Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
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Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
Combining reports, research findings and topic reviews
Curated by Deborah Verran
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The burden of liver disease in Europe: A review of available epidemiological data

The burden of liver disease in Europe: A review of available epidemiological data | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

 Published in the Journal of Hepatology a fairly comprehensive review of the currently available epidemiological data on liver disease in Europe.http://t.co/sbuJjxig5J

 

The graphic is summary data from the ELTR Registry on the numbers of liver transplants that have been performed broken down by country.

 

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Capps Introduces Legislation to End Research Ban On Organ Donation From HIV-Positive Donors to HIV-Positive Transplant Recipients | Congresswoman Lois Capps

Capps Introduces Legislation to End Research Ban On Organ Donation From HIV-Positive Donors to HIV-Positive Transplant Recipients | Congresswoman Lois Capps | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

News from the United States of legislation being introduced via the #HOPEAct to overturn the ban on organ donation from HIV positive donors. Click on the banner headline to read the report... http://t.co/H1izJ2Lg

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Long term effect of reduced pack sizes of paracetamol on poisoning deaths and liver transplant activity in England and Wales: interrupted time series analyses | BMJ

Long term effect of reduced pack sizes of paracetamol on poisoning deaths and liver transplant activity in England and Wales: interrupted time series analyses | BMJ | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

As reported in the British Medical Journal the objective of this study was to assess the long term effect of United Kingdom legislation introduced in September 1998 to restrict the pack sizes of paracetamol on deaths from paracetamol poisoning and liver unit activity.

 

Although an impact was seen in that there were fewer deaths from paracetamol poisoning, there has not been the same expected drop in the rates of liver transplantation. These results lead the authors of the report to make further recommendations in the discussion section of the report on the marketing of paracetamol.

Deborah Verran's insight:

Paracetamol (or acetaminophen) is the single greatest underlying contributor internationally to cases of acute liver failure due to a medication. This also impacts on the requirement for liver transplantation in the most severe cases.

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Transplants Candidates How Much Does Size Matter

Transplants Candidates How Much Does Size Matter | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Obese individuals often are rejected as renal transplant candidates in large part because of their increased risk for surgical complications and adverse outcomes.

 

This article via Renal and Urology News summarises some of the evidence to date. This includes making the point that abdominal girth may be more important in determining candidacy for renal transplantation over and above body mass index(BMI). Other medical co-morbities associated with obesity also mandate that extra attention be specifically paid to the effects of diabetes and vascular disease on potential transplant recipients.

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OPTN/SRTR 2011 Annual Data Report: International Data - Kasiske - 2012 - American Journal of Transplantation - Wiley Online Library

OPTN/SRTR 2011 Annual Data Report: International Data - Kasiske - 2012 - American Journal of Transplantation - Wiley Online Library | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Contained within the recently published OPTN/SRTR 2011 Annual Data Report is a comparative analysis of global data on organ donation and transplantation. The data make for absorbing reading and will be of interest to professionals in both the organ donation and transplant sectors.

 

The graphic represents the liver transplant rates per million population in 2010.

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Peginesatide in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis | Now@NEJM

Peginesatide in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis | Now@NEJM | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In two new randomized, controlled studies involving patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis, dosing with peginesatide, a new synthetic peptide-based erythropoietin EPO analogue was effective.

 

This post from the @NEJM blog summarises the information from recently reported trials in an easy to read format.

Deborah Verran's insight:

Anemia is one of the consequences of advanced chronic kidney disease and fortunately can be managed by the addition of EPO analogues to treatment regimens.

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The silent pandemic: Tackling hepatitis C with policy innovation

The silent pandemic: Tackling hepatitis C with policy innovation | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This report on Hepatitis C has been released via the Economist Intelligence Unit http://www.managementthinking.eiu.com and was sponsored by Janssen.

 

Via the link access can be gained not only to the full report-which can be downloaded- but also to a useful infographic as well as a short factual video.

 

Hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally(evident in the statistics in the report on the incidence per country). This is now creating challenges for both the identification as well as the appropriate management of individuals harbouring the virus. Some examples of innovative strategies that are in the process of being implemented in a number of countries are outlined.

 

With more comprehensive and effective anti-viral regimens now becoming available there are implications for the appropriate treatment of patients. Allowing for the fact that chronic liver disease from hepatitis C is currently the most common indication for liver transplantation in many countries, this report makes for interesting reading.  

