Topological features of gene regulatory networks can be successfully reproduced by a model population evolving under selection for short dynamical attractors. The evolved population of networks exhibit motif statistics, summarized by significance profiles, which closely match those of E. coli, S. cerevsiae, and B. subtilis, in such features as the excess of linear motifs and feedforward loops, and deficiency of feedback loops. The slow relaxation to stasis is a hallmark of a rugged fitness landscape, with independently evolving populations exploring distinct valleys strongly differing in network properties.
Burçin Danacı, Mehmet Ali Anıl, and Ayşe Erzan
Motif statistics of artificially evolved and biological networks
Phys. Rev. E 89, 062719 (2014)