous Republique plaza. At noon Thursday, the Paris metro came to a standstill and people gathered in homage near Notre Dame cathedral fell silent to honor Wednesday's victims. One of the Charlie Hebdo suspects, Cherif Kouachi, was convicted of terrorism in 2008 for being involved in a network sending radical fighters to Iraq. He and his brother, Said, should be considered "armed and dangerous," French police said in a bulletin Thursday, appealing for witnesses after a fruitless search in the city of Reims, in French Champagne country. A third man, Mourad Hamyd, 18, surrendered at an eastern police station after learning his name was linked to the attacks in the news, said the Paris prosecutor spokeswoman Agnes Thibault-Lecuivre. She did not specify his relationship to the Kouachi brothers. France raised its terror alert system to the maximum and bolstered security with more than 800 extra soldiers guarding media offices, places of worship, transport and other sensitive areas. Fears arose Thursday that the deadly attack would ignite a backlash against France's large and diverse Muslim community. A mosque in the city of Le Mans, 200 kilometers (125 miles) southwest of Paris, was hit overnight with training grenades and gunfire, local prosecutor Philippe Varin told The Associated Press. No one was in the building at the time and no one was injured. One witness to Wednesday's attack said the gunmen were so methodical he at first mistook them for an elite anti-terrorism squad. Then they fired on a police officer. The masked, black-clad men with assault rifles launched the attack around noon. The publication had long drawn condemnation and threats — it was firebombed in 2011 — for its depictions of Islam, although it also satirized other religions and political figures. The gunmen headed straight for the paper's editor, Stephane Charbonnier, widely known by his pen name Charb, killing him and his police bodyguard first, said Christophe Crepin, a police union spokesman. Shouting "Allahu akbar!" as they fired, the men then called out the names of specific employees. Eight journalists, two police officers, a maintenance worker and a visitor were killed and 11 people were wounded, four of them critically. Two gunmen strolled out to a black car waiting below, one of them calmly shooting a wounded police officer in the head, according to video and a nearby witness. "They knew exactly what they had to do and exactly where to shoot," said the witness, who refused to allow his name to be used because he feared for his safety. One police official, speaking on condition of anonymity because the investigation was ongoing, said the suspects were linked to a Yemeni terrorist network. Cedric Le Bechec, a witness who encountered the escaping gunmen, quoted the attackers as saying: "You can tell the media that it's al-Qaida in Yemen." Both al-Qaida and the Islamic State group have repeatedly threatened to attack France, which is conducting airstrikes against extremists in Iraq and fighting Islamic militants in Africa. Charb was specifically threatened in a 2013 edition of the al-Qaida magazine Inspire. A caricature of Islamic State's leader was the last tweet sent out by the newspaper, minutes before the attack. Its feed has since gone silent. Cherif Kouachi, who was sentenced to 18 months in prison after being convicted of terrorism charges in 2008, has said he was outraged at the torture of Iraqi inmates at the U.S. prison at Abu Ghraib near Baghdad.
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Wreckage, Bodies Reveal Jet's Fate Days after It Disappeared

Wreckage, Bodies Reveal Jet's Fate Days after It Disappeared | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Dewi Nurcahyani and Robin McDowell

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Family members of those aboard AirAsia Flight 8501 collapsed in agony Tuesday as images of debris and a bloated body flashed across Indonesian television screens, proof that the plane crashed into the sea two days earlier with 162 people on board.

