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The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

 

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving
Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye, Arkadiusz Stopczynski, Erez Shmueli, Alex Pentland, and Sune Lehmann

Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 5277 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05277

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tom cockburn's curator insight, June 25, 2014 2:06 PM

Interesting results

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Good Art Is Popular Because It's Good. Right?

Good Art Is Popular Because It's Good. Right? | Papers | Scoop.it
Research suggests that after a basic standard of quality is met, what becomes a success and what doesn't is essentially a matter of chance.


http://www.npr.org/2014/02/27/282939233/good-art-is-popular-because-its-good-right

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Minsik Oh's curator insight, June 26, 2014 4:55 AM

Inherent quality of art

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A minimal model captures the collective behaviour of locusts

Locusts and other migrating insects form cohesive swarms that travel over huge distances and can have a devastating effect on crops, leading to famine and starvation. Understanding the factors that enable the long-term cohesion of such swarms is therefore of paramount importance. When placed in an annular arena, a population of locusts march together in a common direction, which may be reversed at later times. These directional switches are more frequent at lower population numbers. We propose a novel, minimal, spatially-homogenous model of locust interactions to investigate the individual-based mechanisms of the observed density-dependent macroscopic-level effect. This model successfully replicates the density-dependent properties of the experimental data as a consequence of the demographic noise inherent at low population numbers. The ability of our non-spatial model to replicate the experimental data indicates that the switching behaviour is a fundamental property of the way locusts interact rather than an effect of the environmental geometry. However, to match the data it is necessary to include higher-order interactions in the model, indicating that locusts can incorporate information from at least two neighbouring individuals travelling in the opposite direction. We derive a stochastic differential equation from our individual-based model, and demonstrate agreement between its drift and diffusion coefficients and those calculated numerically directly from the experimental data. Using the experimental data to parameterise our model, we demonstrate that the model replicates both the qualitative form of the time-dependent data and quantitative statistics such as the mean switching time and stationary probability distribution.


A minimal model captures the collective behaviour of locusts
Christian A. Yates, Louise Dyson, Jerome Buhl, Alan J. McKane

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5585

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Spatial correlation analysis of cascading failures: Congestions and Blackouts

Spatial correlation analysis of cascading failures: Congestions and Blackouts | Papers | Scoop.it
Cascading failures have become major threats to network robustness due to their potential catastrophic consequences, where local perturbations can induce global propagation of failures. Unlike failures spreading via direct contacts due to structural interdependencies, overload failures usually propagate through collective interactions among system components. Despite the critical need in developing protection or mitigation strategies in networks such as power grids and transportation, the propagation behavior of cascading failures is essentially unknown. Here we find by analyzing our collected data that jams in city traffic and faults in power grid are spatially long-range correlated with correlations decaying slowly with distance. Moreover, we find in the daily traffic, that the correlation length increases dramatically and reaches maximum, when morning or evening rush hour is approaching. Our study can impact all efforts towards improving actively system resilience ranging from evaluation of design schemes, development of protection strategies to implementation of mitigation programs.

Via Claudia Mihai
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tom cockburn's curator insight, June 25, 2014 2:08 PM

Could be far reaching in its significance

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The cultural evolution of mind reading

It is not just a manner of speaking: “Mind reading,” or working out what others are thinking and feeling, is markedly similar to print reading. Both of these distinctly human skills recover meaning from signs, depend on dedicated cortical areas, are subject to genetically heritable disorders, show cultural variation around a universal core, and regulate how people behave. But when it comes to development, the evidence is conflicting. Some studies show that, like learning to read print, learning to read minds is a long, hard process that depends on tuition. Others indicate that even very young, nonliterate infants are already capable of mind reading. Here, we propose a resolution to this conflict. We suggest that infants are equipped with neurocognitive mechanisms that yield accurate expectations about behavior (“automatic” or “implicit” mind reading), whereas “explicit” mind reading, like literacy, is a culturally inherited skill; it is passed from one generation to the next by verbal instruction.