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Mass donor organ fraud shakes Germany - The Guardian

Mass donor organ fraud shakes Germany - The Guardian | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This is just one of a number of news reports out of Germany in recent months. Now German medical authorities are calling for an extensive overhaul of the country's organ transplant programme after transplant centres across Germany were placed under criminal investigation for what appears to be mis-allocation of organs.

 

There has already been an impact of this news on organ donation rates within Germany as reported via-

http://www.dw.de/germany-lags-behind-in-organ-donations/a-16498057?maca=en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf

 

 Added commentary from The Lancet

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2960071-9/fulltext?elsca1=TW&elsca2=socialmedia

 

 

Deborah Verran's insight:

These are the kind of headlines that lead to a loss of public confidence in organ donation. Now everything possible needs to be done within Germany to restore the community's faith in the organ donation system. It is evident from the statements being in all of these articles, that this whole issue needs to be seriously addressed and ultimately changes in practice occur.

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Health-care sector vulnerable to hackers, researchers say

Health-care sector vulnerable to hackers, researchers say | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

A Washington Post examination of cybersecurity has found that health care is among the most vulnerable industries. The reasons for this conclusion being reached are outlined as well as tips on what steps need to be undertaken.

 

If you work in healthcare or have links to the healthcare sector, this is essential reading for early 2013. The article comes complete with graphics.

 

The following link goes to another post on what are currently felt to be the most common healthcare IT risks in the workplace-

 

http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/slideshow.cfm?content_id=286221&pg=1&buffer_share=1174b

Deborah Verran's insight:

This could emerge as the number one issue for health IT in 2013

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Translational Bioinformatics: PLOS Computational Biology presents ...

Translational Bioinformatics: PLOS Computational Biology presents ... | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Translational bioinformatics is an emerging field that addresses the current challenges of integrating increasingly voluminous amounts of molecular and clinical data. This also has implications for electronic health record (EHR) design and management. Click on the banner headline for the announcement.

 

PLOS Computational Biology presents an online educational resource for a rapidly emerging field i.e. translational bioinformatics. One of the Chapters provides a state of the art examination of what are the implications for clinical EHR's.

 

Access via the full link-

 

http://www.ploscollections.org/translationalbioinformatics

 

 


Via fjms
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Rhythmic Changes in Gene Activation Power the Circadian Clock

Rhythmic Changes in Gene Activation Power the Circadian Clock | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Daily rhythms underlie most of the fundamental functions of mammals, from sleep-wake cycles to metabolic processes in the liver. The circadian clock has evolved in response to daily changes of temperature and light in the environment. At the root of circadian rhythms are daily fluctuations in gene expression, which occur in part through the process of transcription—the creation of RNA from sequences of DNA. Although past studies have uncovered how changes in transcription states relate to irreversible processes, for example when cells become more specialized, much less is known about how transcription fluctuates in synch with recurring cycles.

 

New insights into the dynamic nature of transcription are provided in a study led by Nouria Hernandez of the University of Lausanne and Felix Naef of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Their findings reveal the kinetics by which genes are activated in a rhythmic manner as well as the remarkable impact of daily cycles across the genome.

 

In the above-mentioned study, Hernandez and Naef used a combination of experimental and computational methods to study genome-wide transcriptional changes in the mouse liver, and how these changes relate to mRNA levels. They discovered that transcription in the liver occurs predominantly in morning and evening waves. These waves were accompanied by the rhythmic recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) — an enzyme that catalyzes transcription — to DNA strands. In addition, there were rhythmic changes in the modifications of histones — proteins that act as a scaffold for DNA and help to regulate gene expression. These rhythmic changes in transcription were driven primarily by the recruitment of Pol II to DNA.

 

The researchers also identified three classes of genes: One class showed both rhythmic transcription and mRNA fluctuations, a second class showed rhythmic transcription but flat mRNA levels, and a third class showed constant transcription but rhythmic mRNA fluctuations. The latter finding — that the levels of some mRNAs oscillated even when transcription remained constant — suggests that transcription alone does not regulate all rhythmic changes in mRNA levels. Instead, other processes, such as daily fluctuations in the rate of mRNA degradation, influence the accumulation of mRNA. These results indicate that molecular events taking place after transcription play a greater role in regulating daily fluctuations in mRNA levels than previously thought.

