Migration is a fundamental trait in humans and animals. Recent studies investigated the effect of migration on the evolution of cooperation, showing that contingent migration favors cooperation in spatial structures. In those studies, only local migration to immediate neighbor sites was considered, while long-range migration has not been considered yet, partly because the long-range migration has been generally regarded as harmful for cooperation as it would bring the population to a well-mixed state that favors defection. In this paper, we studied the effects of adaptive long-range migration on the evolution of cooperation through agent-based simulations of a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma game in which individuals can jump to a farther site if they are surrounded by more defectors. Our results show that adaptive long-range migration strongly promotes cooperation, especially under conditions where the temptation to defect is considerably high. Moreover, we found that cooperation emerges and remains robustly through mutation and migration even from a condition in which only defectors exist. These findings demonstrate the significance of adaptive long-range migration, a naturally observed migration style in human and animal behaviors, for the evolution of cooperation.
Adaptive long-range migration promotes cooperation under tempting conditions
Genki Ichinose, Masaya Saito, Hiroki Sayama, David Sloan Wilson