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Basil Skewers, Holy Cheeses and Sorbets of Summer

Basil Skewers, Holy Cheeses and Sorbets of Summer | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

easy vegetarian snacks and/or finger foods, no cooking required...

 

“There are no facts, only interpretations.” ~Friedrich Nietzsche


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Medical microrobots to deliver drugs on demand

Medical microrobots to deliver drugs on demand | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Advances in micro- and nanoscale engineering in the medical field have led to the development of various robotic designs that one day will allow a new level of minimally invasive medicine. These micro- and nanorobots will be able to reach a targeted area, provide treatments and therapies for a desired duration, measure the effects and, at the conclusion of the treatment, be removed or degrade without causing adverse effects. Ideally, all these tasks would be automated but they could also be performed under the direct supervision and control of an external user.Several approaches have been explored for the wireless actuation of microrobots. Among these, magnetic fields have been the most widely employed strategy for propulsion because they do not require special environmental properties such as conductivity or transparency (for instance: "Artificial nano swimmers", with a video that shows the controlled motions of particles in a magnetic field).


This approach allows for the precise manipulation of magnetic objects toward specific locations, and magnetic fields are biocompatible even at relatively high field strengths (MRI).In a new work, a team of researchers from ETH Zurich and Harvard University (David Mooney's lab) demonstrate that additional intelligence – including sensing and actuation – can be instantiated in these microrobots by selecting appropriate materials and methods for the fabrication process.


"Our work combines the design and fabrication of near infrared light (NIR) responsive hydrogel capsules and biocompatible magnetic microgels with a magnetic manipulation system to perform targeted drug and cell delivery tasks, Dr." Mahmut Selman Sakar, a research scientist in Bradley Nelson's Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at ETH Zurich, tells Nanowerk.Reporting their results in the November 4, 2013 online edition of Advanced Materials ("An Integrated Microrobotic Platform for On-Demand, Targeted Therapeutic Interventions"), first-authored by Sakar's co-researcher Stefano Fusco, the team fabricated an untethered, self-folding, soft microrobotic platform, in which different functionalities are integrated to achieve targeted, on-demand delivery of biological agents.


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Jose Mejia R's comment, March 30, 11:40 AM
TRADUCCION:<br>Los avances en la ingeniería de micro-y nanoescala en el campo de la medicina han conducido al desarrollo de diversos diseños robóticos que un día permitirá un nuevo nivel de la medicina mínimamente invasiva. Estos micro-y nano-robots serán capaces de llegar a un área objetiva, proporcionar tratamientos y terapias para una duración deseada, medir los efectos y, a la conclusión del tratamiento, deberá ser eliminado o degradado sin causar efectos adversos. Lo ideal sería que todas estas tareas se pueden automatizar, pero también pueden ser realizados bajo la supervisión y el control directos de un usuario externo. Varios enfoques se han explorado para el accionamiento inalámbrico de microrobots. Entre éstos, los campos magnéticos han sido la estrategia más ampliamente empleada para la propulsión, ya que no requieren propiedades especiales del medio ambiente tales como la conductividad o la transparencia (por ejemplo: "nadadores nano artificial", con un vídeo que muestra los movimientos controlados de partículas en una magnética campo).<br> <br>Este enfoque permite la manipulación precisa de objetos magnéticos hacia lugares específicos, y los campos magnéticos son biocompatibles, incluso a intensidades de campo relativamente altas (MRI). En un nuevo trabajo, un equipo de investigadores de ETH Zurich y la Universidad de Harvard (el laboratorio de David Mooney) demuestran que con inteligencia adicional - incluyendo detección y actuación - se puede crear instancias de estos microrobots seleccionando materiales y procedimientos para el proceso de fabricación adecuadas.<br><br>"Nuestro trabajo combina el diseño y la fabricación de la luz en el infrarrojo cercano (NIR) cápsulas de hidrogel sensible y microgeles magnéticas biocompatibles con un sistema de manipulación magnética para realizar tareas de administración de drogas y de suministro de células específicas, nos diece el Dr. Mahmut Sakar Selman, un científico de investigación en el Instituto de Bradley Nelson de Robótica y Sistemas Inteligentes en la ETH Zurich. Sus resultados indicados el 04 de noviembre 2013 en la edición en línea de Materiales Avanzados ...
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200 Free Documentaries Online

200 Free Documentaries Online | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
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Watch over 200 free documentaries online. The documentaries cover everything from music and cinema, to literature, religion, politics and physics. They're thought-provoking, eye-opening, and enlightening.
Patty Golden's insight:

i would particularly enjoy seeing this one. 