 

Taken together, the study reveals that many functions in the liver, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as detoxification, are under the control of rhythmic changes in transcription. The findings could lead to insights into how the daily cycle influences genomic responses to food intake, eventually paving the way to the development of novel treatment strategies for diabetes and other metabolic diseases.


Via Sakis Koukouvis, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Deborah Verran's insight:

This report of basic science research reveals that many metabolic functions of the liver appear to be rhythmically controlled. It seems that even your liver may need a rest at night!

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UCLA performs first 'breathing lung' transplant in United States / UCLA Newsroom

UCLA performs first 'breathing lung' transplant in United States / UCLA Newsroom | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

More detail from the lung transplant program at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) which recently performed the first 'breathing lung' transplant in the United States. UCLA's lung and heart-lung transplant program is the largest lung transplantation program on the West Coast and is leading the way with researching the use of the OCS lung preservation device ...

 

Of note this story contains video footage of donor lungs being maintained within the OCS preservation machine.

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Joseph E. Murray, Transplant Surgeon and Nobel Winner, Dies at 93

Joseph E. Murray, Transplant Surgeon and Nobel Winner, Dies at 93 | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

The history and background to the first successful human organ transplant performed by a team led by Dr. Joseph Murray in 1954 in a Boston hospital, is featured in this article. The surgery involved a  23-year-old man donating his kidney to his identical twin brother.

 

This post has been published in light of the recent death of Dr Murray who received the Nobel prize for his endeavours in bringing organ transplantation into clinical reality.

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Минздрав разработал правила изъятия органов для трансплантации - МедНовости - MedPortal.ru

Минздрав разработал правила изъятия органов для трансплантации - МедНовости - MedPortal.ru | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This report out of Russia (can be viewed via Google translate) is about the new regulations for organ donation which have been drafted by the Ministry of health.

 

These regulations will shortly be released for public consultation.

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Highly regulated companies tiptoe into social media

Highly regulated companies tiptoe into social media | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Social networking is serious business within regulated industries. Posts pertaining to finance, insurance and healthcare, in particular, require adherence to strict government and industry regulations. However, even with the rule-a-palooza, some companies in these industries have not only found ways to keep regulators happy, but have also made social networking a productive and key part of doing business.

That said, the phenomenon is still in fairly early stages. Only around 10% of the companies in regulated industries have a "truly social" enterprise where multiple social media tools have been integrated into general content consumption, according to Toby Ward, founder of Toronto-based Prescient Digital Media, a consulting firm for Fortune 500 companies.

"It depends on the organization and their level of savviness," he says. Companies where executives start their own blogs, for example, are more likely to use social media effectively and adopt it widely, according to a recent study by Prescient. "Almost all major banks have been in social media for at least a few years," Ward says.

Some healthcare providers, financial services firms and other companies in highly regulated industries are taking full advantage of social media, even though they're awash in rules. Here's how they do it.

 

Read the full article by clicking on the title


Via Chatu Jayadewa
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Icing Organs | The Scientist Magazine®

Icing Organs | The Scientist Magazine® | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This article explores why scientists are so near and yet so far from being able to cryopreserve organs.

 

This includes an explanation of how cryopreservation works, a summary of the research to date as well as why the anticipated success has not as yet been realised for organ preservation.

 

The majority of organs for transplantation continue to be kept under static cold storage( 4 degrees celsius) conditions. Machine preservation is also being used but is not as yet widespread and is now the subject of ongoing clinical research.

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The truth behind organ donation in Portugal - The Portugal News

The truth behind organ donation in Portugal - The Portugal News | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
It is not a widely-known fact, but anyone residing in Portugal, Portuguese or foreign, is presumed a consenting organ donor unless the contrary is manifested by obtaining a legal document that states the person does not want to be considered for...
Deborah Verran's insight:

Interesting article on the presumed consent legislation that is in place in Portugal as well as how some aspects of the organ donation system are functioning. There is one inconsistency in the article where it is stated that presumed consent is also in place in Australia-which is incorrect.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and organ donation: Is there risk of disease transmission? - Holmes - 2012 - Annals of Neurology - Wiley Online Library

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and organ donation: Is there risk of disease transmission? - Holmes - 2012 - Annals of Neurology - Wiley Online Library | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This review article asks the question does a diagnosis of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis impact on organ donation?  Is there risk of disease transmission ? http://t.co/yJ2WgYh1

 

The conclusion is that for selected donors, organ donation is possible but that the transplant recipients should be kept under review.