 The low-cost carrier vanished Sunday halfway through a two-hour flight between Surabaya, Indonesia and Singapore after encountering storm clouds, sparking an international hunt with dozens of planes, ships and helicopters. On the third day of searching, the first signs of the jet were found in shallow, aqua waters only about 10 miles (16 kilometers) from the plane's last known coordinates: A life jacket, an emergency exit door. Parts of the jetliner's interior, including an oxygen tank, were brought to the nearest town, Pangkalan Bun. Another find included a bright blue plastic suitcase, completely unscratched. First Adm. Sigit Setiayanta, Naval Aviation Center commander at Surabaya Air Force base, told reporters six corpses were spotted about 160 kilometers (100 miles) from Borneo island. Rescue workers were lowered on ropes from a hovering helicopter to retrieve bodies. Efforts were hindered by 2-meter-high (6-foot) waves and strong winds, National Search and Rescue Director SB Supriyadi said, but several victims were later picked up by a navy ship. Supriyadi had been on the aircraft and saw what appeared to be more wreckage under the water, which was clear and a relatively shallow 20 to 30 meters (65 to 100 feet). Television coverage of the discovery sent a spasm of pain through the room at the Surabaya airport where relatives were waiting for news, especially as it showed a half-naked man floating in the water, a shirt partially covering his head. Many screamed and wailed uncontrollably, breaking down into tears while they squeezed each other. One middle-aged man collapsed and had to be carried out on a stretcher. The crash caps an astonishingly tragic year for air travel in Southeast Asia, and Malaysia in particular. Malaysia-based AirAsia's loss comes on top of the still-unsolved disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in March with 239 people aboard, and the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 in July over Ukraine, which killed all 298 passengers and crew. Nearly all the passengers and crew were Indonesians, who are frequent visitors to Singapore, particularly on holidays. Haidar Fauzie, 60, said his youngest child and only daughter, Khairunnisa Haidar, was a stewardess who had worked with AirAsia for two years. On learning about the crash, he struggled to console his grieving wife. They last saw their child six weeks ago, when she returned home on holiday. "From the start, we already knew the risks associated with being a stewardess," said Fauzie. "She is beautiful and smart. It has always been her dream to fly. We couldn't have stopped her." Before flying to Surabaya to pay his respects to the families, AirAsia group CEO Tony Fernandes tweeted, "My heart is filled with sadness for all the families involved in QZ 8501. On behalf of AirAsia my condolences to all. Words cannot express how sorry I am." To grant traumatized family members privacy, windows in the airport waiting room were blacked out on Tuesday evening. On news that Indonesia's President Joko "Jokowi" Widodo was on his way to offer condolences following a visit to the search site, the corridor also was barricaded. Fernandes, the founder and the face of AirAsia, and a constant presence in Indonesia since the tragedy started unfolding, said he planned to travel to the recovery site on Wednesday. "I have apologized profusely for what they are going through," he said of his contact with relatives. "I am the leader of this company, and I have to take responsibility. That is why I'm here. I'm not running away from my obligations." Ifan Joko, 54, said that despite the tragic news he was still hoping for a miracle. His brother, Charlie Gunawan, along with his wife, their three children and two other family members, were traveling to Singapore to ring in the New Year. "I know the plane has crashed, but I cannot believe my brother and his family are dead," he said, wiping a tear. "... We still pray they are alive." It is not clear what brought the plane down. The last communication indicated the pilots were worried about bad weather. They sought permission to climb above threatening clouds, but were denied due to heavy air traffic. Four minutes later, the jet disappeared from the radar without issuing a distress signal. The plane's cockpit voice and flight data recorders, or black boxes, have yet to be recovered. Scott Hamilton, managing director of aviation consultancy Leeham Co., said in a post on his website that autopsies may provide some of the earliest clues about what happened. "If death was due to blunt force trauma, this could suggest passengers were alive upon impact with the water," he wrote. "If death came from other circumstances, this could suggest an explosive decompression and in-flight break up occurred." Several countries rushed to Indonesia to help with search and recovery efforts. The United States said it was sending the USS Sampson destroyer, joining at least 30 ships, 15 aircraft and seven helicopters in the search for the jet, said Indonesia's Search and Rescue Agency chief Henry Bambang Soelistyo. A Chinese frigate also was on the way, while Singapore said it was sending two underwater beacon detectors to try to detect pings from the plane's all-important cockpit voice and flight data recorders. Malaysia, Australia and Thailand also are involved in the search.
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Ningún policía sin chaleco

Ningún policía sin chaleco | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2014/12/ningun-policia-sin-chaleco/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Hoy, estimados lectores, les ofrecemos un artículo que teniendo mucho que ver con la labor profesional de todos aquellos trabajadores que realizan algún tipo de labor social, se sale un poco de los contenidos que normalmente se suele ofrecer en amplia-mente.com. Para nosotros es de justicia la exposición de hoy.