The cultural evolution of mind reading

Cecilia M. Heyes, Chris D. Frith

Science 20 June 2014:
Vol. 344 no. 6190
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1243091

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Gossip: Identifying Central Individuals in a Social Network

We examine individuals' abilities to identify the highly central people in their social networks, where centrality is defined by diffusion centrality (Banerjee et al., 2013), which characterizes a node's influence in spreading information. We first show that diffusion centrality nests standard centrality measures -- degree, eigenvector and Katz-Bonacich centrality -- as extreme special cases. Next, we show that boundedly rational individuals can, simply by tracking sources of gossip, identify who is central in their social network in the specific sense of having high diffusion centrality. Finally, we examine whether the model's predictions are consistent with data in which we ask people in each of 35 villages whom would be the most effective point from which to initiate a diffusion process. We find that individuals accurately nominate central individuals in the diffusion centrality sense. Additionally, the nominated individuals are more central in the network than "village leaders" as well as those who are most central in a GPS sense. This suggests that individuals can rank others according to their centrality in the networks even without knowing the network, and that eliciting network centrality of others simply by asking individuals may be an inexpensive research and policy tool.


Gossip: Identifying Central Individuals in a Social Network
Abhijit Banerjee, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Esther Duflo, Matthew O. Jackson

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The Billion Cell Construct: Will Three-Dimensional Printing Get Us There?

The Billion Cell Construct: Will Three-Dimensional Printing Get Us There? | Papers | Scoop.it

How structure relates to function—across spatial scales, from the single molecule to the whole organism—is a central theme in biology. Bioengineers, however, wrestle with the converse question: will function follow form? That is, we struggle to approximate the architecture of living tissues experimentally, hoping that the structure we create will lead to the function we desire. A new means to explore the relationship between form and function in living tissue has arrived with three-dimensional printing, but the technology is not without limitations.


Miller JS (2014) The Billion Cell Construct: Will Three-Dimensional Printing Get Us There? PLoS Biol 12(6): e1001882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001882

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Towards a comparative science of cities: using mobile traffic records in New York, London and Hong Kong

This chapter examines the possibility to analyze and compare human activities in an urban environment based on the detection of mobile phone usage patterns. Thanks to an unprecedented collection of counter data recording the number of calls, SMS, and data transfers resolved both in time and space, we confirm the connection between temporal activity profile and land usage in three global cities: New York, London and Hong Kong. By comparing whole cities typical patterns, we provide insights on how cultural, technological and economical factors shape human dynamics. At a more local scale, we use clustering analysis to identify locations with similar patterns within a city. Our research reveals a universal structure of cities, with core financial centers all sharing similar activity patterns and commercial or residential areas with more city-specific patterns. These findings hint that as the economy becomes more global, common patterns emerge in business areas of different cities across the globe, while the impact of local conditions still remains recognizable on the level of routine people activity.


Towards a comparative science of cities: using mobile traffic records in New York, London and Hong Kong
S. Grauwin, S. Sobolevsky, S. Moritz, I. Gódor, C. Ratti

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.4400

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If the World Began Again, Would Life as We Know It Exist?

If the World Began Again, Would Life as We Know It Exist? | Papers | Scoop.it

The Long-Term Evolution Experiment, as the E. coli project is known, has surpassed 60,000 generations now, giving Lenski a deep data set from which to draw inferences about the interplay of contingency and convergence in evolution. Subtle changes in the bacteria’s DNA that make them larger and better able to proliferate in the flask have been relatively common across the groups. At the same time, Lenski has witnessed “striking” cases of contingency, in which one population did something completely different than the others. But as in convergence, he adds, these transformations weren’t entirely random.


http://nautil.us/issue/14/mutation/if-the-world-began-again-would-life-as-we-know-it-exist

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The civilizing process in London’s Old Bailey

One of the characteristics of the modern era is the emergence of new bureaucratic and social mechanisms for the management and control of violence. Our analysis of 150 y of spoken word testimony in the English criminal justice system provides new insight into this critical process. We show how, beginning around the 1800s, trials for violent and nonviolent offenses become increasingly distinct. Driven by a shifting set of underlying signals, this long-term shift in the underlying norms of the system involves both changes in bureaucratic practice and in civil society as a whole.