The Making of Koyaanisqatsi - Free - Director Godfrey Reggio gives you the backstory behind his 1982 film, Koyaanisqatsi.
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Comparing Genome Editing Technologies

Comparing Genome Editing Technologies | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas systems help scientists dissect
the vast amount of information accumulated through
the Genomic Revolution.

 

The Genomic Revolution has promised to advance medicine and biotechnology by providing scientists with enormous amounts of data that can be converted into useful information.

 

Over 10 years ago, the Human Genome Project produced the first draft of the more than 3 billion base pairs of DNA that make up the genetic code in each of our cells.

 

More recent efforts like the 1000 Genomes and HapMap Projects have since focused on identifying the differences within these billions of base pairs of DNA between individuals, while genome-wide association studies have pinpointed specific sequences that determine health and disease. The ENCODE Project and other studies have annotated chromatin states, regulatory elements, transcription factor binding sites, and other epigenetic states throughout the genome.

 

Dozens of other species have since undergone similar analyses, with the number of sequenced genomes continuously growing. Collectively, these efforts have generated an incredibly rich source of data that promises to aid our understanding of the function and evolution of any genome. However, until recently, scientists have been lacking the tools necessary to interrogate the structure and function of these elements.

 

While conventional genetic engineering methods could be used to add extra genes to cells, they cannot be easily used to modify the sequences or control the expression of genes that already exist within these genomes. These types of tools are necessary to determine not only the function of genes, but also the role of genetic variants and regulatory elements. They can also be used to overcome longstanding challenges in the field of gene therapy. Without these technologies, it has been difficult—and in some cases impossible—for scientists to capitalize on the Genomic Revolution.


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How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans

How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Bottlenose dolphins use auditory (or echoic) information to recognize their environments, and many studies have described their echolocation perception abilities. However, relatively few systematic studies have examined their visual perception. A team of scientists now tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, they used multidimensional scaling to analyze perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, they conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates. These results clearly indicate that the visual world is perceived similarly by the three species of mammals, even though each has adapted to a different environment and has differing degrees of dependence on vision.

 

Because dolphins have adapted to an underwater environment, they have developed a perceptual system that differs considerably from that of terrestrial mammals such as primates. One strikingly different aspect of the perceptual system of dolphins is echolocation1,. They can recognize shapes, materials, and the texture of objects using this form of biological sonar. Many echolocation studies on cetaceans have been conducted both in the laboratory and in the wild4. A few studies have investigated dolphins' ability to use cross-modal integration through vision–echolocation matching5, 6,. In these studies, dolphins were very accurate in matching three-dimensional complex objects using information gathered via echolocation. On the other hand, these results indirectly suggest that dolphins may also visually discriminate complex objects. Dolphins (e.g., bottlenose dolphins) have poorer in-air and underwater visual acuity (12.6 min of visual angle from a distance of 2.5 m) than that of primates10. Nevertheless, they still visually recognize and discriminate human gestural signs11, 12, 13, mirror images of themselves14, 15, numbers of objects16, three-dimensional objects4, 17, and two-dimensional forms17, 18. Moreover, researchers have used visual stimuli to study the basic features of the vision and various cognitive abilities of dolphins17, 18.


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Casper Pieters's curator insight, March 9, 7:28 PM

Great visual for bio studies.

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BBC Future: Are we alone in the Universe? May we one day contact alien lifeforms?

BBC Future: Are we alone in the Universe? May we one day contact alien lifeforms? | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
Discovering planets outside our Solar System has raised hopes that we may one day contact alien lifeforms. But will this ever happen?

 

Two possibilities exist: either we are alone in the Universe or we are not. Both are equally terrifying.” So said sci-fi author Arthur C Clarke. We’ve been fascinated by the idea life may exist elsewhere, and for over 50 years the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (Seti) has been scanning the galaxy for messages from an alien civilisation to no avail.

 

But the discovery of planets outside our solar system, or exoplanets, has raised hopes that efforts to contact alien lifeforms may one day succeed. BBC’s Horizon joined the planet hunters who discovered a new world called Gliese 581 c. To date, it is one of the most Earth-like planets found around another star, and it may have habitats capable of supporting life.


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Discovery that Dogs have a Fovea Centralis Gives Insight into Blinding Retinal Diseases

Discovery that Dogs have a Fovea Centralis Gives Insight into Blinding Retinal Diseases | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

In humans, a tiny area in the center of the retina called the fovea is critically important to viewing fine details. Densely packed with cone photoreceptor cells, it is used while reading, driving and gazing at objects of interest. Some animals have a similar feature in their eyes, but researchers believed that among mammals the fovea was unique to primates — until now.

