Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
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IRODaT - International Registry on Organ Donation and Transplantation

IRODaT - International Registry on Organ Donation and Transplantation | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
IRODaT is The International Registry on Organ Donation and Transplantation.
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Useful web site for information and data on organ donation and transplantation around the world

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Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources
Combining reports, research findings and topic reviews
Curated by Deborah Verran
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Human-embryo editing now covered by stem-cell guidelines

Human-embryo editing now covered by stem-cell guidelines | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

New international guidelines have just been published by the International Society of Stem Cell Research (ISSCR), which cover all aspects of stem-cell research. This is an attempt to fend off the need for further government regulation that could impede this particular  research including the manipulation of human embryos in the laboratory setting.


To read more on this story click on the following link-


http://www.nature.com/news/human-embryo-editing-now-covered-by-stem-cell-guidelines-1.19909


In addition calls are being made for there to be more realistic and responsible reporting of stem cell research which has suffered in recent years from 'too much hype'-



http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-12/stop-hyping-stem-cell-science-say-stem-cell-scientists


Deborah Verran's insight:
This will be of interest to anyone following the current research into stem cells and tissue engineering
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3D bioprint me: a socioethical view of bioprinting human organs and tissues

3D bioprint me: a socioethical view of bioprinting human organs and tissues | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In this article, the authors review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, also now known as biofabrication. 


3D bioprinting has the potential to be a ‘game-changer’, because the printing human organs on demand, may no longer necessitate the need for living or deceased human donation or perhaps even xenotransplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing in the laboratory setting, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing. 


Despite a lack of current socioethical engagement with the consequences of the technology, the authors outline what theyThis see as some of the preliminary practical, ethical and regulatory issues that need tackling. These relate to managing public expectations and the continuing reliance on technoscientific solutions to diseases that affect high-income countries. 


Avoiding prescribing a course of action for the way forward in terms of research agendas, we do briefly outline one possible ethical framework ‘Responsible Research Innovation’ as an oversight model should 3D bioprinting promises are ever realised. 3D bioprinting has a lot to offer in the course of time should it move beyond being a conceptual therapy, but is an area that requires ethical oversight and regulation and debate, in the here and now. The purpose of this article is to begin that discussion.

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This is a must read for anyone interested in the governance issues related to 3D bioprinting and/or the biofabrication of human tissues and/or organs. 
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First-ever liver transplant for acute liver failure has been performed in Sri Lanka

First-ever liver transplant for acute liver failure has been performed in Sri Lanka | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In recent news has come the report of the first-ever liver transplant being performed for acute liver failure in Sri Lanka at the Columbo North Hospital. A team of specialists (pictured above), were responsible for the procedure with the donor liver being sourced from a deceased donor in another hospital. 


The family of the young 25 year old woman who was saved from what was most likely going to be a fatal outcome,  are delighted with the end result. For more on this report click on the banner headline

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This is an important development for Sri Lanka
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CRISPR slices virus genes out of pigs, but will it make organ transplants to humans safer?

CRISPR slices virus genes out of pigs, but will it make organ transplants to humans safer? | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Scientists have been able to create piglets which no loner contain the genes for potentially harmful retroviruses within their genome. This was aided by the use of CRISPR technology (gene editing). However as mentioned in the article producing these piglets was not easy and in the end cloning was also required.


This combination of gene editing being used initially at the cellular level along with the subsequent cloning of pig embryo's is also mentioned in this report of the research via the New York Times-

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/10/health/gene-editing-pigs-organ-transplants.html


Although erasing potentially dangerous viruses brings the field of xenotransplantation a step closer to making up for the current organ shortage with pig's organs there are still some concerns.

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Important question the answer to which is not clear at this stage
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Could 3D printing solve the organ transplant shortage?

Could 3D printing solve the organ transplant shortage? | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Scientists are racing to make replacement human organs with 3D printers. But whilst the technology’s possibilities are exciting, already there are fears that they could be ‘playing God’


The headline of this article belies the reality of where this particular technology is now at in 2017. Although the limitations of the current technology are explored in the article the focus then switches to the possible ethical issues should this technology deliver the hoped for results.


However one of the more interesting facts which is not well known is that cosmetics giant L'Oreal has heavily invested in the bioprinting of skin. This is in order to have a more reliable mode for the testing of it's products in the laboratory setting.


Currently the stated time frames for the bioprinting of fully functional human organs are far longer than 5 years at the time of this post in 2017.