The civilizing process in London’s Old Bailey
Sara Klingenstein, Tim Hitchcock, and Simon DeDeo

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1405984111
PNAS June 16, 2014

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The Future of Computer Intelligence Is Everything but Artificial

The Future of Computer Intelligence Is Everything but Artificial | Papers | Scoop.it
Computers are already smart, just in their own ways. They catalogue the breadth of human knowledge, find meaning in mushroom clouds of data, and fly spacecraft to other worlds. And they're getting better. Below are four domains of computing where the machines are rising.

Via Jorge Louçã
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Eli Levine's curator insight, June 11, 2014 7:30 PM

I'm just waiting for the computer chip system that allows us to consciously use more of our brain than we already have.

 

I don't know what we're going to do about automation, economically, socially and psychologically.  There are a lot of people who will lose their jobs, their livelihoods and their abilities to participate in the economy, without having the requisite number of jobs to employ people. 

 

Unless we figure out an effective, reasoned, and ethical (but not necessarily "fair", because no one is going to agree on that definition) way to ensure that people are able to participate in the economy and have a purpose in life, we will face a considerable amount of grief, misery, destitution and possible violence against humans and machines for competition over these jobs.  Those who have the appropriate skills, know-how and will to work will find a shrinking job market, as even higher level jobs get overtaken by machines.  This leaves the vast majority of the population out of work, unable to make a living and unable to get a job due to a sheer lack of work available.  They will still have sex (as a matter of fact, they may have more sex and more chances of having children), they will still get sick, get old, die and in the meantime, be have their needs and wants to attend to.

 

Tis a scary time when robotics, computers and machines will take over most of our jobs.  What will we do when that happens?

 

Anyone?

 

No one?

 

Think about it.

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The impact of social segregation on human mobility in developing and industrialized regions

This study leverages mobile phone data to analyze human mobility patterns in a developing nation, especially in comparison to those of a more industrialized nation. Developing regions, such as the Ivory Coast, are marked by a number of factors that may influence mobility, such as less infrastructural coverage and maturity, less economic resources and stability, and in some cases, more cultural and language-based diversity. By comparing mobile phone data collected from the Ivory Coast to similar data collected in Portugal, we are able to highlight both qualitative and quantitative differences in mobility patterns - such as differences in likelihood to travel, as well as in the time required to travel - that are relevant to consideration on policy, infrastructure, and economic development. Our study illustrates how cultural and linguistic diversity in developing regions (such as Ivory Coast) can present challenges to mobility models that perform well and were conceptualized in less culturally diverse regions. Finally, we address these challenges by proposing novel techniques to assess the strength of borders in a regional partitioning scheme and to quantify the impact of border strength on mobility model accuracy.


The impact of social segregation on human mobility in developing and industrialized regions
Amini A, Kung K, Kang C, Sobolevsky S, Ratti C
EPJ Data Science 2014, 3 :6 (6 June 2014)

http://www.epjdatascience.com/content/3/1/6

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The Emerging Science of Computational Anthropology

The Emerging Science of Computational Anthropology | Papers | Scoop.it

The increasing availability of big data from mobile phones and location-based apps has triggered a revolution in the understanding of human mobility patterns. This data shows the ebb and flow of the daily commute in and out of cities, the pattern of travel around the world and even how disease can spread through cities via their transport systems.

 

So there is considerable interest in looking more closely at human mobility patterns to see just how well it can be predicted and how these predictions might be used in everything from disease control and city planning to traffic forecasting and location-based advertising.

Today we get an insight into the kind of detailed that is possible thanks to the work of Zimo Yang at Microsoft research in Beijing and a few pals. These guys start with the hypothesis that people who live in a city have a pattern of mobility that is significantly different from those who are merely visiting. By dividing travellers into locals and non-locals, their ability to predict where people are likely to visit dramatically improves.


Via Ashish Umre
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luiy's curator insight, June 10, 2014 1:49 PM

The question that Zimo and co want to answer is the following: given a particular user and their current location, where are they most likely to visit in the near future? In practice, that means analysing the user’s data, such as their hometown and the locations recently visited, and coming up with a list of other locations that they are likely to visit based on the type of people who visited these locations in the past.