 

University of Pennsylvania vision scientists report that dogs, too, have an area of their retina that strongly resembles the human fovea. What’s more, this retinal region is susceptible to genetic blinding diseases in dogs just as it is in humans.

 

“It’s incredible that in 2014 we can still make an anatomical discovery in a species that we’ve been looking at for the past 20,000 years and that, in addition, this has high clinical relevance to humans,” said William Beltran, an assistant professor of ophthalmology in Penn’s School of Veterinary Medicine.

 

The word “fovea” comes from the Latin meaning “pit,” owing to the fact that in humans and many other primates, the inner layers of the retina are thin in this area, while the outer layers are packed with cone photoreceptor cells. It is believed that this inner layer thinning allows the foveal cone cells privileged access to light.

 

It is known that dogs have what is called an area centralis, a region around the center of the retina with a relative increase in cone photoreceptor cell density. But dogs lack the pit formation that humans have, and, before this study, it was believed that the increase in cone photoreceptor cell density didn’t come close to matching what is seen in primates. Prior to this study, the highest reported density in dogs was 29,000 cones per square millimeter compared to more than 100,000 cones per square millimeter seen in the human and macaque foveas.

 

It turns out that previous studies in dogs had missed a miniscule region of increased cell density. In this study, while examining the retina of a dog with a mutation that causes a disease akin to a form of X-linked retinal degeneration in humans, the Penn researchers noticed a thinning of the retinal layer that contains photoreceptor cells.

 

Zeroing in on this region, they examined retinas of normal dogs using advanced imaging techniques, including confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography and two-photon microscopy. By enabling the scientists to visualize different layers of the retina, these techniques allowed them to identify a small area of peak cone density and then estimate cone numbers by counting the cells in this unique area.


Based on their observations, the researchers found that cone densities reached more than 120,000 cells per square millimeter in a never-before-described fovea-like region within the area centralis — a density on par with that of primate foveas. 

 

Human patients with macular degeneration experience a loss of photoreceptor cells — the rods and cones that process light — at or near the fovea, resulting in a devastating loss of central vision. To see whether the fovea-like region was similarly affected in dogs, the Penn researchers used the same techniques they had employed to study normal dogs to examine animals that had mutations in two genes (BEST1 and RPGR) that can lead to macular degeneration in humans.


In both cases, the onset of disease affected the fovea-like region in dogs in a very similar way to how the diseases present in humans -- with central retinal lesions appearing earlier than lesions in the peripheral retina.


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Not Just a Southern Thing: The Changing Geography of American Poverty

Not Just a Southern Thing: The Changing Geography of American Poverty | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
Thirty years ago, the states with the deepest poverty were all clustered in dixie. But the rest of the country has been playing catchup.


So how did poverty stop being a Southern specialty? You've had, deindustrialization in the Midwest and Northeast. And you've had fast growing Hispanic populations, which tend to be poorer, in California, Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado (as well as North Carolina and Georgia, which could explain their presence on the list above).  Meanwhile, the Southeast has made some economic progress by attracting foreign manufacturing, among other efforts.


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viknesh's curator insight, March 2, 9:42 AM

When Americans think of poverty, they often times think of the southern states. However, that was most accurate 30 years ago. As time progesses, other states, especially New York, have been catching up drastically. Poverty is not only a southern thing, but a factor in on the growing rates of low income households across the United States. Although the quality of life among the states of low income households may vary, the povery levels do not.

Nick Smith's curator insight, September 2, 4:19 PM

Poverty, no longer a southern thing. What has changed this?

Nicholas Patrie's curator insight, October 20, 12:16 PM

not only has poverty increased drastically in the south and spread west but also states that where considered to be low percentage of poverty have increased to poverty. many states up north are now in danger. the economy hasn't increased at all in the last twenty plus years and it should be interesting to see what happens in the future, hopefully the south doesn't get too far under the poverty line to the point where it can't be brought back.

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Why So Many Emerging Megacities Remain So Poor

Why So Many Emerging Megacities Remain So Poor | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
How globalization has changed the nature of urban development.

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Marcelle Searles's curator insight, January 25, 3:34 AM

useful for Year 9, 10 and 11 Geography units

Bonnie Bracey Sutton's curator insight, January 30, 10:21 PM

Around the world is the same set of problems. Check the Esri  resources that are used to compare cities.

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Online Quizzes for Regional Geography

Online Quizzes for Regional Geography | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

"For Regional Geography, I ask that all my students take an online quizzes before coming to class because it is very difficult to intelligently discuss European issues if you don’t know the countries of Europe, where they are and what other countries are on their borders.  Quizzes and knowing places doesn’t define geography, but if geography were English literature, knowing about places could be described as the alphabet–before you write a sonnet or critique an essay, you better know your ABC’s and basic grammar.  Given that, I like the Lizard Point Geography quizzes, Sheppard Software quizzes and those from Click that ‘Hood; they are simple, straightforward and comprehensive."


