CAN WE DOMESTICATE WILD FISH
AND SHOULD WE?'
FACTORY FARMING, CAGING OUR FISH
TAMING THE BLUE FRONTIER
Conservation Magazine, University of Washington
Ten thousand years ago, humans made the shift on land from hunting and gathering to farming. Now the same transformation is taking place at sea....
Many of today’s coastal fish farms have decimated habitat and spread disease into local fish populations. Making matters worse, fish farms represent a net drain on populations of wild fish, which are often caught just so they can be ground into feed for salmon and other species.
Despite these concerns, a shift is underway. Some members of the environmental community are concluding that widespread aquaculture must be pursued if we are to save the oceans and feed the planet. Aquaculture production must double by 2050 just to keep up with per capita demand. But merely scaling up current methods would only exacerbate the problems.
In other words, the world needs new, sustainable aquaculture practices, and it needs them fast. It took 10,000 years for domestic agriculture to transform the land, but viable ocean farming schemes must be developed in one one-hundredth of that time if they are to forestall the oceans’ demise. This urgency is spurring some leading environmentalists and scientists to lend their knowledge and support, instead of their opposition. In a recent lecture, the renowned marine ecologist Jeremy Jackson discussed the threat of overfishing and announced, “the most important scientific challenge we now face is how to make aquaculture ecologically sustainable.”... http://conservationmagazine.org/2009/04/taming-the-blue-frontier/
Bloomberg, December 15, 2014
-▶ OYSTER HERPES' KILLER VIRUS THREATENS $4 BILLION INDUSTRY http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-12-14/oyster-herpes-killer-virus-threatens-4-billion-industry.html
Quartz, December 15, 2014
▶ FARMED SHELLFISH: THE WORLD'S SCALLOPS AND OYSTERS ARE MYSTERIOUSLY DYING OUT. British Columbia’s share of Canada’s aquaculture industry is in a tailspin. http://qz.com/311345/the-worlds-scallops-and-oysters-are-mysteriously-dying-out/
Grist, June 18, 2012
▶ SICK FARMED FISH: ANOTHER VIRUS CRASHES CANADA'S SALMON FARMS http://grist.org/food/sea-sick-another-virus-crashes-canadas-salmon-farms/
The Scotsman, April 20, 2014
▶ SALMON FARM 'KILLING OFF WILD STOCK' "...since 1989 (we have known) that the collapse of sea trout populations in West Highland Scotland was being driven by the large numbers of sea lice associated with the cage rearing of salmon. “It is a problem which continues to get worse and also greatly depletes salmon populations in fjordic systems.
“Efforts to reduce sea louse numbers to levels which do not threaten the wild fish have failed dismally, despite the large-scale use of dangerous chemicals which ultimately threaten the valuable lobster, prawn and crab fisheries of the Highlands and Islands.
“Add to this assault on sea trout and salmon populations the effects of bacterial and virus disease and the widely reported problem of genetic introgression. Healthy wild sea trout and salmon populations cannot exist in the presence of the cage-reared salmon.” http://www.scotsman.com/news/scotland/top-stories/salmon-farms-killing-off-wild-stock-1-3382113
Jan 24, 2013 NYTimes.com
-▶ NOWHERE TO SWIM: MILESTONE LOOMS FOR CORPORATE FACTORY "FARMED"-RAISED FISH http://www.scoop.it/t/our-oceans-need-us/p/3995526608/milestone-looms-for-corporate-factory-farmed-raised-fish-more-bigger-faster-profits-that-is
Guardian Environment, May 31, 2014
-▶ IS IT NOW ETHICAL TO EAT FARMED, CAGED FISH? There aren't plenty more fish in the sea. Our fish and seafood consumption is soaring, so in steps aquaculture. From 2011 to 2012 global aquaculture provided 90m tonnes of fish, overtaking 80m tonnes from the wild fisheries. But in reality 50% of the world's wild caught fish are fed to other animals, including farmed fish. There's also a large pressure group advocating introducing GM farmed salmon – dubbed "Frankenfish" ...