Zimo and co used their training dataset to learn the mobility pattern of locals and non-locals and the popularity of the locations they visited. The team then applied this to the test dataset to see whether their algorithm was able to predict where locals and non-locals were likely to visit.

 

They found that their best results came from analysing the pattern of behaviour of a particular individual and estimating the extent to which this person behaves like a local. That produced a weighting called the indigenization coefficient that the researchers could then use to determine the mobility patterns this person was likely to follow in future.

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Controllability and observability analysis for vertex domination centrality in directed networks

Topological centrality is a significant measure for characterising the relative importance of a node in a complex network. For directed networks that model dynamic processes, however, it is of more practical importance to quantify a vertex's ability to dominate (control or observe) the state of other vertices. In this paper, based on the determination of controllable and observable subspaces under the global minimum-cost condition, we introduce a novel direction-specific index, domination centrality, to assess the intervention capabilities of vertices in a directed network. Statistical studies demonstrate that the domination centrality is, to a great extent, encoded by the underlying network's degree distribution and that most network positions through which one can intervene in a system are vertices with high domination centrality rather than network hubs. To analyse the interaction and functional dependence between vertices when they are used to dominate a network, we define the domination similarity and detect significant functional modules in glossary and metabolic networks through clustering analysis. The experimental results provide strong evidence that our indices are effective and practical in accurately depicting the structure of directed networks.

 

Controllability and observability analysis for vertex domination centrality in directed networks
B Wang, L Gao, Y Gao, Y Deng, and Y Wang

Scientific Reports 4, Article number 5399 (23 June 2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05399

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Zipf's law holds for phrases, not words

Over the last century, the elements of many disparate systems have been found to approximately follow Zipf's law---that element size is inversely proportional to element size rank---from city populations, to firm sizes, and family name. But with Zipf's law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding only over a few orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that a mixture of words and phrases comprise coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf's law for English phrases extends over seven to nine orders of rank magnitude rather than typically two to three for words alone. In doing so, we develop a simple, principled, and scalable method of random phrase partitioning, which crucially opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases rather than words.

 

Zipf's law holds for phrases, not words
JR Williams, PR Lessard, S Desu, E Clark, JP Bagrow, CM Danforth, PS Dodds

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5181

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Behaviors and Strategies of Bacterial Navigation in Chemical and Nonchemical Gradients

Bacteria, such as E. coli, live in a complex environment with varying chemical and/or non-chemical stimuli. They constantly seek for and migrate to optimal environmental conditions. A well-known example is E. coli chemotaxis which direct cell movements up or down chemical gradients. Using the same machinery, E. coli can also respond to non-chemical factors (e.g., pH and temperature) and navigate toward certain intermediate, optimal levels of those stimuli. Such taxis behaviors are more sophisticated and require distinctive sensing mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a unified model for different bacterial taxis strategies. This multiscale model incorporates intracellular signaling pathways into population dynamics and leads to a simple theoretical result regarding the steady-state population distribution. Our model can be applied to reveal the key mechanisms for different taxis behaviors and quantitatively account for various experimental data. New predictions can be made within this new model framework to direct future experiments.


Hu B, Tu Y (2014) Behaviors and Strategies of Bacterial Navigation in Chemical and Nonchemical Gradients. PLoS Comput Biol 10(6): e1003672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003672

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Invention as a Combinatorial Process: Evidence from U.S. Patents

Invention has been commonly conceptualized as a search over a space of combinatorial possibilities. Despite the existence of a rich literature, spanning a variety of disciplines, elaborating on the recombinant nature of invention, we lack a formal and quantitative characterization of the combinatorial process underpinning inventive activity. Here we utilize U.S. patent records dating from 1790 to 2010 to formally characterize the invention as a combinatorial process. To do this we treat patented inventions as carriers of technologies and avail ourselves of the elaborate system of technology codes used by the U.S. Patent Office to classify the technologies responsible for an invention's novelty. We find that the combinatorial inventive process exhibits an invariant rate of "exploitation" (refinements of existing combinations of technologies) and "exploration" (the development of new technological combinations). This combinatorial dynamic contrasts sharply with the creation of new technological capabilities -- the building blocks to be combined -- which has significantly slowed down. We also find that notwithstanding the very reduced rate at which new technologies are introduced, the generation of novel technological combinations engenders a practically infinite space of technological configurations.