Today, dear readers, we offer you an article that has a lot to do with the professional work of all those workers who are engaged in some type of social work, it’s a little bit of the contents you will typically offer in amplia-mente.com. For us it is a matter of justice today’s briefing.

Y este pequeño paréntesis en la línea habitual de exposición de la actualidad científico médica en general y médico legal en particular se debe a la petición realizada por el SUP (Sindicato Unificado de Policía, de España) en la plataforma Change.org, en la cual desde el 1 de diciembre de 2014 solicitan al Ministro del Interior del Gobierno de España que no haya ningún policía en España sin chaleco.

And this small parenthesis in the usual line of exposure of the present scientific in general medical and medico-legal in particular is due to the request made by the SUP (Unified Trade Union of Police, Spain) on the platform at Change.org, which from 1 December 2014 request to the Minister of the Interior of the Government of Spain that no police in Spain no flak.

Esta petición surge pocos días después de la trágica muerte de una agente del Cuerpo Nacional de Policía en el ejercicio de sus funciones al impedir el atraco de una sucursal bancaria en Vigo, España. Además de la agente abatida, otro agente resultó gravemente herido, ambos víctimas de heridas por arma de fuego.

This request comes a few days after the tragic death of a agent of the National Police Force in the exercise of their functions to prevent the robbery of a bank branch in Vigo, Spain. In addition to the agent despondent, another agent was seriously injured, both victims of gunshot wounds.

Este ha sido el último caso de trascendencia mediática en España, ciertamente poco acostumbrada a digerir este tipo de noticias. Pero esta baja casuística en los noticieros nacionales en comparación con los casos que puedan existir en Estados Unidos de América, donde el porte de armas es incluso un derecho amparado por la Constitución; no quiere decir que no se estén dando a diario casos en los que los miembros de Cuerpos y Fuerzas de Seguridad no expongan su vida, integridad corporal o salud a fin de mantener la seguridad de todos.

This has been the last case of transcendence media in Spain, certainly unaccustomed to digest this kind of news. But this low casuistry in the national newscasts in comparison with the cases that may exist in the United States of America, where the carrying of weapons is even a right protected by the Constitution; not to say that we are giving daily cases in which the members of police forces not to expose his life, bodily integrity or health in order to maintain the security of all.

Y es que el hecho de que en España exista un menor número de armas de fuego circulando por las calles (que por cierto no son pocas en comparación con la creencia popular en base a la restricción a su tenencia y porte) no quiere decir que los efectivos policiales no sean atacados con otros medios lesivos igualmente peligrosos. Como ejemplo de este mismo año, tuvimos otro ejemplo mediático en el cual un policía de la ciudad de Málaga caía abatido tras ser apuñalado por un indigente cuando intentaba identificarlo.

And is that the fact that in Spain there is a lower number of firearms when driving through the streets (which are certainly not few in comparison with the popular belief on the basis of the restriction of its tenure and porte) does not mean that the police are not attacked with other equally dangerous harmful media. As an example of this same year, we had another example media in which a police of the city of Malaga fell shot after being stabbed by an indigent when trying to identify it.

Parece mentira la falta de concienciación de las administraciones (todas) en lo referente a la seguridad de aquellos que no dudamos en llamar ante la mas mínima situación problemática. No se concebiría un bombero sin casco o indumentaria ignífuga, un cartero del Servicio Postal sin casco para su motocicleta o un médico de emergencias sin guantes de látex (o material similar). ¿Por qué entonces cuando un policía sale de la academia donde ha recibido su oportuno adiestramiento, solo se le entrega un arma, una defensa y unos grilletes? Al igual que las administraciones responsables ven normal que les sea entregada una indumentaria policial de verano y otra de invierno, el chaleco antibalas/anticorte debería formar parte de esa indumentaria de dotación.

