Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
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US FDA approves XVIVO lung preservation device

US FDA approves XVIVO lung preservation device | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the XVIVO Perfusion System (XPS) with STEEN Solution, a device for preserving donated lungs that do not initially meet the standard criteria for transplantation.

 

The XVIVO XPS lung perfusion system is one of several devices currently being trialed around the world. It is now hoped that with the judicious use of this type of technology that more donor lungs will be deemed suitable for transplantation. Once this technology becomes more widely available it is anticipated that this should lead to an increase in the numbers of lung transplants over the next 2-5 years.

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Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
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Human-embryo editing now covered by stem-cell guidelines

Human-embryo editing now covered by stem-cell guidelines | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

New international guidelines have just been published by the International Society of Stem Cell Research (ISSCR), which cover all aspects of stem-cell research. This is an attempt to fend off the need for further government regulation that could impede this particular  research including the manipulation of human embryos in the laboratory setting.


To read more on this story click on the following link-


http://www.nature.com/news/human-embryo-editing-now-covered-by-stem-cell-guidelines-1.19909


In addition calls are being made for there to be more realistic and responsible reporting of stem cell research which has suffered in recent years from 'too much hype'-



http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-12/stop-hyping-stem-cell-science-say-stem-cell-scientists


Deborah Verran's insight:
This will be of interest to anyone following the current research into stem cells and tissue engineering
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Hiranandani Hospital's CEO, 4 other doctors arrested in kidney racket case

Hiranandani Hospital's CEO, 4 other doctors arrested in kidney racket case | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Read more about the Hiranandani Hospital's CEO, and 4 other doctors who were all arrested this last week in Mumbai India as the result of an ongoing investigation into organ trafficking.

It is also becoming evident that some of the live kidney donors involved in this may be poor villagers from rural India-

One of the drivers for organ trafficking is the low deceased donor rate in India, the reasons for which are summarisedIm in this online article-

Under Indian law organ trafficking is now illegal. Should it be proven that any of these individuals broke the law, the penalties will be severe. Meanwhile there continue to be ongoing campaigns (including via social media) to try and raise public awareness about the importance of organ donation.
Deborah Verran's insight:
The authorities in India continue to have to grapple with the consequences of organ trafficking whilst ongoing efforts to promote organ donation via legitimate avenues continue.
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Rabies cases probably linked to kidney donor in China: Study | Outbreak News Today

Rabies cases probably linked to kidney donor in China: Study | Outbreak News Today | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
It appears that two renal transplant recipients have been diagnosed with rabies which appears to have been transmitted by a deceased donor in Southern China.

More on the case can be viewed via this link  - https://t.co/qtRj4wyksm
Deborah Verran's insight:
Encephalitis in a potential organ donor can be due to an infectious agent and hence is usually a contraindication to organ donation proceeding.
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Deceased-Donor Age Affects Kidney Transplant Outcomes 

Deceased-Donor Age Affects Kidney Transplant Outcomes  | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
In this recently reported analysis of Registry data, recipients of kidneys from individuals who donated the organs after circulatory death are more likely to experience graft loss and delayed graft function. This is particularly the case of the donor was aged over 50 years.

This data adds to the knowledge pertaining to renal allograft outcomes according to the type of donor as well as the age of the donor.
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The First Successful Kidney Transplant in Dubai From a Deceased Donor Has Just Happened

The First Successful  Kidney Transplant in Dubai From a Deceased Donor Has Just Happened | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Dubai Healthcare City Authority (DHCA) today announced that the Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences (MBRU) has successfully carried out the first organ transplant surgery in Dubai in collaboration with Mediclinic City Hospital.


The deceased donor kidney from Saudi Arabia was successfully transplanted into a woman who was requiring dialysis for end stage kidney disease.


For more on the story including information on the co-operation required between authorities in both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates click on the following link-

http://mediaoffice.ae/en/media-center/news/15/6/2016/dubai-healthcare-city.aspx


Interviews with some of the healthcare professionals who were involved in this particular case can be found by clicking on this link-

http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/health/how-dubai-achieved-its-first-cadaver-kidney-transplant-1.1847549


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Dialysis Patients Trial Wearable Artificial Kidney: Proof of concept study

Dialysis Patients Trial Wearable Artificial Kidney: Proof of concept study | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

A couple of years ago the news broke about a new wearable dialysis machine about to go into clinical trial that is essentially an artificial kidney for cleansing and regulating levels of uraemic toxins in the blood. The device is worn on a belt around the patient's waist (as pictured).