-▶ FARMED SALMON EXPOSED: THE WORST FISH YOU CAN EAT - http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/11/30/farmed-salmon-exposed.aspx
-▶ FISH FARMING — A SAD "SOLUTION" TO AN UNNECESSARY PROBLEM | J. Morris Hicks, author http://hpjmh.com/2011/07/17/fish-farming-a-sad-solution-to-an-unnecessary-problem/
Dr. David Suzuki, April 29, 2014
▶ SALMON FARMS vs. WILD SALMON: HAS ANYTHING CHANGED AFTER A DECADE OF CONTROVERSY? http://ecowatch.com/2014/04/29/salmon-farms-wild-salmon-controversy/
MUZZLED BY THE COURTS: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/12/24/bc-fish-farm-foe-takes-_n_4498216.htm
FACTORY FARMED FISH
▶ THE MASSIVE POLLUTION AND CONDITION UNDER A FISH FARM IN NORWAY : Lerøy west (English subtitle) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAIShIjPbIE
The Blog Aquatic November 21, 2014
- ▶ 5 REASONS YOU DEPEND ON HEALTHY FISHERIES http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/11/21/5-reasons-you-depend-on-healthy-fisheries/
EENews, November 20, 2014
-▶ OCEANS: DEBATE CHURNS AS NOAA IS SET TO OPEN U.S. FEDERAL WATERS TO AQUACULTURE. Should the ocean be farmed like the land, with fish instead of livestock? And if so, how sustainable is sustainable enough? http://www.eenews.net/stories/1060009321
Wall Street Journal:
TAMING THE WILD TUNA: WHY FARMED FISH ARE TAKING OVER OUR DINNER PLATES http://online.wsj.com/articles/why-farmed-fish-are-taking-over-our-dinner-plates-1415984616
-▶ 10 TRENDS SHAPING THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD. Sustainable seafood programs are a critical part of buying and selling seafood in these modern times. But like everything, the concept of sustainable seafood is changing -- here's how. http://seafoodinternationaldigital.com/10-trends-shaping-the-future-of-sustainable-seafood/
Truthout, December 07, 2014
- ▶ ENCLOSING THE AQUATIC COMMONS IN BRAZIL - AQUACULTURE: THE PARTITIONING OF BRAZIL'S OCEAN AND RIVERS THREATENS SMALL-SCALE FISHING FAMILIES. The federal government has implemented a plan for privatizing water resources that can then be used by private companies for fish farming, and its objective is to produce 20 million tons of fish annually through aquaculture. Privatizing the water in this way enables companies to intensively produce one type of fish in an area, without the fish having to compete with other species for food and space. Raising fish through aquaculture, however, requires the use of countless chemicals and has led to the displacement of small-scale fishermen and women. http://truth-out.org/news/item/27824-the-partitioning-of-brazil-s-ocean-and-rivers-threatens-small-scale-fishing-families
August 16, 2013 The Fish Site
-▶ PACIFIC TUNA STOCKS IN ALARMING DECLINE: TOO MANY INDUSTRIAL FISHING VESSELS PLUNDERING THE OCEANS WITH HIGHLY DESTRUCTIVE FISHING TECHNIQUES http://www.thefishsite.com/fishnews/21031/pacific-tuna-stocks-in-alarming-decline#sthash.MgpLJS46.dpuf
World Fishing & Aquaculture, March 10, 2014
▶ RESEARCHERS LOOK AT STERILIZATION OF FARMED FISH TO AVOID CONTAMINATING WILD FISH. Researchers at the UK’s University of East Anglia (UEA) believe farmed salmon should be sterilised to avoid breeding with wild fish. http://www.worldfishing.net/news101/industry-news/researchers-look-at-wild-fish-reproduction
UNESCO, February 22, 2012
-▶ MARINE SCIENTIST ALARMED ABOUT INCREASING THREAT TO OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS. In the last 30 years, coastal resources such as mangroves, coral reefs and fishery resources have become depleted on a large scale. For example, more than 60 per cent of Asia’s mangroves have already been converted to aquaculture farms (ESCAP and ADB, 2000). The region is losing its resource bases to support people’s livelihoods and sustain future economic development. http://www.unescobkk.org/news/article/marine-scientists-alarmed-about-increasing-threats-to-ocean-ecosystems/