The image above is of a 3D printed silicone heart (ie artificial heart) developed in Zurch, which is featured in the following post-


http://sco.lt/6RyRhR

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First heart transplant performed in Sri Lanka

First heart transplant performed in Sri Lanka | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
In news from Sri Lanka confirmation that the first heart transplant has been performed at the Kandy teaching hospital.

The heart was retrieved from an organ donor who died as the result of a motor vehicle accident post declaration of brain death.
Pictured above us the team of doctors who were involved.

More on the story can be obtained by clicking on the banner headline to this post

The marathon surgery was achieved with the input of specialists from around the country as well as advice from a British cardiac surgeon-
Deborah Verran's insight:
This is an important development within Sri Lanka
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To solve organ shortage, states within the USA could consider 'opt-out' organ donation laws

To solve organ shortage, states within the USA could consider 'opt-out' organ donation laws | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Presumed consent organ donation policies have worked well in many European countries. But efforts to introduce them in the U.S. have so far failed, the reasons for which are mentioned in this article.


A recent attempt to introduce the relevant legislation in to the state of Connecticut was met by a backlash in the form of letters to the editor of local newspapers as well as calls to state politicians. Hence for now this attempt has been abandoned. In addition attempts at introducing legislation into three other states has never gone past the initial preliminary stages.


As mentioned in the article it is thought that the emphasis on the rights of the individual within the United States may partly be behind the reluctance to move towards opt out organ donation.

Deborah Verran's insight:
Barriers exist within the United States when it comes to the possible introduction of an opt out system for organ donation
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BMA - BMA Scotland welcomes Scottish Government plan for organ donation soft opt out

BMA - BMA Scotland welcomes Scottish Government plan for organ donation soft opt out | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

News from Scotland that the government plans to legislate for a soft opt out system of organ donation.


This has the support of the BMA in Scotland


The official media release from the Scottish government can be viewed via the following link-


https://news.gov.scot/news/increasing-organ-and-tissue-donation

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The Disputed Death of an 8-Year-Old Whose Organs Were Donated

The Disputed Death of an 8-Year-Old Whose Organs Were Donated | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

A hospital in Los Angeles used a once-controversial but increasingly common donation procedure known as donation after circulatory death for a potential organ donor. Now this case is being re-examined by the police after a local corner filed a lawsuit over the case.


It is alleged that the donor may have been given an excessive dose of a pain killing medication to 'hasten his death' following withdrawal of life sustaining therapy. Of note the patient had already been declared to have sustained catastrophic brain damage from which he could not ever recover from, plus his family had agreed to withdrawal of life support along with the subsequent organ donation.


Now that the case is being subjected to a further investigation by the police, no other information is available at this time.


However comments from other professionals in this article do raise the question of whether the allegation of improper usage of pain medication reflects an accurate knowledge of the facts.

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Ministerio de Salud suspendió programa de trasplante renal in Venezuela

Ministerio de Salud suspendió programa de trasplante renal in Venezuela | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Ministerio de Salud suspendió programa de trasplante renal


It has been confirmed that the Ministry of Health in Venezuela has suspended deceased donor organ donation as well as renal transplantation effective the 1st of June 2017.


This follows on from months of critical shortages of pharmaceutical agents including in particular the immunosuppressive drugs Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil which are two of the medications most commonly prescribed to transplant recipients.


This comes on top of an increasing number of reports of adverse health outcomes in Venezuela as the health care system struggles to deliver services in the face on increasing shortages of consumable items as well as medications.


The online article includes the forceful response from the Venezuelan society of Nephrology



Deborah Verran's insight:
Patients with end stage kidney disease in Venezuela are running out of options. Humanitarian assistance will be required to support the Venezuela healthcare system in the short to medium term.
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The Relationship Between Social Media and Organ Donation? It’s Complicated.

The Relationship Between Social Media and Organ Donation? It’s Complicated. | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Some surgeons worry that the ease of Facebook entreaties particularly to save the lives of some transplant recipients, might inspire potential organ donors to make their decisions too lightly.


As outlined in this article, one transplant center in the United States suddenly found themselves under enormous pressure to field hundreds of enquiries from potential organ donors. This occurred after a Facebook post that was made by the parent of a sick child went viral.


Apart from dealing with the actual volume of calls and other expressions of interest, the initial problem faced by the transplant center was how to come up with a short list of suitable potential donors. This was followed by how to deal with all of the other expressions of interest, for which one solution was to request that people make contact with other not for profit organizations/stakeholders on how best to proceed.