Now the results of the pilot study undertaken in the United States have been made available. Although the portable artificial kidney functioned reasonably well, the limitations of the current device became apparent during the trial.


The full results of this important proof of concept study are published in the journal JCI Insight and make for interesting reading-


https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/86397


It is also now understood what are the limitations of the current dialysis modalities with respect to the clearance of uraemic toxins and how bioengineered solutions may make the process more efficient on the future. The following research has been published in the journal Nature-


http://www.nature.com/articles/srep26715





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BPoD | Colourful Cornea

BPoD | Colourful Cornea | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Colourful Cornea - Biomedical pictures for May 2016.

This close up image is of a mouse cornea with the cell nuclei colored blue. Scientists are studying lymphangiogenesis which can contribute to abnormalities of the cornea, including after corneal transplantation. 
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Dead could be brought 'back to life' in groundbreaking project - via the use of stem cells

Dead could be brought 'back to life' in groundbreaking project - via the use of stem cells | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Stem cells have been used to try and treat a number of neurological disorders including Parkinsons disease as well as damage to the spinal cord leading to paralysis.

However in what may be currently considered a giant leap of faith a United States biotech company (Bioquark), has gone through the initial stages of seeking regulatory approval for a trial utilizing stem cells to treat patients following the declaration of brain death. The aim is to restore neurological function via a combination of supportive medical treatments along with the injection of stem cells into the spinal cord.

The initial proof of concept study titled the 'Reanima project' will be carried out in India. The study protocol can be viewed via the following link-

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02742857?term=stem+cells+AND+brain+injury&rank=11 ;

More on the story can be viewed by clicking on the following link- 


In addition an ethicist asks the question as to whether this planned trial can truly deliver acceptable results-



Deborah Verran's insight:
It seems highly unlikely that any patient in whom a sound diagnosis of brain death has been made, will have their brain function restored to any significant degree via this approach in the near future.
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Improved Detection for Deadly Prion Diseases

Improved Detection for Deadly Prion Diseases | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
A new assay now offers the potential for there to be an improved sensitivity in practice compared to current tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, researchers report.

Up to now the diagnosis of these types of conditions has required that tissue taken via biopsies be processed in the laboratory. This newly developed assay may be the first of a new generation of laboratory based tests that can be performed on blood, saliva or urine for these types of disorders. Further data from the prospective use of this particular test in clinical practice is now awaited.
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A patient has 'caught' a kiwi fruit allergy from a bone marrow transplant

A patient has 'caught' a kiwi fruit allergy from a bone marrow transplant | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
This is the first proof that this particular type of transplant procedure can lead to the spread of specific food allergies from the donor to the recipient. The fact that the allergy developed in the recipient reflects transmission of the cells responsible for the immune response that underpins the particular allergy in question.

Similar cases have been reported on occasion in liver transplant recipients.
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USFDA issues guidelines to cut Zika transmission via human tissue and organs

USFDA issues guidelines to cut Zika transmission via human tissue and organs | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
The US Food and Drug Administration has said that the Zika virus can be transmitted via donation of umbilical cord blood, placenta and growth tissues.

For more information the full story can be accessed by clicking on the banner headline
Deborah Verran's insight:
The US FDA has now issued important guidelines for reducing the risk of transmission of zika virus via either human tissues or human organs.
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Scientists Just 3D Printed a Transplantable Human Ear

Scientists Just 3D Printed a Transplantable Human Ear | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Scientists have developed an innovative 3D bioprinter capable of generating replacement tissue that’s strong enough to withstand transplantation.

 

However there remain limitations as to what type of tissue can be bioprinted and why this continues to be the case.

 

However in this detailed online report an outline is provided as to how a bioprinter was used to help generate the various tissues that were then implanted into animals to see if they remained viable.

 

A video of the ITOP system in action can be viewed via the following link-

https://youtu.be/wFFkBW7acOI

 

Deborah Verran's insight:

Another small step has been achieved as part of the ongoing efforts to try and reliably bio-print human tissues. At this stage the possibility of being able to bio-print human organs for transplantation purposes remains a distant goal.

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Sri Lanka Suspends Kidney Transplants for Foreigners After India Arrests

Sri Lanka Suspends Kidney Transplants for Foreigners After India Arrests | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

The Sri Lankan government last week suspended all kidney transplants for foreigners, after Indian police said they were investigating alleged organ sales.

 

This has come about following reports of organ trading involving individuals who then traveled from India to Sri Lanka in order to undergo the transplant surgery.