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Mirta Liliana Filgueira's curator insight, February 2, 6:52 PM

Exámenes en línea para Geografía.

SFDSLibrary's curator insight, May 13, 8:16 AM

Quizzes to test a students knowledge of places and countries.

Melissa Marie Falco-Dargitz's curator insight, September 22, 12:20 PM

I hope the lizard point Geography tests are enough. I have sent you my screenshots for the ones I have taken.

 

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World’s first $1,000 genome enables ‘factory’ scale sequencing for population and disease studies

World’s first $1,000 genome enables ‘factory’ scale sequencing for population and disease studies | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Illumina, Inc. announced Tuesday that its new HiSeq X Ten Sequencing System has broken the “sound barrier” of human genomics by enabling the $1,000 genome. “This platform includes dramatic technology breakthroughs that enable researchers to undertake studies of unprecedented scale by providing the throughput to sequence tens of thousands of human whole genomes in a single year in a single lab,” Illumina stated.


Initial customers for the HiSeq X Ten System, which will ship in Q1 2014, include Macrogen, based in Seoul, South Korea and its CLIA laboratory in Rockville, Maryland, the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, Australia.

 

“For the first time, it looks like it will be possible to deliver the $1,000 genome, which is tremendously exciting,” said Eric Lander, founding director of the Broad Institute and a professor of biology at MIT. “The HiSeq X Ten should give us the ability to analyze complete genomic information from huge sample populations. Over the next few years, we have an opportunity to learn as much about the genetics of human disease as we have learned in the history of medicine.”

 

“The HiSeq X Ten is an ideal platform for scientists and institutions focused on the discovery of genotypic variation to enable a deeper understanding of human biology and genetic disease,” Illumina stated. “It can sequence tens of thousands of samples annually with high-quality, high-coverage sequencing, delivering a comprehensive catalog of human variation within and outside coding regions.”

 

HiSeq X Ten utilizes a number of advanced design features to generate massive throughput. Patterned flow cells, which contain billions of nanowells at fixed locations, combined with a new clustering chemistry deliver a significant increase in data density (6 billion clusters per run). Using state-of-the art optics and faster chemistry, HiSeq X Ten can process sequencing flow cells more quickly than ever before — generating a 10x increase in daily throughput when compared to current HiSeq 2500 performance.

 

The HiSeq X Ten is sold as a set of 10 or more ultra-high throughput sequencing systems, each generating up to 1.8 terabases (Tb) of sequencing data in less than three days or up to 600 gigabases (Gb) per day, per system, providing the throughput to sequence tens of thousands of high-quality, high-coverage genomes per year.

 

Illumina Introduces the HiSeq X™ Ten Sequencing System

 

Nature: Is the $1000 Genome for real?

 


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Why We Celebrate Martin Luther King Day

Why We Celebrate Martin Luther King Day | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

"Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once stated,"A man who won't die for something is not fit to live." Arrested over twenty times, stabbed in the chest, his house firebombed and, ultimately shot and killed, King embodied the idea that equality and the African American Civil Rights Movement were worth dying for.He was a husband and father to four children as persecution and death threats filled his days, yet his example was one of nonviolent, civil disobedience.Had he not been assassinated, King would have celebrated his 85th birthday on January 15th."


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Jessica Rieman's curator insight, January 28, 12:55 PM

This map shows the desegregation movement and the way that important events happened in the effort to better the African American people. It shows a series of events that took place in the South;(Memphais MLK Assassinated on April 4th, 1968, Atlanta MLK born Jan. 15th,1929, Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956) and it shows his famous "I have a dream" speech on Aug.28th,1963. 

Joseph Thacker 's curator insight, January 29, 11:16 PM

Martin Luther King Jr. is an iconic figure in American history. A man that will be remembered forever, as he overcame so much adversity and risked his life on a daily basis for the greater good of America. After being arrested multiple times, injured and threatened, most people would have given up, but not him. He is one who never gave up on his dreams and proves that anything is possible.  

Jess Deady's curator insight, April 16, 1:27 PM

We celebrate Martin Luther King JR because he was a man of pride. In history, those who are remembered did something great most likely. He was an activist for the Civil Rights movement and had a dream that one day the world would treat everyone as equals. He was assassinated and unfortunately that is another reason we celebrate and honor his life.

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40 maps that explain the world

40 maps that explain the world | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
I've searched wide and far for maps that can reveal and surprise and inform in ways that the daily headlines might not.

