How does the brain compute? Traditional theories of neural computation describe the operating function of neurons in terms of average firing rates, with the timing of spikes bearing little information. However, numerous studies have shown that spike timing can convey information and that neurons are highly sensitive to synchrony in their inputs. Here I propose a simple spike-based computational framework, based on the idea that stimulus-induced synchrony can be used to extract sensory invariants (for example, the location of a sound source), which is a difficult task for classical neural networks.
Brette R (2012) Computing with Neural Synchrony. PLoS Comput Biol 8(6): e1002561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002561