Deborah Verran's insight:

Results of the investigation are now awaited. Of note this pertains to live donor kidney transplantation.

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The Chinese Claim That The World Accepts Its Organ Transplant System Are Rebutted

The Chinese Claim That The World Accepts Its Organ Transplant System Are Rebutted | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

After it was revealed in the media that delegates from China were speaking at the Transplantation Society meeting in HongKong, concern was raised as to the veracity of their claims that the use of organs from executed prisoners within China has largely subsided. This followed publication of an article in the American Journal of Transplantation where further concerns were raised about organ donation in China. The previous article from the New York Times can be viewed via this link-

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/world/asia/debate-flares-on-chinas-use-of-prisoners-organs-as-experts-meet-in-hong-kong.html


The head of the Transplantation Society Professor Philip O'Connell (pictured), stated that the decades-long practice of using the organs of executed prisoners, which China claims it has stopped, had horrified the rest of the world.


There now seems to be ongoing uncertainty over whether the claims being made by Chinese officials can actually be supported by accurate data. Whatever the outcome it is clear that the majority of transplant professionals around the world are not supportive of unscrupulous organ donation practices. 

Deborah Verran's insight:
Important issue which will not go away until the appropriate management and governance practices are both adopted and promulgated within China
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How Snapchat is recruiting bone marrow donors

How Snapchat is recruiting bone marrow donors | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
A nonprofit organization is now utilizing the Snapchat social media platform in order to reach millennials and help find bone marrow donors for blood cancer patients.

This innovative approach to expanding the potential pool of bone marrow donors has been implemented by Be the Match. More information  on their campaign can be accessed via the following link-


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Exposure To Industrial Printing Chemical Raises Risk Of Bile Duct Cancer

Exposure To Industrial Printing Chemical Raises Risk Of Bile Duct Cancer | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
1,2-dichloropropane, a chemical used in the printing industry, turns carcinogenic when it is metabolized by the liver and then excreted into bile.

This finding has been confirmed in research which has now been published in the Journal Nature-


This important research was undertaken following confirmation of there being an increased incidence of cholangiocarcinoma, particularly  in individuals who had worked in the printing industry in Japan. Hence the attention of the researchers was directed towards elucidating the possible underlying mechanism as well as establishing which chemicals were most likely involved.
Deborah Verran's insight:
This important research now establishes that there is a link between chemicals that have been used in some industrial processes and the risk of development of this particular rare form of bile duct/liver cancer.
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U.S. To Invest $200 Million To Shorten Organ Transplant Wait Lists

U.S. To Invest $200 Million To Shorten Organ Transplant Wait Lists | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
The U.S. government announced plans this last week to invest $200 million to help shorten the waiting list for patients waiting for organ transplants.

With the per annum costs of dialysis now topping $34 billion per annum and with the majority of patients on the waiting list for an organ needing kidneys, there is a real need explore all possible options as well as optimize organ donation within the United States.

Although a significant component of the funding will go to Defense a number of new projects will now be undertaken. For more on this story click on the banner headline.

One project will involve initiating kidney transplant chains via the use of altruistic live donors at the Walter Reed hospital-


A collaborative research initiative between two academic medical centres and UNOS will seek to undertake prospective research into optimizing the management of deceased donors. This is in order to maximize the numbers of organs that are suitable for transplantation purposes- 


In addition UNOS is looking to optimize the use of electronic donor records in order to facilitate organ allocation as well as provide quarterly feedback to transplant programs-


The American Society of Nephrology has committed $7 million towards the development of an artificial implantable kidney via the XPRIZE initiative-


Finally in what may be termed a 'moonshot' NASA has announced a prize for the three most successful organizations who wish to attempt to grow tissues and or organs in space-





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CMS liver transplant policy may be denying some patients the opportunity to undergo an organ transplant

CMS liver transplant policy may be denying some patients the opportunity to undergo an organ transplant | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
An examination of how patients are being managed on liver transplant waiting lists in the United States has revealed that sicker patients may end up being delisted.

One of the drivers for this type of decision making is the requirements for programmes to continue to meet set post transplant patient outcome criteria that have been established by the Centre for Medicaid Services (CMS). This is in order for programmes to be able to maintain federal approval to continue to deliver the requisite clinical programme service . The implications of this research are explored further in the online article
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The UAE may soon allow organ donation from deceased donors

The UAE may soon allow organ donation from deceased donors | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Steps are being undertaken within the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to explore whether it is feasible to establish processes and procedures in order to facilitate organ donation from deceased donors.