It seems unbelievable the lack of awareness of the administrations (all) in regard to the safety of those who do not hesitate to call at the slightest problem situation. Do not conceive a firefighter without helmet or fire-retardant clothing, a postman of the Postal Service without helmet for his/her motorcycle or a medical emergency doctor without latex gloves (or similar material). Why then when a policeman leaves the academy where he received his early training, only you will be given a weapon, a baton and a shackles? As well as the normal administrations are responsible to be handed over to them a police summer/winter dress, the bulletproof vest/cut-resistant should be part of such clothing of staffing.

Los avances al respecto, se ha dado, pero son ciertamente insuficientes y casi siempre con retraso. Quien hoy les escribe, recuerda que hasta hace relativamente pocos años los policías se tenían que sufragar de su propio bolsillo los hoy indispensables guantes anticorte, al igual que incluso hoy muchos miembros policiales siguen gastando un dinero que no les tocaría a ellos aportar en camisetas interiores anticorte, que si bien no dotan de la protección de un chaleco, si que pueden paliar los efectos del ataque de un arma blanca.

The progress in this respect, has been given, but are certainly inadequate and almost always with delay. Who writes for them today, he recalled that until relatively few years ago the police had to pay from their own money the essential cut-resistant gloves, as well as even today, many members of the police force are still spending money that they don’t have to pay to bring them on T-shirts cut-resistant interior, which while not give it the protection of a jacket, if that can mitigate the effects of the attack of a cutlass.

Habrán notado que en varias ocasiones se ha mencionado la responsabilidad de las distintas administraciones en vez de nombrar directamente al Ministerio del Interior, y es que en España, no solo son policías los miembros de Cuerpo Nacional de Policía o Guardia Civil. Es vergonzoso como cada vez que ocurre un evento como el que hoy nos ocupa, los responsables administrativos se afanan en atacar a sus adversarios políticos por la falta de previsión en la dotación de material, sin tener en cuenta los cuentos de ayuntamientos gobernados por su mismas siglas políticas y de los que dependen orgánicamente las policías locales igualmente expuestas o aquellas policías autonómicas donde se den las transferencias en la materia.

You will have noticed that on several occasions mentioned the responsibility of the various administrations in time to appoint directly to the Ministry of the Interior, and is that in Spain, not only are police the members of National Police or Civil Guard. It is a shame as each time an event occurs as the one before us today, the administrative officials are keen to attack their political opponents by the lack of foresight in the strength of material, without taking into account the tales of municipalities governed by the same acronym policies and those that depend upon organically the local policemen also exposed or those policemen autonomous where den transfers in the matter.

Señores políticos, el desconocimiento de la labor policial no es motivo suficiente para no optimizar las partidas presupuestarias a fin de garantizar la seguridad de los trabajadores policiales. No es motivo, en primer lugar por razones técnicas, ya que es obligación de ustedes conocer los posibles riesgos laborales del personal a su cargo. Pero lo que a nuestro juicio es peor son las razones ético morales, y es que los grandes responsables políticos responsables de la liberación de los presupuestos pertinentes, suelen tener la preceptiva escolta policial por lo que pueden comprobar a diario el que asumen estos profesionales en el ejercicio de sus funciones.

Political leaders, the lack of police work is not a sufficient reason to not optimize the budget items in order to ensure the safety of workers police. It is not reason, firstly for technical reasons, as it is the duty of you know the potential occupational hazards of their staff. But what we believe is worse are the ethical and moral reasons, and is that the great policy makers responsible for the release of the relevant budgets, they often have the mandatory police escort so they can check daily assume these professionals in the exercise of their functions.