Grist, July 30, 2014
-▶ FARMING BLUEFIN TUNA MIGHT BE OUT OF OUR DEPTHS (AND TOO SHALLOW FOR THEIRS) http://grist.org/news/farming-bluefin-tuna-might-be-out-of-our-depths/
▶ FARM-RAISED TUNA MAY NOT BE THE ANSWER TO OVERFISHING - TOO LARGE TO RAISE IN CRAMPED FACTORY-FARMED CAGES http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-01-08/farm-raised-tuna-may-not-be-the-answer-to-overfishing
Business Insider, July 0, 2014
▶ FORGET TUNA: THESE ARE THE SEA FOODS WE'LL BE EATING IN THE FUTURE http://www.businessinsider.com/seafood-well-be-eating-in-the-future-2014-6
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) February 05, 2014
▶ FISH FARMS TO PRODUCE NEARLY TWO THIRDS OF GLOBAL FOOD FISH SUPPLY BY 2030 http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/213522/icode/
Guardian Environment, May 19, 2014
-▶ FARMED FISH CONSUMPTION AT RECORD HIGH, UN REPORT REVEALS http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/may/19/farmed-fish-consumption-un-report-wild-stock
Epoch Times, July 15, 2014
▶ 5 REASONS TO AVOID FACTORY-FARMED FISH http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/802171-5-reasons-to-avoid-factory-farmed-fish/
THE BUSINESS CASE FOR SEAFOOD TRACEABILITY
World Fishing & Aquaculture, January 14, 2014-
▶ NEW TEST FOR SALMON DNA TRACING FOR ESCAPED FARMED SALMON : Farmed salmon can now be more efficiently tested to trace where they have come from http://www.worldfishing.net/news101/industry-news/new-test-for-salmon-dna-tracing
Summit Voice, March 11, 2014
▶ DO FARMED SALMON THREATEN WILD POPULATIONS? http://summitcountyvoice.com/2014/03/11/do-farmed-salmon-threaten-wild-populations/
FORAGE FISH (USED FOR FISH FARMING
KEY TO A HEALTHY OCEAN FOOD WEB GOING, GOING
Guardian, February 15, 2014
▶ FISH FARMS ARE DESTROYING WILD SCOTTISH SALMON.
An editorial in the current issue of Country Life warns of the disastrous effects of intensive farming to meet an insatiable demand from China: "As the pesticides used by aquaculture to battle the sea lice grow ever stronger, wild salmon are exposed to infestations as their migratory routes take them through sea lochs bursting with farmed fish. Setting up more of these highly-intensive farms is looking increasingly unsustainable, as both wild and farmed fish will suffer." http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/feb/16/fish-farms-wild-scottish-salmon
August 24, 2013 Herald Scotland
SCIENTISTS CLAIM SEA LICE IN FISH FARMS KILL ONE THIRD OF WILD SALMON http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/home-news/scientists-claim-sea-lice-in-farms-kill-one-third-of-wild-salmon.21946288
▶ SCOTTISH FISH FARMERS USE RECORD AMOUNTS OF PESTICIDES, DESTROYING MARINE ECOSYSTEMS http://sco.lt/4i52I5
HuffPost British Columbia, December 24, 2013
-▶ GAGGED BY INDUSTRY: AQUACULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: ACTIVIST TAKES FLIGHT TO SCOTLAND http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/12/24/aquaculture-bc-don-staniford_n_4496719.html
Oceana, July 22, 2014
▶ CHILEAN SALMON FARMING INDUSTRY FOUND TO USE HIGHEST AMOUNT OF ANTIBIOTICS WORLDWIDE http://oceana.org/en/blog/2014/07/chilean-salmon-industry-found-to-use-highest-amount-of-antibiotics-worldwide
Energy Live News, July 01, 2014
-▶ SEAFOOD "COULD BE COOKED BY CLIMATE CHANGE" We could reach a point where governments battle it out over dwindling pockets of seafood. Big predators such as tuna could move and aquacultures – which can farm carnivorous species such as salmon – need fishmeal and if these smaller fish move there could be a real “price hike”.