The results of a survey have now been available publicly. Some 68% of respondents on a UAE national survey said they were willing to donate organs if they were brain-dead.

Surgeon Dr Farhad Janahi (pictured) who is the senior researcher responsible for this survey, is now optimistic that progress can be made within the UAE for organ donation from deceased donors to become a reality.


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U.S. trial tests machine that 'reconditions' lungs outside of the body

U.S. trial tests machine that 'reconditions' lungs outside of the body | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
ST. LOUIS (Reuters) - A machine that 'reconditions' a donor's lungs outside the body before they are transplanted into a recipient is undergoing tests in the United States in the hope that it can radically improve survival rates for people with lung disease.

The XVIVO machine preservation device will be used to recondition marginal deceased donor lungs in 16 centers lead to an increase in the number of donor lungs that can be successfully transplanted.

In another recent article posted online a short video also contains information on the XPS XVIVO device-


Deborah Verran's insight:
The results of this important prospective clinical trial are now awaited with interest.
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Scientists Learn to Detect Zika Virus Using Nuclear-Derived Technique

Scientists Learn to Detect Zika Virus Using Nuclear-Derived Technique | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
More than thirty doctors, epidemiologists, microbiologists and laboratory technicians from Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa learned how to use a nuclear-derived technique to detect the Zika virus during IAEA training courses this month.

These courses are being run in order to assist with the scaling up of reliable laboratory testing which is now required in a number of countries in order to detect this particular virus in affected patients.
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In a first, liver and kidney from an HIV-infected donor are transplanted into HIV-positive patients in the USA

In a first, liver and kidney from an HIV-infected donor are transplanted into HIV-positive patients in the USA | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
In a first that gives HIV-infected patients yet another chance for long lives, surgeons at Johns Hopkins University Medical Center have transplanted a kidney and a liver from a deceased donor who was HIV-positive into two HIV-positive recipients.

This represents the culmination of efforts by both professional organizations and community groups to lift the previous ban that was in place which prohibited the transplantation of organs from HIV positive organ donors.

For more on the story including additional information, click on the banner headline to this story.
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Surgeons to study use of hepatitis C positive kidneys for transplantation

Surgeons to study use of hepatitis C positive kidneys for transplantation | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
Transplant surgeons are about to do something long considered taboo: put kidneys from donors with hepatitis C into recipients without the infection in two centers within the United States.

Now that there are new antiviral drugs are available to treat hepatitis C this has led to a push to increase the rates of organ transplantation from donors who are hepatitis C positive. 

Up to now it was only possible to transplant the organs from hepatitis C positive organ donors into recipients who were also hepatitis C positive. However in these two proposed pilot studies carefully selected and consented potential kidney transplant recipients will be able to receive the kidneys from donors with hepatitis C if they also agree to be closely monitored post transplant and in addition receive a course of direct acting antiviral medication for the hepatitis C.
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TransMedics Announces The World's First Human Liver Transplantation Using The Organ Care System (OCS™) Liver Technology & The Initiation of The OCS™ Liver PROTECT U.S. Pivotal Trial: TransMedics, Inc.

TransMedics Announces The World's First Human Liver Transplantation Using The Organ Care System (OCS™) Liver Technology & The Initiation of The OCS™ Liver PROTECT U.S. Pivotal Trial: TransMedics, Inc. | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

TransMedicsInc announces the transplantation of the first human liver using the #OCSLiver ex-vivo preservation device as well as initiation of the multicentre prospective PROTECT trial.

 

For more information click on the banner headline

Deborah Verran's insight:

This is one of at least three ex-vivo liver preservation devices now in trial around the world. The outcome data are awaited with interest noting that the benefits of ex-vivo liver preservation will need to be clear for this type of technology to be incorporated into routine practice.

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Johns Hopkins to Perform First H.I.V.-Positive Organ Transplants in U.S.

Johns Hopkins to Perform First H.I.V.-Positive Organ Transplants in U.S. | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Following passage of legislation to allow HIV positive individuals to become organ donors in the United States, the next step has involved guidelines being developed to allow this to become a clinical reality.


Now the John Hopkins hospital has said that it would become the first in the nation to perform kidney and liver transplants between H.I.V.-positive donors and H.I.V.-positive patients. This is under a strict research protocol and will require that selection criteria are applied both to the organ donors as well as the transplant recipients. 

Deborah Verran's insight:

The outcomes of these particular organ transplants will now be awaited with interest noting that the many complexities that are involved.

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