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Turning around the Swiss organ shortage - swissinfo.ch

Turning around the Swiss organ shortage - swissinfo.ch | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This report is about some of the measures that are being undertaken in Switzerland in order to improve the shortage of donor organs

In November 2012 it also became possible for Facebook users in Switzerland to state on their timelines that they support organ donation and to follow a link to order a donor card from Swisstransplant.

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Declining liver utilization for transplantation in the United States and the impact of donation after cardiac death - Orman - 2012 - Liver Transplantation - Wiley Online Library

Declining liver utilization for transplantation in the United States and the impact of donation after cardiac death - Orman - 2012 - Liver Transplantation - Wiley Online Library | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This retrospective analysis of registry data in the United States has revealed that there has been a recent drop in the supply of quality livers from deceased donor organ donors: http://t.co/XRv8zWYJ

 

There are four factors associated with non-use of the donor liver for transplantation and these are-donation after cardiac death pathway, donor Body Mass Index(a marker for obesity), older donor age and the presence of diabetes.

 

Important point if the donor liver is not retrieved for transplantation it is not 'thrown away'( as reported)-

http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/01/11/study-finds-increase-in-unused-transplant-livers/

 

 

There are policies and procedures in place within the United States for the differing scenarios where the various deceased donor organs are not able to be transplanted.

Deborah Verran's insight:

Important data, variably reported. Cross posted onto http://scoop.it/t/organ-donation-transplant-matters

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Tobacco Smoking and Solid Organ Transplantation : Transplantation

Tobacco Smoking and Solid Organ Transplantation : Transplantation | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

This review of the impact of smoking, both by organ donors and by recipients on transplant outcomes is available free online via the journal Transplantation.

 

Smoking,whether it be in the donor population or in the recipient population impacts on outcomes after organ transplantation. Some of these outcomes are specific to the type of organ being transplanted. This is further explored in the article.

 

For eg. In the deceased donor population smoking becomes one of the risk factors that is taken into consideration when an assessment is made of the overall medical suitability for the organs to be used for transplantation.

 

Image via www.nature.com

 

Deborah Verran's insight:

This article should be of interest to professionals in the organ donation sector as well as in the transplant sector

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Organ donation; a choice for life - European Lung Foundation[uk]

Organ donation; a choice for life - European Lung Foundation[uk] | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Organ donation is a sensitive issue for many people to think about and discuss but it is the difference between life and death for a person waiting for a transplant.

This online fact sheet highlights the importance of organ donation in allowing patients with progressive lung disease to undergo lung transplantation. It includes a number of facts as well as the stories of two patients journeys through the lung transplant process.........
Deborah Verran's insight:

Useful professional resource

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Shanghai to test out transplant project - China Daily

Shanghai to test out transplant project - China Daily | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
As reported via the China Daily Shanghai will be the first city to test out a new transplant project within China, which also aims to establish a well organised and managed system for organ allocation from organ donors.

Further commentary from the vice minister for health can be accessed via-
http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-12/15/content_16019987.htm

Time will tell whether the pilot project is successful and as a result the planned roll out of the project nationally across China occurs.
Deborah Verran's insight:

This is an important development within China

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British Journal of Cancer - Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

British Journal of Cancer - Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

With the number of cases of primary liver cancer on the increase in many countries around the world, it is important to understand what are the known risk factors for developing this type of malignancy[also known as hepatocellular carcinoma].

 

The results of an epidemiological study performed in Singapore are the subject of this report. It is apparant that both smoking and alcohol intake are associated with an increased risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in the population that was studied. This kind of information is useful for advising individuals either at risk of or who already have chronic liver disease, on what actions they may take to limit their risk of developing liver cancer.

 

Of note hepatocellular carcinoma is also an increasing indication for liver transplantation currently in many countries, hence the added importance of preventative measures.

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On Technology, Boards Need to Get More Sophisticated

On Technology, Boards Need to Get More Sophisticated | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Via the Harvard Business Review Blog advice on the five ways organizations can focus the conversations that are being held at higher levels with respect to information technology(IT) on strategy, rather than just on tactics.

 

For anyone involved in developing, overseeing or managing IT technology in an ever changing milieu this makes for an interesting read.

 

 

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