Quartz, July 21, 2014
▶ AMERICA CATCHES SOME OF THE WORLD'S BEST SALMON BUT EATS SOME OF THE WORST. THE CRAZY EXPORT, IMPORT BUSINESS OF WILD FISH Instead of demanding their own Pacific salmon, Americans are mostly eating the blander-tasting, farmed Atlantic variety imported from countries like Norway and Chile, or other farmed fish from China. The crazy export, re-import business of wild fish http://qz.com/234197/america-catches-some-of-the-worlds-best-salmon-but-eats-some-of-the-worst/
WRECKING THE OCEAN ECOSYSTEM: OVERFISHING
COLLAPSING FISHERIES, OCEAN DEPENDENT SPECIES STARVING - WHAT ARE WE DOING? http://sco.lt/84rBVx
July 07, 2012 TIME Magazine
▶ THE END OF THE LINE - THE FUTURE OF NATURALLY GROWN FISH
Fish are the last wild food, but our oceans are being picked clean. Can farming fish take the place of catching them?
"Fish are the last wild food," says Paul Greenberg, author of Four Fish, one of the best books on the state of seafood. "And we're just realizing it."
But we may be coming to that realization too late, because it turns out that even the fathomless depths of the oceans have limits. The U.N. reports that 32% of global fish stocks are ove rexploited or depleted and as much as 90% of large species like tuna and marlin have been fished out in the past half-century. Once-plentiful species like Atlantic cod have been fished to near oblivion, and delicacies like bluefin tuna are on an arc toward extinction. A recent report by the International Programme on the State of the Ocean found that the world's marine species faced threats "unprecedented in human history" — and overfishing is part of the problem. Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2081796,00.html#ixzz2Ll3nuhqO
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FARMED-FISH
▶ 300,000 "SUSTAINABLE" GENETICALLY ENGINEERED RUNAWAY SALMON STIR CONSERVATION WORRIES http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/25/runaway-salmon-stir-conservation-worries/
Guardian Environment, June 20, 2014
-▶ WHY WE SHOULD BE WORRIED ABOUT 'FRANKENFISH' IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA. Unlike GM salmon, hybrid grouper gets little attention but they potentially pose a greater threat to marine ecosystems http://www.theguardian.com/environment/blog/2014/jun/20/why-worried-frankenfish-south-east-asia
DW.DE April 11, 2013
▶ AQUACULTURE IN CANADA - THE PROBLEM WITH FARMED SALMON - Aquaculture-grown fish and seafood is becoming increasingly common. Worldwide, more fish than cattle are farmed. But the booming fish industry is causing environmental problems. Medications, pesticides and parasites are escaping from open-water farms and contaminating the ecosystem... http://www.dw.de/aquaculture-in-canada-the-problem-with-farmed-salmon/av-17200460
The True Food Network
-▶ OBAMA TO MOVE FORWARD ON GMO SALMON APPROVAL, REGARDLESS OF 400,000 SIGNATURES... http://truefoodnow.org/2012/12/21/obama-administration-snubs-risks-moves-forward-with-ge-salmon-approval/
▶ IS GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SALMON SAFE AND ETHICAL? CORPORATIONS CREATING LIFE http://sco.lt/6ZRUpN
The Guardian, October 29, 2014
-▶ GENETICALLY MODIFIED SALMON COMPANY, AQUABOUNTY, FINED BY PANAMA http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/oct/29/panama-regulators-could-slow-us-approval-of-gm-salmon