Tal y como comentábamos en la introducción al artículo, han podido comprobar como hoy nos hemos salido de la línea habitual de este blog, pues para nosotros ha sido una obligación moral el hecho de dar un pequeño impulso a la petición de firmas en la plataforma Change.org que no tiene otro objetivo que mejorar las condiciones de aquellos que trabajan desde el silencio por el bienestar de todos nosotros.

As we mentioned in the introduction to the article, have been able to verify how today we went into the usual line of this blog, because for us, this has been a moral obligation to give a small boost to the petition of signatures in the Change.org platform that has no other objective that improve the conditions of those who work from the silence by the well-being of us all.

Let them then back you link to the petition. Please, enter, sapping and act in conscience. Many thanks to all.

No police no flak.

Have a great weekend. Without doubt, have near a police to ensure this.

Les dejaremos a continuación nuevamente le enlace a la petición. Por favor, entren, léanlo y obren en conciencia. Muchas gracias a todos.

Ningún policía sin chaleco.

Tengan un buen fin de semana. Sin duda, tendrán cerca un policía que velará por ello.

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Cocaine, Amphetamine Users More Likely to Take Their Own Lives

Cocaine, Amphetamine Users More Likely to Take Their Own Lives | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

University of Montréal

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Stimulants use such as cocaine and amphetamine is associated with a nearly two-fold greater likelihood of suicidal behaviour amongst people who inject drugs, say researchers at the University of Montreal and the CHUM Research Centre. Drug addiction had already been identified as a major risk factor for suicide, and it is in fact the cause of 10 percent of deaths among drug users. The data from this groundbreaking study could help develop and evaluate more appropriate suicide prevention efforts in this highly vulnerable population.

 The researchers were able to explore the relationship between substance abuse and risk of suicidal behaviour by studying in detail the different types of substances used among more than 1,200 people who inject drugs (PWIDs). "We know that substance use is associated with the risk of suicide attempt and completed suicide. However, there are many different profiles of drug users. The data available until recently did not allow identifying the substance use patterns most at risk. We wanted to know who among substance users were actually more likely to attempt suicide," said Didier Jutras-Aswad, a professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Montréal and researcher at the CHUM Research Centre. To do this, they used data from the HEPCO Cohort to examine the individual and contextual factors associated with hepatitis C infection. This cohort is a longitudinal study from the "Saint-Luc Cohort" research program that was conducted in 2004 by Dr. Julie Bruneau, a researcher at the CRCHUM and professor in the Department of Family Health at the University of Montreal. The HEPCO cohort participants were 18 or older and had injected drugs in the past six months. Twice a year, the participants in the study completed a questionnaire to better understand their drug use habits and assess certain markers of mental health. The median follow-up was four visits. They were specifically asked if they had attempted suicide in the past six months, but also about the nature and frequency of their consumption. Several substances were evaluated in detail, including cocaine, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, alcohol, and sedative-hypnotics available illegally on the street (i.e., barbiturates and benzodiazepines). Their findings indicate that suicide attempts are most common among PWIDs. At the beginning of the study, nearly 6 percent of participants had indeed reported a suicide attempt in the previous six months, a dramatically higher rate than the general population. During follow-up, 143 participants experienced at least one episode of attempted suicide. The researchers found that chronic and occasional use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines was associated with nearly two-fold greater odds of reporting an attempt than the use of other drugs to report a suicide attempt. Surprisingly, however, they did not observe the same positive association with other substances, including opiates, which are nevertheless regarded as among the most damaging to health and psycho-social wellbeing. So why this difference between stimulant and opiate drugs? According to the researchers, a set of neurobiological, behavioural and social differences between stimulant users and opiate users could explain these findings. Stimulant users are more vulnerable because they are more impulsive and characterized by changing moods. The researchers also point out that cocaine addiction treatments are virtually nonexistent — drug treatment programs are often structured around opiates or alcohol. “Our study addresses a number of important issues that could change practice. While it confirms that drug use itself represents a significant risk for suicidal behaviour, it identifies cocaine and amphetamine users as a higher-risk population. We therefore need to develop more effective intervention and prevention programs tailored to this target population. It would also seem essential to carry out further research with particular emphasis on a more detailed assessment of mental health and its interaction with drug use over time,” said Jutras-Aswad.
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Synthetic Marijuana Manufacturer Arrested