Deborah Verran's insight:
A good description of some of the issues that can arise if a social media campaign for a live organ donor goes viral.
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Sergio Canavero says the first head transplant patient will be a Chinese national, who will have surgery this year

Sergio Canavero says the first head transplant patient will be a Chinese national, who will have surgery this year | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Head transplantation continues to attract attention particularly via social media. This story has now been given more impetus with Dr Sergio Canavero the Italian neurosurgeon (pictured right), stating that the operation will take place in China within the next 10 months. This has also been aided by the reports of head transplantation being performed on rats-


http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/scientists-china-full-head-transplant-rats-human-sergio-canavero-cns-neuroscience-therapeutics-a7711871.html


However Dr Canavero is now also claiming that there are plans to transplant cryogenically frozen brain tissue into patients as well. There is no evidence that this will work as some are pointing out in response to this claim-

https://joinfo.com/world/1029268_cryogenically-frozen-brains-will-be-woken-up-and-transplanted-in-donor-bodies-within-three-years-neurosurgeon-claims.html


Deborah Verran's insight:
This story keeps doing the rounds on social media and looks likely to keep going until the experimental head transplant procedure is performed in humans
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Govt moves towards a common organ donation registry, ZTCCs yet to comply in part of India

Govt moves towards a common organ donation registry, ZTCCs yet to comply in part of India | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

There are plans now in one part of India for there to be a move towards a new regional organ donation system headquartered in Mumbai  overseen by ROTTO.  However the already established four Zonal Transplant Co-ordination Committees are yet to comply. The plan would be for ROTTO to then be linked to and report to the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO).


At the moment each region within India has different processes in place for organ donation and local organ donor registries (where they exist), are often not linked.  Hence there are times when despite the availability of organs, a suitable recipient is not found within the same region. This leads to the discarding of otherwise transplantable organs which is now seen as something which must be avoided. This is now becoming more important as more processes are put into place to lift the rates of organ donation across India.

Deborah Verran's insight:
Further evidence of new processes being established within India to help lift the rates of organ donation
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In Algeria, taboos and law deter organ donors

In Algeria, taboos and law deter organ donors | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

More than 22,000 people in Algeria suffer from renal conditions and are forced to undergo dialysis, according to the ministry of health.


However a combination of strict laws pertaining to living organ donation and widespread misconceptions about deceased donation in the community, are leading to a low rate of organ donation. This is acting as a significant barrier to the numbers of patients who are able to undergo organ transplantation.


Head of the Batna hospital nephrology department Dr Ahmed Bougroura (pictured above) describes the harsh reality facing dialysis patients in Algeria and why change is required in order to increase the rates of organ donation.


For a short video posted online via the AFP news agency click on the following link-

https://youtu.be/TKhxAa4FZRI




.

Deborah Verran's insight:
An important article on the challenges within Algeria with respect to delivering renal replacement therapy in the setting of low organ donation rates.
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Who deserves a liver? Officials try to make organ transplants fairer

Who deserves a liver? Officials try to make organ transplants fairer | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Ongoing concerns over whether deceased donor livers are being allocated equitably across the United States have led to ongoing efforts to alter the current allocation scheme.


This has involved modelling of several options all of which require that an increased number of donor livers would be diverted to the patient's with the highest MELD scores. However this has to be done in a way that does not compromise the quality of the donor organ by adding too much in the way of additional transport time.


A new plan would alter how precious organs are distributed and could shift hundreds of them across state and regional borders.


For more on where the current deliberations have got to in the United States click on the banner headline to this story.

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Growing and Testing Drugs on Dozens of Tiny Guts at Once |

Growing and Testing Drugs on Dozens of Tiny Guts at Once | | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In a demonstration of where the field of organ-on-a-chip technology is inevitably going, MIMETAS, a company developing organ-on-chip technology out of Leiden has revealed it's gut on a chip device.


For more on the story click on the banner headline

Deborah Verran's insight:
An example of where the organ on a chip technology has got to for the purpose of in vitro testing of pharmaceutical agents
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Tissue-engineered trachea from a 3D-printed scaffold enhances whole-segment tracheal repair

Tissue-engineered trachea from a 3D-printed scaffold enhances whole-segment tracheal repair | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it
In this latest research into the bioengineering of a trachea (windpipe), scientists have developed a biodegradeable scaffold which is then populated with cells.

The new trachea was then surgically implanted into rabbits and the rabbits observed for complications.

This is a proof of concept study, i.e. it allows the researchers to ascertain that the bioengineered trachea can safely be transplanted. However as mentioned in this article, there have been limitations with the use of other types of the bioengineered trachea to date, including in humans. 

