City-scale mass gatherings attract hundreds of thousands of pedestrians. These pedestrians need to be monitored constantly to detect critical crowd situations at an early stage and to mitigate the risk that situations evolve towards dangerous incidents. Hereby, the crowd density is an important characteristics to assess the criticality of crowd situations. In this work, we consider location-aware smartphones for monitoring crowds during mass gatherings as an alternative to established video-based solutions.
Probing crowd density through smartphones in city-scale mass gatherings
Martin Wirz, Tobias Franke, Daniel Roggen, Eve Mitleton-Kelly, Paul Lukowicz and Gerhard Tröster
EPJ Data Science 2013, 2:5 http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds17