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Rescooped by chinchilla from Plant-Microbe Interaction
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Plant Physiol. (2012): Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs)-triggered root responses mediate beneficial rhizobacterial recruitment in Arabidopsis

Plant Physiol. (2012): Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs)-triggered root responses mediate beneficial rhizobacterial recruitment in Arabidopsis | PAMP triggered immunity in plants | Scoop.it

Our recent study demonstrated that foliar infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (hereafter PstDC3000) induced malic acid (MA) transporter (ALMT1) expression leading to increased beneficial rhizobacteria Bacillus subtilis FB17 (hereafter FB17) colonization in plants against PstDC3000. Having shown that a live pathogen could induce an intra-plant signal from shoot-to-root to recruit FB17 belowground, we hypothesized that pathogen derived microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) may relay a similar response specific to FB17 recruitment. Plants subjected to known MAMPs such as a flagellar peptide, flagellin (flg22), and a pathogen-derived phytotoxin, coronatine (COR) induced a shoot-to-root signal regulating ALMT1 for recruitment of FB17. The data suggests that MAMPs-induced signaling to regulate ALMT1 is salicylic acid (SA) and JAR1/JIN1/MYC2 independent. Interestingly, a cell culture filtrate of FB17 suppressed flg22-induced MAMPs-activated root defense responses, which are similar to suppression of COR-mediated MAMPs-activated root defense, revealing a diffusible bacterial component that may regulate plant immune responses. Further analysis showed that the biofilm formation in B. subtilis, negate suppression of MAMPs-activated defense responses in roots. Moreover, B. subtilis suppression of MAMPs-activated root defense does require JAR1/JIN1/MYC2. The ability of FB17 to block the MAMPs-elicited signaling pathways related to antibiosis reflects a strategy adapted by FB17 for efficient root colonization. These experiments demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to suppress a host defense response which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and host-mutualistic association.

 

Venkatchalam Lakshmannan, Sherry Kitto, Jeff Caplan, Yi-Huang Hsueh, Dan Kearns, Yu-Sung Wu, and Harsh Bais


Via Nicolas Denancé, Guogen Yang
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Rescooped by chinchilla from Plant innate immunity
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Current Opinion in Plant Biology (2012): Plants and pathogens: putting infection strategies and defence mechanisms on the map

Current Opinion in Plant Biology (2012): Plants and pathogens: putting infection strategies and defence mechanisms on the map | PAMP triggered immunity in plants | Scoop.it

All plant organs are vulnerable to colonisation and molecular manipulation by microbes. When this interaction allows proliferation of the microbe at the expense of the host, the microbe can be described as a pathogen. In our attempts to understand the full nature of the interactions that occur between a potential pathogen and its host, various aspects of the molecular mechanisms of infection and defence have begun to be characterised. There is significant variation in these mechanisms. While previous research has examined plant–pathogen interactions with whole plant/organ resolution, the specificity of infection strategies and changes in both gene expression and protein localisation of immune receptors upon infection suggest there is much to be gained from examination of plant-microbe interactions at the cellular level.

 

Christine Faulkner and Silke Robatzek


Via Nicolas Denancé, Mary Williams, Guogen Yang, Amy
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Plant viruses alter insect behavior to enhance their spread : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Plant viruses alter insect behavior to enhance their spread : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | PAMP triggered immunity in plants | Scoop.it

Pathogens and parasites can induce changes in host or vector behavior that enhance their transmission. In plant systems, such effects are largely restricted to vectors, because they are mobile and may exhibit preferences dependent upon plant host infection status. Here we report the first evidence that acquisition of a plant virus directly alters host selection behavior by its insect vector. We show that the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, after acquiring Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) during in vitro feeding, prefers noninfected wheat plants, while noninfective aphids also fed in vitro prefer BYDV-infected plants. This behavioral change should promote pathogen spread since noninfective vector preference for infected plants will promote acquisition, while infective vector preference for noninfected hosts will promote transmission. We propose the “Vector Manipulation Hypothesis” to explain the evolution of strategies in plant pathogens to enhance their spread to new hosts. Our findings have implications for disease and vector management.


Via Suayib Üstün, Guogen Yang
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