Hence more research is required to ascertain whether there is an artificial trachea which can be safely implanted into patients with an acceptable risk.
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The latest research into developing a bioengineered trachea
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New Delhi: Man receives liver in 'donation after circulatory death' | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis

New Delhi: Man receives liver in 'donation after circulatory death' | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In recent news from New Delhi in India comes the report that an adult male has been transplanted with a liver from a 'donation after circulatory death organ donor (DCD).


Obtaining livers for the purpose of transplantation from DCD donors requires that certain selection criteria are followed. The absence of circulation in the donor prior to the organ retrieval means that there is a limited time frame during which the liver can then be retrieved .

Deborah Verran's insight:
This is an important development in India
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PGIMER becomes first govt hospital in India to perform a lung transplant

PGIMER becomes first govt hospital in India to perform a lung transplant | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

In news out of India comes the report of the first lung transplant procedure to have been performed in a government funded hospital. A team of over 20 surgeons and paramedics spent over 12 hours in the operating room. The donor lungs were retrieved from a young adult following the declaration of brain death.

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New strategy to lift organ donation rate in New Zealand

New strategy to lift organ donation rate in New Zealand | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

A new strategy has just been launched by the government to encourage more people to be organ donors in New Zealand.


The strategy includes placing trained healthcare professionals into intensive care units, raising community awareness about organ donation, making it easier for individuals to register and finally having all of this overseen by a national organization.



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PROCESO DE PROCURACIÓN Y TRASPLANTE Argentina

El trasplante de órganos es el procedimiento quirúrgico mediante el cual se extrae un órgano o tejido de un individuo para ser implantado en otro. Inici


In order for organ transplants to occur from deceased donors within Argentina, a number of things have to happen. In this 20 minute video, a number of health professionals explain what processes are in place and what then transpires if a potential organ donor is identified within the intensive care unit.


This video will be of particular interest to healthcare professionals who are involved in organ donation within the hospital setting.


Deborah Verran's insight:
This 20 minute video describes how organ donors are identified and managed in hospitals within Argentina and what are the essential parts of the process
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Nearly 16,000 transplants to be performed in China this year

Nearly 16,000 transplants to be performed in China this year | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

About 15,000 to 16,000 patients will receive organ transplants in China this year or the equivalent of about half of the 31,000 people on the waiting list for donations, the country’s Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee said.


The article mentions the limited summary data that have just been released via government officials. Mention is also made of a small number of cases where live donors have donated organs to family members within China





Deborah Verran's insight:
The latest official data released from authorities in China
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One doctor's war against global organ trafficking

One doctor's war against global organ trafficking | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

Dr. Francis Delmonico, a Harvard Medical School professor, has spent more than a decade leading the fight to establish global ethics principles that govern how human organs are obtained and transplanted.


Read about his involvement in some of the international efforts to try and put a stop to various illicit organ donation and transplantation practices around the world including but not limited to China.


Deborah Verran's insight:
This article will be of particular interest to policy makers as well as healthcare professional involved in either organ donation or transplantation
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John Oliver targets dialysis, a procedure that’s exhausting, deadly, and very profitable in the United States

John Oliver targets dialysis, a procedure that’s exhausting, deadly, and very profitable in the United States | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

If you understand what is happening in some parts of the United States with patients who are undergoing dialysis then there is the opportunity for steps to be taken to improve the situation.


This includes the patients on dialysis understanding that their treatment options include a kidney transplant. Their family members also need to understand that there are treatment options. In addition members of the wider community can contribute by joining the organ donor registry and also informing their own relatives of this fact. 


The video footage can be viewed via the following link-

https://youtu.be/IDjEtF59Fiw


Deborah Verran's insight:
Dialysis services are frequently outsourced to companies in the United States. One provider comes in for extra scrutiny via this particular on air late night TV program. The video footage is worth watching.
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Meeting an organ trafficker who preys on Syrian refugees - BBC News

Meeting an organ trafficker who preys on Syrian refugees - BBC News | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

An interview is held with a young man in a small shop in a back alley way of a city in Lebanon. The information that he goes on to provide is chilling.


Abu Jaafar's job is to find people desperate enough to give up a part of their body for money i.e being willing to sell one of their kidneys or even an eye.


This includes desperate Syrian refugees who need money in order to try and survive.


The descriptions of how the transactions occur and how individuals are managed after the surgery to remove a kidney are chilling.

Deborah Verran's insight:
Extremely concerning that vulnerable refugees in Lebanon are being sought to provide organs and tissues for transplantation
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First two government funded kidney transplants have been performed in Nepal

First two government funded kidney transplants have been performed in Nepal | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources | Scoop.it

It has been reported this last week that the first government funded kidney transplants have recently been performed in Nepal.

The full link to the story-
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