Using the effective complexity measure, proposed by M. Gell-Mann and S. Lloyd, we give a quantitative definition of an emergent property. We use several previous results and properties of this particular information measure closely related to the random features of the entity and its regularities.
Complexity and the Emergence of Physical Properties
Miguel Angel Fuentes
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4489-4496; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e16084489