We use methods from network science and econometrics to perform a comparative analysis across time and between EU and non-EU countries to determine the "treatment effect" resulting from EU integration policies. Using non-EU countries as a control set, we provide quantitative evidence that, despite decades of efforts to build a European Research Area, there has been little integration above global trends in patenting and publication. This analysis provides concrete evidence that Europe remains a collection of national innovation systems.
Is Europe Evolving Toward an Integrated Research Area?
Alessandro Chessa, Andrea Morescalchi, Fabio Pammolli, Orion Penner, Alexander M. Petersen, Massimo Riccaboni