Via Seth Dixon, Ness Crouch, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Christophe CESETTI's curator insight, January 23, 5:37 PM

Pearltree "Géographie" http://pear.ly/cqIbP

Terheck's curator insight, January 26, 5:58 AM

Une sélection de 40 cartes qui permettent de mieux comprendre notre monde.

Jessica Rieman's curator insight, February 11, 2:30 PM

When looking at this map there area few things that stick out to me and not just the colors. Fistly what I founf interesting was that South America in relation to where we live is quite different. For example, The US economic status is High Class at $12195 or more for most of the East and West Coast and then it is dull in the middle. These facts compared to South America where they are mostly upper middle class at around $3946-12185 and a portion of them are the lower middle class which rings in at around $886-3945.

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Top 50 Free Icon Sets From 2013

Top 50 Free Icon Sets From 2013 | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Over the last five years we have published our end of year review of the best free icon sets for designers and developers. So, as 2013 begins to close we have just finished reviewing, compiling and categorizing our latest review. This really is the best one ever!

 

The icons have all been split into categories: There is a fantastic selection of web icon fonts, versatile & general sets, and thin & line sets, we also have an obligatory section for flat icons, which have been trending this year, and we also small sections for mini icons, mobile-specific icons,payment services & ecommerce sets, and finally some top-notch social icons.


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Now life-saving medicines will be fast-tracked for the critically ill

Now life-saving medicines will be fast-tracked for the critically ill | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
The fast-track plan would help patients with cancers or dementia where there is no effective treatment left from existing medicines.
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Internet surveillance predicts disease outbreak before WHO

Internet surveillance predicts disease outbreak before WHO | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Have you ever Googled for an online diagnosis before visiting a doctor? If so, you may have helped provide early warning of an infectious disease epidemic.

 

In a new study published in Lancet Infectious Diseases, Internet-based surveillance has been found to detect infectious diseases such as Dengue Fever and Influenza up to two weeks earlier than traditional surveillance methods, according to Queensland University of Technology (QUT) research fellow and senior author of the paper Wenbiao Hu.

 

Hu, based at the Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, said there was often a lag time of two weeks before traditional surveillance methods could detect an emerging infectious disease.

 

“This is because traditional surveillance relies on the patient recognizing the symptoms and seeking treatment before diagnosis, along with the time taken for health professionals to alert authorities through their health networks. In contrast, digital surveillance can provide real-time detection of epidemics.”

 

Hu said the study used search engine algorithms such as Google Trends and Google Insights. It found that detecting the 2005–06 avian influenza outbreak “Bird Flu” would have been possible between one and two weeks earlier than official surveillance reports.

 

“In another example, a digital data collection network was found to be able to detect the SARS outbreak more than two months before the first publications by the World Health Organization (WHO),” Hu said.


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Smart holographic sensors can test for and monitor diseases

Smart holographic sensors can test for and monitor diseases | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

A team of interdisciplinary researchers have created "smart" holograms that can monitor health conditions or diagnose diseases, by changing color in the presence of disease indicators in a person's breath or bodily fluids. When developed into a portable medical test, these responsive holograms could make testing for medical conditions and monitoring one's health very easy, the scientists claim.

 

A person would just have to check the hologram's color against a chart or use a camera phone to read the results. As these holographic sensors don't require batteries, electricity or lasers to function, it's possible to create inexpensive portable tests for healthcare workers to use or people to self-administer, that could help them potentially diagnose diseases in their earliest stages.

 

"We often see holograms on banknotes, credit cards, as security features, or artwork," Ali Yetisen, a PhD student at the University of Cambridge, UK, who led the research, tells Gizmag. "However, these type of holograms do not response when they encounter a health condition indicator such as glucose or blood electrolytes. We have developed techniques to make these holograms 'smart,' so that they can respond to a wide range of disease markers."

 

The holographic sensors are made out of hydrogels (a highly absorbent material) that are doped with silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles are then organized into three-dimensional holograms of predetermined shapes using a multi-megawatt laser. The final sensors resemble the iridescent hardened forewings of beetles, and normally diffract light in a green color. 

 

However, when the holographic sensor is exposed to a person's breath, urine, tears or a drop of their blood or saliva, the hydrogel in the sensor, which is sensitive to specific disease indicators, reacts if any of them are present. The hydrogel either swells or shrinks, causing a change in the hologram's color in the entire visible spectrum. It's the first time, the researchers claim, that they've been able to achieve such a result with a colorimetric sensor. 

