Globally, there has been a great deal of discussion regarding the potential for open educational resources (OER) in higher education (HE) to increase access, reduce costs and enhance educational quality. This was evident during the World OER Congress organised jointly by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and UNESCO in Paris, in June 2012. The outcome was the Paris OER Declaration, which makes ten recommendations relating to the need for advocacy, policy development, capacity-building and research. COL's interest and experience in OER cover all these aspects and go beyond HE to cover secondary education, teacher training and non-formal education. COL focuses on the importance of OER to promote and accelerate the achievement of internationally agreed goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals and the Education For All goals, wherein learning is seen as the key to development. This is inevitably leading us to pay closer attention to OER in the developing Commonwealth, and to the challenges of OER awareness, development, adaptation and reuse.