British Journal of Cancer - Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study | Organ Donation & Transplant Matters Resources |

With the number of cases of primary liver cancer on the increase in many countries around the world, it is important to understand what are the known risk factors for developing this type of malignancy[also known as hepatocellular carcinoma].


The results of an epidemiological study performed in Singapore are the subject of this report. It is apparant that both smoking and alcohol intake are associated with an increased risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in the population that was studied. This kind of information is useful for advising individuals either at risk of or who already have chronic liver disease, on what actions they may take to limit their risk of developing liver cancer.


Of note hepatocellular carcinoma is also an increasing indication for liver transplantation currently in many countries, hence the added importance of preventative measures.