 

"It's pretty much like a butterfly wing," says Dr. Haider Butt, a Lecturer in Micro Engineering and Nanotechnology, at the University of Birmingham and a co-author of the study. "But this is a butterfly wing that changes color depending on the solution we dip it in."


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'Barcoding' enables analysis of hundreds of tumor marker proteins at once from tiny tumor samples

'Barcoding' enables analysis of hundreds of tumor marker proteins at once from tiny tumor samples | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
A new technology developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Systems Biology allows simultaneous analysis of hundreds of cancer-related protein markers from miniscule patient samples gathered through minimally invasive methods.

 

Minimally invasive techniques – such as fine-needle aspiration or circulating tumor cell analysis – are increasingly employed to track treatment response over time in clinical trials, as such tests can be simple and cheap to perform. Fine needle aspirates are also much less invasive than core biopsies or surgical biopsies, since very small needles are used. The challenge has been to comprehensively analyze the very few cells that are obtained via this method. "What this study sought to achieve was to vastly expand the information that we can obtain from just a few cells," explains Cesar Castro, MD, of the MGH Cancer Centerand CSB, a co-author of the Science Translational Medicine paper. "Instead of trying to procure more tissue to study, we shrank the analysis process so that it could now be performed on a few cells.”  

Up until now, pathologists have been able to examine only a handful of protein markers at a time for tumor analyses. But with this new technology, researchers at CSB have demonstrated the ability to look at hundreds of markers simultaneously down to the single-cell level. "We are no longer limited by the scant cell quantities procured through minimally invasive procedures," says Castro. "Rather, the bottleneck will now be our own understanding of the various pathways involved in disease progression and drug target modulation."

The novel method centers on an approach known as DNA-barcoded antibody sensing, in which unique DNA sequences are attached to antibodies against known cancer marker proteins. The DNA 'barcodes' are linked the antibodies with a special type of glue that breaks apart when exposed to light. When mixed with a tumor sample, the antibodies seek out and bind to their targets; then a light pulse releases the unique DNA barcodes of bound antibodies that are subsequently tagged with fluorescently-labeled complementary barcodes.  The tagged barcodes can be detected and quantified via imaging, revealing which markers are present in the sample. 

After initially demonstrating and validating the technique's feasibility in cell lines and single cells, the team went on to test it on samples from patients with lung cancer.  The technology was able to reflect the great heterogeneity – differences in features such as cell-surface protein expression – of cells within a single tumor and to reveal significant differences in protein expression between tumors that appeared identical under the microscope.  Examination of cells taken at various time points from participants in a clinical trial of a targeted therapy drug revealed marker patterns that distinguished those who did and did not respond to treatment. 


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Silk-Based Implants Could Offer A Better Way to Heal Broken Bones

Silk-Based Implants Could Offer A Better Way to Heal Broken Bones | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

When a person suffers a broken bone, treatment calls for the surgeon to insert screws and plates to help bond the broken sections and enable the fracture to heal. These “fixation devices” are usually made of metal alloys.

But metal devices may have disadvantages: Because they are stiff and unyielding, they can cause stress to underlying bone. They also pose an increased risk of infection and poor wound healing. In some cases, the metal implants must be removed following fracture healing, necessitating a second surgery. Resorbable fixation devices, made of synthetic polymers, avoid some of these problems but may pose a risk of inflammatory reactions and are difficult to implant.

 

Now, using pure silk protein derived from silkworm cocoons, a team of investigators from Tufts University School of Engineering and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) has developed surgical plates and screws that may not only offer improved bone remodeling following injury, but importantly, can also be absorbed by the body over time, eliminating the need for surgical removal of the devices.

 

The findings, demonstrated in vitro and in a rodent model, are described in the March 4 issue of Nature Communications. “Unlike metal, the composition of silk protein may be similar to bone composition,” says co-senior author Samuel Lin, MD, of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at BIDMC and Associate Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School. “Silk materials are extremely robust. They maintain structural stability under very high temperatures and withstand other extreme conditions, and they can be readily sterilized.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Encompass HealthCare's curator insight, July 28, 2:44 PM

At Encompass HealthCare and Wound Medicine, we treat a lot of patients with hardware-related infections following hip replacements, knee replacements, anklebone fusions, and more. There are several reasons that patients sometimes develop these infections.


One reason patients can develop hardware-related infections is due to an infection that develops during the time of the surgery. Even under the most sterile conditions, bacteria that normally sit on the skin can spread into the freshly made incision, causing an infection that tunnels its way down and attaches itself to the very hardware that has been put in place. If this occurs, the patient needs treatment. Usually, I.V. antibiotics are given to try to clear the infection. This works some of the time, however, on occasion, the hardware must be removed, the patient must then be treated with another course of I.V. antibiotics, and then new hardware can be re-inserted by the patient's surgeon.