Synthetic Marijuana Manufacturer Arrested | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Richard Irby,

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Between 2010 and 2012, synthetic marijuana, an illegal drug sold under the names of K-2, Spice and other labels, caused a stir because it was being sold openly in convenience stores, health food stores and other outlets as potpourri or incense. Synthetic marijuana is manufactured by spraying a chemical similar to THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, on plant material. As more and more police departments responded to calls about "bad trips" caused by K-2 usage, authorities warned it was a dangerous drug as powerful as LSD that caused medical problems and violent behavior.

 In June of 2010, Fulton County Quorum Court joined Sharp and Baxter County in banning the sale of K-2-type products. County laws were eventually not needed as the Arkansas Department of Health joined other states in taking action to make synthetic marijuana illegal statewide, and Drug Enforcement Administration action has imposed a national ban on K-2 sales. While most consider the product dead and gone, there is still a demand for it and, as a recent Fulton County arrest indicates, people are working to manufacture it to meet the demand.
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Federal Autopsy Released in Ferguson Shooting

Federal Autopsy Released in Ferguson Shooting | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

Alan Scher Zagier

Sebastian Diaz's insight:
A federal autopsy in the Ferguson police shooting reached similar conclusions to those performed by local officials and a private examiner hired by 18-year-old Michael Brown's family, documents show. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner System's autopsy on Brown, conducted at the request of the Department of Justice, was among grand jury documents that St. Louis County Prosecuting Attorney Bob McCulloch released Monday with little explanation. Other documents include transcripts of eight federal interviews of possible witnesses to Brown's shooting in early August; police radio traffic; and an alleged audio recording of the shots fired by Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson. Many of the documents contained information that was similar or identical to the materials that McCulloch released on November 24 after a grand jury decided not to indict Wilson in Brown's death. A transcript of testimony from an Air Force pathologist who performed the Justice Department autopsy was included in the November documents, but the autopsy report itself was not released until Monday. The transcripts of the witness interviews that were released Monday were already included in previously released testimony heard by the grand jury. The Justice Department autopsy found that Brown died from multiple gunshot wounds and had severe head and chest injuries, though it noted that the chest injury might have been an exit wound from a shot that entered Brown's arm. The autopsy also found a minor gunshot wound to Brown's right hand was evidence of close range discharge of a firearm. Wilson told the local grand jury that his gun went off during a tussle with Brown through the open window of his police car moments before Brown was fatally shot. The Justice Department is conducting a separate civil rights investigation into Brown's death. The Associated Press has reviewed all of the grand jury documents that have been released and none appear to include a transcript or a recording of a two-hour FBI and county police interview with Brown's friend, Dorian Johnson, who was with Brown when he was shot. However, the first batch of documents did include seven video clips of Johnson's media interviews, as well as a transcript of his testimony to the grand jury. Johnson was walking with Brown when they encountered Wilson in a Ferguson street. Wilson fatally shot Brown, who was unarmed, after a struggle. Johnson painted Wilson as provoking the violence, while Wilson said Brown was the aggressor. He also said Wilson fired at least one shot at his friend while Brown was running away. The transcript released in November notes that jurors listened to a recording of an Aug. 13 interview of Johnson by the federal and county investigators. Ed Magee, a spokesman for McCulloch, acknowledged earlier Monday that his office didn't release copies of FBI interviews with some witnesses at the request of the Justice Department. An FBI spokeswoman in St. Louis declined comment. "Those reports are not ours to release," Magee said. Hours later, Magee advised reporters that "as promised, additional information concerning the grand jury testimony on the Michael Brown/Darren Wilson investigation is now ready to be released." Grand jury investigations are closed to the public. When McCulloch released documents last month, he said that he wanted transparency and believed "everyone will be able to examine that same evidence and come to their own conclusion." Wilson resigned from the Ferguson Police Department in late November.
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Toxicidad aguda de la Metilendioxipirovalerona (MDPV)/Acute toxicity of Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)

