Water fleas live only days or under optimal conditions weeks, but their mortality increases sharply with age, as is the case in longer-lived animals such as humans. But other animals — such as the hermit crab, the red abalone and the hydra, a microscopic freshwater animal that can live centuries — buck that trend, enjoying near constant levels of fertility and mortality.
A comparison of standardized demographic patterns across 46 species, published in Nature, suggests that the vast diversity of ‘ageing strategies’ among them challenges the notion that evolution inevitably leads to senescence, or deterioration of mortality and fertility, with age, says Owen Jones, a biologist at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense, who led the study.
“By taking a grand view and doing a survey across species, we found plenty of violations of this underpinning theory,” says Jones.
To compare fertility and mortality patterns, the authors assembled published life-history data sets for 11 mammals, 12 other vertebrates, 10 invertebrates, 12 vascular plants and a green alga, and standardized the trajectories — dividing mortality rates at each point in the lifespan by the average mortality rate.
The researchers found no association between the length of life and the degree of senescence. Of the 24 species showing the most abrupt increase in mortality with age, 11 had relatively long lifespans and 13 had relatively short lifespans. A similar split in lifespan occurred in the species that had a less abrupt increase in mortality.
Laurence Mueller, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California at Irvine, agrees. “Organisms in the field die from a lot of causes — for example, predation or disease — other than ageing,” he says. “Unfortunately, the unknown source of mortality in field-data sets confounds the age-related patterns of senescence, which is what we’re all interested in,” he adds.
The Biggest Losers Aren't Necessarily More Healthy Pacific Standard As different studies measured different health indicators, the researchers focused on five common ones: total cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and...
Here are five 2013 CDO facts that might interest you.
CDO Fact #1 There are over 100 chief data officers (carrying that actual job title) – serving in large enterprises today. That’s more than double the number we counted in 2012.CDO Fact #2 Banking, Government and Insurance are the top 3 industries for Chief Data Officers – in that order. However we are now seeing other industries rising.CDO Fact #3 65% of Chief Data Officers are in the United States. 20% are in the UK. There are now CDOs in over a dozen countries.CDO Fact #4 Over 25% Of all Chief Data Officers are in New York or DC. It’s a regulatory catalyzed trend – at least in the early stages.CDO Fact #5 Over 25% of Chief Data Officers are women. In case you are wondering - that’s almost twice as high as for CIOs (13%)
Via Farid Mheir
As 2013 comes to a close, we started thinking – what were the predominant marketing trends of this past year? Turns out 2013 was an interesting year in marketing! So Überflip made an infographic all about it.
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