Invention as a Combinatorial Process: Evidence from U.S. Patents
Hyejin Youn, Luis M. A. Bettencourt, Deborah Strumsky, Jose Lobo

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.2938

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When the bat sings

That bats emit any kind of song comes as a surprise to most people, partly because we tend to think chiefly of their echolocation calls, ultrasonic sounds beyond our hearing, or their short, sharp social calls. It's also a surprise because it is so rare for a mammal to sing like a songbird. “So why do bats?” Bohn asks. “What are the social and environmental pressures that have led them to evolve this ability, which is so mentally demanding?”


When the bat sings
Virginia Morell

Science 20 June 2014:
Vol. 344 no. 6190 pp. 1334-1337
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.344.6190.1334

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Do good actions inspire good actions in others?

Actions such as sharing food and cooperating to reach a common goal have played a fundamental role in the evolution of human societies. These good actions may not maximise the actor's payoff, but they maximise the other's payoff. Consequently, their existence is puzzling for evolutionary theories. Why should you make an effort to help others, even when no reward seems to be at stake? Indeed, experiments typically show that humans are heterogeneous: some may help others, while others may not. With the aim of favouring the emergence of 'successful cultures', a number of studies has recently investigated what mechanisms promote the evolution of a particular good action. But still little is known about if and how good actions can spread from person to person. For instance, does being recipient of an altruistic act increase your probability of being cooperative with others? Plato's quote, 'Good actions give strength to ourselves and inspire good actions in others', suggests that is possible. We have conducted an experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk to test this mechanism using economic games. We have measured willingness to be cooperative through a standard Prisoner's dilemma and willingness to act altruistically using a binary Dictator game. In the baseline treatments, the endowments needed to play were given by the experimenters, as usual; in the control treatments, they came from a good action made by someone else. Across four different comparisons and a total of 572 subjects, we have never found a significant increase of cooperation or altruism when the endowment came from a good action. We conclude that good actions do not necessarily inspire good actions in others, at least in the ideal scenario of a lab experiment with anonymous subjects.


Do good actions inspire good actions in others?
Valerio Capraro, Alessandra Marcelletti

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.4294

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Human language reveals a universal positivity bias

Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (1) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias; (2) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation; and (3) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word usage. Alongside these general regularities, we describe inter-language variations in the emotional spectrum of languages which allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts.


Human language reveals a universal positivity bias
Peter Sheridan Dodds, Eric M. Clark, Suma Desu, Morgan R. Frank, Andrew J. Reagan, Jake Ryland Williams, Lewis Mitchell, Kameron Decker Harris, Isabel M. Kloumann, James P. Bagrow, Karine Megerdoomian, Matthew T. McMahon, Brian F. Tivnan, Christopher M. Danforth

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.3855

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Uncovering Randomness and Success in Society

An understanding of how individuals shape and impact the evolution of society is vastly limited due to the unavailability of large-scale reliable datasets that can simultaneously capture information regarding individual movements and social interactions. We believe that the popular Indian film industry, “Bollywood”, can provide a social network apt for such a study. Bollywood provides massive amounts of real, unbiased data that spans more than 100 years, and hence this network has been used as a model for the present paper. The nodes which maintain a moderate degree or widely cooperate with the other nodes of the network tend to be more fit (measured as the success of the node in the industry) in comparison to the other nodes. The analysis carried forth in the current work, using a conjoined framework of complex network theory and random matrix theory, aims to quantify the elements that determine the fitness of an individual node and the factors that contribute to the robustness of a network. The authors of this paper believe that the method of study used in the current paper can be extended to study various other industries and organizations.