Toxicidad aguda de la Metilendioxipirovalerona (MDPV)/Acute toxicity of Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) | PATOLOGÍA FORENSE | Scoop.it

http://amplia-mente.com/2014/12/toxicidad-aguda-de-la-metilendioxipirovalerona-mdpv/

Sebastian Diaz's insight:

Estamos ante un de las nuevas sustancias de abuso que están surgiendo en el mercado de las drogas en los últimos años, consideradas como “legal highs” al tener el carácter de sustancias “legales” por no estar incluidas en las listas de sustancias psicotrópicas de abuso. Pero no por ser “legales” son inocuas para el ser humano.

We are facing a new substances of abuse that are emerging in the drug market in recent years, considered as “legal highs” to have the character of “legal” substances not be included in the lists of psychotropic substance abuse . But not for being “legal” are harmless to humans.

La MDPV es un derivado de las catinonas. Estas son sustancias derivadas de la planta Khat (originaria de la zona del cuerno de África) donde se utiliza por las tribus locales masticándolas para combatir la fatiga y la altitud. De estas plantas se han extraído sustancias químicas, las catinonas, que al no estar incluidas en las listas de sustancias psicotrópicas de abuso, se han estado vendiendo en las growshops, smartshops o en internet de forma legal, quedando incluidas en lo que se conoce como “legal highs”. Estas sustancias se han estado vendiendo como abono para las plantas o como sales de baño y en todos los envases se incluye la leyenda “No apto para el consumo humano”. En nuestro blog ya hemos hecho referencia a estas “sales de baño” como sustancias más adictivas incluso que la metanfetaminas e incluso veíamos en otro de nuestros post como el Observatorio Europeo de las drogas tenía bajo vigilancia a la MDPV, que recientemente se ha introducido en la lista de sustancias psicotrópicas al ser considerara como sustancia de abuso.

The MDPV is a derivative of the cathinones. These are substances derived from plant Khat (originally from the area of the Horn of Africa) where by local tribes munching used to combat fatigue and altitude. Of these plants were extracted chemicals, cathinones, that not being included in the lists of psychotropic substance abuse, have been selling on the growshops, smartshops or online legally, being included in what is known as “legal highs”. These substances have been sold as plant fertilizer or as bath salts and for all packages marked “Not for human consumption” is included. In our blog we have already referred to these “bath salts” as most addictive substances including the methamphetamine and even watched on another of our post as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs had under surveillance MDPV, which has recently been introduced in the list of psychotropic substances to be considered as substance abuse.

La MDPV ha sido utilizada como el sustituto “natural” de las anfetaminas, fue detectada por primera vez en Europa en el año 2008, por el Finnish National Focal Point. Posteriormente hasta 27 países informaron a la EMCDDA de la presencia de esta sustancias en el mercado. Se presenta en el mercado como polvos o como tabletas o cápsulas e incluso a veces se ha presentado como líquido. Normalmente se utiliza por vía nasal, oral o incluso por inyección intravenosa. En su farmacodinámica destaca la inhibición de la recaptación de dopamina y norepinefrina por el bloqueo de los tansportadores de ambas sustancias. También van a bloquear los transportadores de serotonina. Por todo ello van a provocar durante su consumo un síndrome catecolaminérgico y serotoninérgico, es decir que sus efectos tóxicos van a ser muy parecidos a los que provocan la cocaína y las  anfetaminas. En Europa se han llegado a describir 108 muertes relacionadas con el consumo de esta catinona, aunque cabe señalar que en algunas de estas muertes es probable que hayan participado o hayan sido responsables de la muerte, otras drogas y/u otras condiciones médicas o traumáticas.