Grist, November 26, 2013
THROUGH THE BACK DOOR
-▶ CANADA APPROVES EXPORT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED SALMON EGGS - TO USA via PANAMA'S AQUABOUNTY
Canada will allow genetically modified salmon eggs to be produced and exported — but no way in hell will the eggs be allowed to hatch on Canadian soil. The eggs will be exported to Aquabounties hatcheries in Panama and then exported to the USA http://grist.org/news/canada-approves-export-of-genetically-modified-salmon-eggs/
Psys.Org, August 20, 2014
-▶ TRACKING GENETICALLY FARMED FISH ESCAPING INTO THE WILD. WHY THIS IS IMPORTANT http://phys.org/news/2014-08-genetically-tracking-farmed-fish-wild.html
The Press Democrat, September 29, 2014
-▶ GOV. BROWN SIGNS BILL BANNING COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY ALTERED SALMON IN CALIFORNIA http://www.pressdemocrat.com/news/2901588-181/governor-signs-bill-banning-commercial
MAJOR U.S. FOOD RETAILERS TO SHUN GENETICALLY MODIFIED, FACTORY FARMED, ENSLAVED SEAFOOD http://sco.lt/6HqYt7
▶ CANADA'S GMO SALMON GOES ON TRIAL - VIDEO http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/canada-s-gmo-salmon-goes-on-trial
Fox New, March 11, 2014
▶ GMO SALMON MAY SOON HIT THE FOOD STORES, BUT WILL ANYONE BUY IT? http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2014/03/11/gmo-salmon-may-soon-hit-food-stores-but-will-anyone-buy-it/
▶ “FATALLY FLAWED" FDA ASSESSMENT TO UNLEASH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SALMON ONTO YOUR DINNER PLATE, NO REGULATIONS, NO OVERSIGHT, NO LABELING http://sco.lt/8ZDraz
CAN FARMED FISH BE SUSTAINABLE?
▶ WE MAY BE THE LAST GENERATION TO CATCH FOOD FROM THE OCEANS http://sco.lt/8uHn7Z
IS 'SUSTAINABLE' SEAFOOD A FANTASY?
FARMED FISH vs WILD FISH
Grist, July 15, 2014
▶ CAN WE HAVE OUR SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD AND EAT IT TOO? http://grist.org/food/can-we-have-our-sustainable-seafood-and-eat-it-too/
Guardian, July 13, 2014
▶ AUSTRALIA: SEAFOOD GUIDE SAYS FIVE OF TOP 22 SPECIES 'UNSUSTAINABLY MANAGED'. More and more of the seafood on our shelves comes from farming operations,” Atlantic salmon, barramundi and prawns are all very popular farmed species. IT STILL TAKES 2.5kg OF WILD-CAUGHT FISH TO BE USED AS FISH FOOD TO CREATE 1kg OF FARMED FISH... It’s hard to tell what the long-term impact of fish farming is on the marine environment.” http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jul/14/seafood-guide-says-five-of-top-11-species-unsustainably-managed
Sustainable Brands, February 21, 2014
▶ SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD? ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, GREEN FISH http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/supply_chain/cheryl_baldwin/sustainable_seafood_one_fish_two_fish_red_fish_green_fish
▶ THE PROBLEM WITH SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES: Understanding the UN Climate Science Reports, May 2014
- ▶ CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES & AQUACULTURE http://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/Resources/Climate-and-Energy/Climate-Change-Implications-for-Fisheries-and-Aquaculture.aspx
SEAFOOD SURPRISE. WAIT...WHAT AM I EATING?