A second reason patients can develop hardware-related infections is due to an infection that develops sometime after the hardware has been in place. The patient may incur an infection from a completely unrelated incident and the bacteria can attach itself to the hardware. Again, medical protocol most often is a course of I.V. antibiotics, with the possibility of needing to remove the hardware if unsuccessful. Once the body is completely clear of infection, new hardware may be reinserted.


Due to foreign nature of hardware in the human body, a team at Tufts University has tried to find a more body-friendly substance that reduces the risk of infection, while impacting the bones in a less stressful manner.  Scientific gains have been reported by this group, experimenting with silkworm-cocoon derived proteins that may achieve these goals. Consequently, their research suggests that surgical plates and screws made from this material may be better in the long-run for these populations of patients. 


In the meantime, should you suffer an infection, seek help right away. Hardware related infections can be serious.


EncompassHealthcare and Wound Medicine is an outpatient facility featuring advanced wound care, IV antibiotic therapies, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, stem cell and artificial skin grafts, nutritional assessment, wound debridement, wound vacs, venous ablation and other treatment modalities for serious, non-healing wounds and infections. Dr. Bruce Ruben, TheWoundDoc, is the Founder and Medical Director of Encompass HealthCare, located in West Bloomfield, Michigan.

www.encompasshealthcare.com

248-624-9800




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Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States

Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

"The Digital Scholarship Lab at the University of Richmond has created an enhanced version of the Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, which was published in 1932. The atlas, which took dozens of researchers to assemble, used maps to illustrate a variety of political, demographic and economic concepts."


Via Seth Dixon
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Claudia Patricia Parra's curator insight, January 17, 9:37 AM

Muy buen material!

Mirta Liliana Filgueira's curator insight, January 21, 11:24 AM

Atlas de la geografíia histórica de Estados Unidos.

Jess Deady's curator insight, April 16, 1:33 PM

Okay, this is actually pretty cool. The atlas is huge and has tons of information within it. No wonder there were tons of helping hands who created this map(s) of insightful looks at demographic and political debate.

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Drying of the Aral Sea

Explore a global timelapse of our planet, constructed from Landsat satellite imagery. With water diverted to irrigation, the inland Aral Sea has shrunk drama...

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Michael Mazo's curator insight, October 6, 3:17 PM

The Aral sea held the position of being the fourth largest lake in the world for quite some time. Civilians used this body of water as a form of transport and resources up until the point where this lake has been slowly disappearing. Now the villagers in the area are worried that they will not be able to meet their water requirements which could very easily turn into a political issue. Although a drying lake could be due to climate conditions, acts of man-kind or simply a shift of tectonic plates. To figure out why this is happening is only part of the problem, to figure out how people will cope without their main source of water is an even deeper concern. 

Kaitlin Young's curator insight, October 7, 11:27 AM

The Aral Sea’s receding waters could prove fatal to the surrounding agriculture. Both Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan diverted the rivers that flowed into the Sea in the 1960s to feed their growing cotton and rice farms. Over the last five decades, the lack of a water source flowing into the Aral Sea combined with harsher droughts due to climate change have caused the water to evaporate at an alarming rate. As the water evaporates, large deposits of minerals remain on the bare lake bed. Winds pick up the mineral deposits and often spread them onto farms, where the increased salinity destroys rice paddies and other crops. The destruction of crops causes less food production, so less money is made by the farmers and more money has to be spent to bring in food to avoid famine. Cotton crops are also destroyed, so the region loses yet another source of income.

The increased evaporation of the Aral Sea has also caused an incredible increase to salinity levels in the lake itself. The extremely salty water cannot be used without heavy removing the salt, which is incredibly unaffordable in an already stressed region. Small subsidence farmers and local farmers cannot use the resource at hand. The fishing industry has completely collapsed, thus removing another important resource from the area.

If a wounded economy and unreliable food was not enough, the air born minerals blown away from the lake are causing numerous health problems. Respiratory issues, such as asthma, are becoming more and more common in the communities surrounding the Aral Sea due to the minerals and industrial debris in the air. The disappearance of the Sea has created the perfect conditions for the collapse of a region. The struggle that the people have to endure often escalates into increased social and political unrest, and disputes often occur. The Aral Sea exemplifies how one small environmental change can set off a chain of devastating events that lead to irreversible effects.

               

Amanda Morgan's curator insight, October 19, 8:19 PM

The drying of the Aral Sea opens our eyes to how fragile our environment is and the scarcity of resources.  We need to become more aware of our resources, because as they saying goes, the "well will run dry."