Jalan S, Sarkar C, Madhusudanan A, Dwivedi SK (2014) Uncovering Randomness and Success in Society. PLoS ONE 9(2): e88249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088249

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Meet the Father of Digital Life

Meet the Father of Digital Life | Papers | Scoop.it

Barricelli programmed some of the earliest computer algorithms that resemble real-life processes: a subdivision of what we now call “artificial life,” which seeks to simulate living systems—evolution, adaptation, ecology—in computers. Barricelli presented a bold challenge to the standard Darwinian model of evolution by competition by demonstrating that organisms evolved by symbiosis and cooperation.


http://nautil.us/issue/14/mutation/meet-the-father-of-digital-life

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The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization

The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization | Papers | Scoop.it

Two great trends are evident in the evolution of life on Earth: towards increasing diversification and towards increasing integration. Diversification has spread living processes across the planet, progressively increasing the range of environments and free energy sources exploited by life. Integration has proceeded through a stepwise process in which living entities at one level are integrated into cooperative groups that become larger-scale entities at the next level, and so on, producing cooperative organizations of increasing scale (for example, cooperative groups of simple cells gave rise to the more complex eukaryote cells, groups of these gave rise to multi-cellular organisms, and cooperative groups of these organisms produced animal societies). The trend towards increasing integration has continued during human evolution with the progressive increase in the scale of human groups and societies. The trends towards increasing diversification and integration are both driven by selection. An understanding of the trajectory and causal drivers of the trends suggests that they are likely to culminate in the emergence of a global entity. This entity would emerge from the integration of the living processes, matter, energy and technology of the planet into a global cooperative organization. Such an integration of the results of previous diversifications would enable the global entity to exploit the widest possible range of resources across the varied circumstances of the planet. This paper demonstrates that it's case for directionality meets the tests and criticisms that have proven fatal to previous claims for directionality in evolution.


The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization
John E. Stewart

Biosystems
Available online 1 June 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2014.05.006

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Eli Levine's curator insight, June 15, 2014 10:06 PM

Cooperation is the best way to improve, sustain, maintain, and repair.  Competition is what drives everyone and everything towards something different, be it competition for resources or competition against the elements around us.

 

I don't get what the point of competition amongst the species is for.  Part of cooperation, after all, is knowing what works, learning about what could work better or doesn't work, and then letting the negative or sub-optimal slip back beneath the waves of ignorance, such that the new ways can rise to prominence.

 

Change is the only constant in this universe of universes.

 

Yet cooperation, I think, yields the higher and stronger of the universal structures that are out there, even if it means that there are still losers and winners.  The only difference is the level of consent and consensus that's reached within the social, ecological, economical, and/or political landscape.  One way works towards what is best.  The other way simply yields what is best at competing, which is not the same as being the actual best solution to a given problem or condition.

 

Think about it.

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, June 16, 2014 9:51 AM

is this the end of stove pipes?

Ra's curator insight, June 22, 2014 6:02 AM

Have I been reading too much science fiction?

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Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability

Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability | Papers | Scoop.it

Nanotwinned diamond synthesized with onion carbon nanoparticles as precursors has much higher hardness and thermal stability than natural diamond; its enhanced hardness is due to the reduced size of its twin structures.


Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability
Quan Huang, Dongli Yu, Bo Xu, Wentao Hu, Yanming Ma, Yanbin Wang, Zhisheng Zhao, Bin Wen, Julong He, Zhongyuan Liu & Yongjun Tian

Nature 510, 250–253 (12 June 2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13381

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The Effect of Social Learning on Individual Learning and Evolution

We consider the effects of social learning on the individual learning and genetic evolution of a colony of artificial agents capable of genetic, individual and social modes of adaptation. We confirm that there is strong selection pressure to acquire traits of individual learning and social learning when these are adaptive traits. We show that selection pressure for learning of either kind can supress selection pressure for reproduction or greater fitness. We show that social learning differs from individual learning in that it can support a second evolutionary system that is decoupled from the biological evolutionary system. This decoupling leads to an emergent interaction where immature agents are more likely to engage in learning activities than mature agents.


The Effect of Social Learning on Individual Learning and Evolution
Chris Marriott, Jobran Chebib

http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.2720

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