THE FUTURE OF AQUACULTURE
EMagazine.com, May 1, 2013
▶ FREE RANGE FISH: THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROMISE OF OPEN OCEAN FISH FARMS? open ocean fish farms may be the solution to a whole range of environmental problems. Not the crowded, close-to-shore pens where fish are trapped like caged chickens, requiring doses of antibiotics which leak, along with the concentrated wastes, into surrounding water. But submersible net pens, more than 150 feet apart, where ocean currents disperse waste, and fish swim and live in the closest possible approximation to their natural habitat. Free-range fish. - See more at: http://www.emagazine.com/magazine/free-range-fish/
August 17, 2012 The Fish Site
▶ NIGERIA: N1.17 BILLION INVESTED ON BAYELSA AQUACULTURE FARMS http://www.thefishsite.com/fishnews/21030/n117-billion-invested-on-bayelsa-aquaculture-farms
Earth Policy Institute, March 27, 2014
▶ FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE FACT SHEET http://www.earth-policy.org/press_room/C68/fisheries_and_aquaculture_fact_sheet
QUESTScience, February 13, 2014
ARE VEGETARIAN FISH THE KEY TO SUSTAINABLE FISH FARMING?
INFOGRAPHIC: FARMED FISH DIETS
EXCEPTIONAL DOCUMENTARY (1:29:00)
"PLANET OCEAN" - WHO OWNS THE OCEANS?
How The Health of The Oceans Are The Pivot
For all of Earth's Healthy Eco Systems
Grind TV, November 25, 2013
▶ INDISCRIMINATE BOTTOM LONG-LINING: ENORMOUS RARE SEA CREATURE HAULED FROM DEPTHS http://www.grindtv.com/outdoor/nature/post/enormous-rare-sea-creature-hauled-from-depths-by-florida-shark-fisherman/
EMPTYING OUR OCEANS
THE WORLD'S LARGEST FACTORY FISHING TRAWLER https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCb2TT5GW7k
GROWING FISH AND ORGANIC LEAFY GREENS TOGETHER
WHAT IS AQUAPONICS?
▶ THE FARMING TECHNIQUE THAT COULD REVOLUTIONIZE THE WAY WE EAT http://sco.lt/7YO4vZ
The Ideas Arcade, March 02, 2014
▶ GROWING FRESH ORGANIC VEGETABLES AND FISH TOGETHER - WITHOUT SOIL: FEEDING THE WORLD WITH AQUAPONICS http://www.theideasarcade.com/growing-food-without-soil-feeding-world-aquaponics/
AQUAFARMS - GOOGLE IMAGES
IT'S MUCH MORE PROFITABLE, AND EASIER TO CONTROL FISH PRODUCTION CONFINED IN SMALL CONTAINERS. BUT FISH STAY HEALTHY AND POPULATIONS FLOURISH BY BEING IN THEIR OWN NATURAL OPEN, HEALTHY OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS.
WHEN CONFINED, CAGED, ENSLAVED, MORE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS AND PESTICIDES ARE NEEDED TO CONTROL LICE AND DISEASE PUTTING QUANTITY OVER QUALITY ... AND THAT PRESENTS A HIGHLY LIKELY-HOOD OF DEVASTATION TO BOTH OCEAN AND HUMAN HEALTH....AS IN ALL CONFINED ANIMAL FACTORY FARMING....
▶ WHY EVERYONE SHOULD BE ANGRY ABOUT CORPORATE FACTORY FARMING http://sco.lt/7kUpVp
@pdjmoo CURATING THE FOLLOWING SCOOPIT's
-▶ CLIMATE CHANGE WILL IMPACT US ALL http://www.scoop.it/t/changingplanet
-▶ BIODIVERSITY IS LIFE http://www.scoop.it/t/biodiversity-is-life?page=1&cp=49
-▶ CORPORATE "SOCIAL" RESPONSIBILITY? http://www.scoop.it/t/environmental-and-human-health
-▶ YOUR FOOD, YOUR HEALTH http://www.scoop.it/t/agriculture-gmos-pesticides
-▶ OUR OCEANS NEED US http://www.scoop.it/t/our-oceans-need-us
THE SIXTH MASS EXTINCTION IS UPON US