The MDPV has been used as the “natural” substitute of amphetamines, was first detected in Europe in 2008, by the Finnish National Focal Point. Subsequently up to 27 countries reported to the EMCDDA in the presence of this substance on the market. It comes on the market as a powder or as tablets or capsules and sometimes has been presented as a liquid. Typically used for nasal, oral or intravenous injection. Stands in its pharmacodynamic inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake blocking by tansportadores of both substances. They will also block serotonin transporters. Therefore they will generate during its consumption by catecholamine and serotonin syndrome, ie toxic effects will be very similar to those that cause cocaine and amphetamines. In Europe have come to describe 108 associated with the consumption of this cathinone deaths, although it should be noted that some of these deaths are likely to have participated or were responsible for the death, other drugs and / or other medical or traumatic conditions.

Traemos esta sustancia hoy a nuestro blog a raíz de la publicación del artículo “Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity“, publicado en la revista Journal of Medical Toxicology, en la que un consorcio de investigadores del American College of Medical Toxicology. En dicho artículo se describen 23 casos de pacientes en los que se detectan catinonas sintéticas, obteniénose resultado positivo a MDPV. De estos casos descritos el 83% eran varones, en los que los efectos clínicos que se presentaron más frecuentemente fueron taquicardia (74%), agitación psicomotriz (65%) y un síndrome simpaticomimético en el 65% de los casos. El 96% de los casos requirieron ingreso hospitalario y el 87% este ingreso se llevó a cabo en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. El tratamiento utilizado en el 78% de ellos fueron las benzodiacepinas pero incluso en un 30% de los casos se requirió la incubación orotraqueal para mantener la respiración del sujeto. El 61% fueron dados de alta pero el 30% requirió que se mantuviera su ingreso en la unidad de psiquiatría por la agitación psicomotriz que presentaron. Los autores  describen un caso de fallecimiento en relación con el consumo de MDPV. Las conclusiones a las que llegan estos autores son que por un lado los consumidores de esta sustancia en la mayoría de los casos van a requerir ingreso hospitalario y en algunos de los casos van a requerir ingreso psiquiátrico.

We bring this matter to our blog today following the publication of the article “Acute Toxicity Methylenedioxypyrovalerone” published in the Journal of Medical Toxicology, in which a consortium of researchers from the American College of Medical Toxicology. In that article 23 cases of patients who are detected synthetic cathinones are described with positive results to MDPV. Of these reported cases, 83% were male, where clinical effects were presented more frequently tachycardia (74%), psychomotor agitation (65%) and a sympathomimetic syndrome in 65% of cases. 96% of the cases required hospitalization and 87% of this income was carried out in a intensive care unit. The treatment used in 78% of them were benzodiazepines but even in 30% of cases tracheal incubation was required to maintain the subject’s breath. 61% were discharged but 30% required that your income is retained in the psychiatric unit for psychomotor agitation presented. The authors describe a case of death in relation to the use of MDPV. The conclusions reached by these authors is that on one hand consumers of this substance in most cases will require hospitalization and in some cases will require psychiatric hospitalization.
Therefore in amplia-mente.com back on the idea that natural is not always safe, and therefore the “legal highs” should be prosecuted as toxic substances, the problem again arises is that when the MDPV was declared illegal to be included in the List of Narcotics, clandestine laboratories started to synthesize new substances on the market to replace the “legal substances”. We will continue alert.

Por tanto en amplia-mente.com volvemos sobre la idea de que lo natural no siempre es inocuo, y por tanto las “legal highs” deberán de ser perseguidas como sustancias tóxicas, el problema que se vuelve a plantear es que cuando el MDPV fue declarado como ilegal al ser incluido en la Lista de Estupefacientes, los laboratorios clandestinos comenzaron a sintetizar nuevas sustancias para sustituirlo en el mercado de las “sustancias legales”. Seguiremos atentos.

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