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Welcome to 'Geography Education'

Welcome to 'Geography Education' | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Finding Materials: This site is designed for geography students and teachers to find interesting, current supplemental materials.  To search for place-specific posts, browse this interactive map.  To search for thematic posts, see http://geographyeducation.org/thematic/ (organized by the APHG curriculum).  Also you can search for a keyword by clicking on the filter tab above.


Via Seth Dixon
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Matt Davidson's curator insight, August 27, 8:45 PM

Amazing resources about places and topics in Geography

Samuel D'Amore's curator insight, September 10, 2:44 PM

This is the key to finding specific articles.

Helen Rowling's curator insight, September 28, 6:30 PM

Use updates to filter through and be collated in your most frequented tools.

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Spotify Drops Free Web Listening Time Limit Everywhere – A Big Scalability Milestone | TechCrunch

Spotify Drops Free Web Listening Time Limit Everywhere – A Big Scalability Milestone | TechCrunch | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

Spotify's advertising engine and paid customer conversion funnel are finally working well enough that today it eliminated all limits on free, ad-supported web..


Via Sharrock
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40 more maps that explain the world

40 more maps that explain the world | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it
I've searched wide and far for maps that can reveal and surprise and inform in ways that the daily headlines might not.

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Christophe CESETTI's curator insight, January 23, 5:37 PM

Pearltree "Géographie" http://pear.ly/cqIbP

Terheck's curator insight, January 26, 5:58 AM

Une sélection de 40 cartes qui permettent de mieux comprendre notre monde.

Jessica Rieman's curator insight, February 11, 2:30 PM

When looking at this map there area few things that stick out to me and not just the colors. Fistly what I founf interesting was that South America in relation to where we live is quite different. For example, The US economic status is High Class at $12195 or more for most of the East and West Coast and then it is dull in the middle. These facts compared to South America where they are mostly upper middle class at around $3946-12185 and a portion of them are the lower middle class which rings in at around $886-3945.

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Content For SEO: A Visualization of Modern Search Ranking Factors [Infographic]

Content For SEO: A Visualization of Modern Search Ranking Factors [Infographic] | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

'The nuts and bolts that make up search engine optimization all hold the frame together, and that frame is content.

 

However, it’s much bigger than that.Without those nuts and bolts, such as inbound links, social signals, microformats, and citations, the content itself is nothing more than a pile sheet metal that can’t do anything.

 

As we continue to explore the ways that content can help with SEO, it’s important to note that even the infographic below by Fat is only one side of the content equation'.

 

Read More At: http://automotiveseo.org/visualization-modern-search-ranking-factors/


Via Antonino Militello
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munozbosch's curator insight, December 31, 2013 4:37 AM

Muy buena explicación sobre como se gestiona el contenido para SEO

Chris Murray's curator insight, January 2, 11:05 PM

Great infographic on Content....

MaaS Pros UK's curator insight, January 15, 5:59 AM

 A website is an online identity for your business. The content of your website must have the power to draw the attention of millions of Internet users worldwide. High quality and unique content is what an effective website must have.

http://www.maasprosfranchising.com/uk/content-writing/

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Affordable low-cost sonification system to assist the blind

Affordable low-cost sonification system to assist the blind | Open Mind & Open Heart | Scoop.it

An improved assistive technology system for the blind that uses sonification (visualization using sounds) has been developed byUniversidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) researchers, with the goal of replacing costly, bulky current systems.


How it works: Called Assistive Technology for Autonomous Displacement (ATAD), the system includes a stereo vision processor measures the difference of images captured by two cameras that are placed slightly apart (for image depth data) and calculates the distance to each point in the scene.

 

Then it transmits the information to the user by means of a sound code that gives information regarding the position and distance to the different obstacles,  using a small audio stereo amplifier and bone-conduction headphones.

 

“To represent height, the synthesizer emits up to eight different tones,” said co-developer Pablo Revuelta Sanz, who described the system in a doctoral thesis. In addition, the sounds are laterally located, so that something on the left sounds louder on that side, and vice versa.


Six profiles, ranging from one that is very simple, with a sound alarm that only works when one is going to crash into an obstacle, to others that describe the scene with 64 simultaneous sounds can be chosen.”

 

The prototype system was tested on 28 individuals, including sighted individuals, persons with limited vision, and blind persons. The final system was tested on eight blind persons in real environments.

 

According to Revuelta, “the aim of the system is to complement a cane or a guide dog, and not in any way replace them.” The estimated price of 250 euros is “very economical compared with other systems that are currently on the market.”

 

REFERENCES:

Revuelta Sanz, Pablo, ATAD: Assistive Technology for an Autonomous Displacement, UC3M Thesis, 2013



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