“We weten nog niet zo goed wat die belofte precies gaat inhouden,” zegt Christien Bok, programmamanager ICT en onderwijs van SURF over hoe digitalisering en online het onderwijs gaan transformeren. “Wat we willen bestaat nog niet. Misschien zitten we wel in een interbellum.”
Vier onderzoekers van Stanford University en Cornell University (Anderson cs) hebben onderzoek gedaan naar het engagement, de betrokkenheid, van studenten in massive open online courses. Zij hebben daarbij vooral gekeken naar interactie. De auteurs menen dat begrip van de wijze waarop lerenden interacteren in een MOOC van groot belang is omdat dit van invloed is op de wijze waarop zij effectief leren, en voor de wijze waarop je het beste online cursussen kunt ontwerpen.
Distance learners often rely on written feedback for learning and for motivation. But feedback that is ‘given’ to learners and that relies on praise to motivate does not engage learners in the process of self-development. We propose that an ipsative approach to assessment and feedback based on a comparison with a learner’s previous performance motivates distance learners by developing a self-awareness of progress that encourages learners to interact with feedback and apply this to future work. A study of a distance learning Masters programme in Educational Leadership indicated that formal self-referential (ipsative) feedback was largely absent. An ipsative feedback scheme was therefore developed in consultation with the tutors in which students completed a reflection on their progress in implementing past feedback. Tutors provided both an ipsative and a developmental response. Student and tutor evaluations of the scheme indicated that feedback on progress has the potential to motivate distance learners and to encourage them to act on developmental feedback, but can also raise grade expectations. Sustainable methods of applying ipsative feedback to a wide range of distance learning programmes are worth further exploration.
Peer assessment for massive open online courses (MOOCs)
Jeroen Bottema's insight:
The teach-learn-assess cycle in education is broken in a typical massive open online course (MOOC). Without formative assessment and feedback, MOOCs amount to information dump or broadcasting shows, not educational experiences. A number of remedies have been attempted to bring formative assessment back into MOOCs, each with its own limits and problems. The most widely applicable approach for all MOOCs to date is to use peer assessment to provide the necessary feedback. However, unmoderated peer assessment results suffer from a lack of credibility. Several methods are available today to improve on the accuracy of peer assessment results. Some combination of these methods may be necessary to make peer assessment results sufficiently accurate to be useful for formative assessment. Such results can also help to facilitate peer learning, online discussion forums, and may possibly augment summative evaluation for credentialing.
Massive Open Online Courses, shortly MOOCs, are a trending phenomenon in online education. Neither distance education nor online courses are new, but especially in the field of technology enhanced learning, MOOCs have been gathering enormous attention by the public. Thus, following the main idea of bringing education to a broad range of people, two universities in Graz developed an xMOOC platform for the German speaking area, mostly addressing people in Austria. Before the first courses started the authors reflected on how such a MOOC should be carried out and which key factors (didactical, technical and administrative) have to be considered. This research study strongly concentrates on developing a checklist for practitioners who would like to do an xMOOC in the future by examining different xMOOCs and reflecting first experiences gathered through daily work on MOOCs. It can be concluded that doing a Massive Open Online Course is much more challenging as maybe expected at first sight. Nevertheless the proposed checklist will help to overcome first barriers and provide solid steps towards one’s first online course.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are an example of a disruptive technology and are clearly innovative in terms of scale and the level of heated discussion around whether or not they are innovative pedagogically. Academic and mainstream press covering the phenomenon is divided as to whether MOOCs will be valuable to hundreds or thousands of participants. Within this editorial we give a short introduction to the topic of the special issue “Quality in MOOCs” as well as to the contributions, along with the papers related to the INNOQUAL journal’s permanent themes.
"Hoe kunnen we het beste leren van én met MOOCs. Willem van Valkenburg (TU Delft) bezocht MIT en trok lessen voor de verdere ontwikkeling van online onderwijs. De techniek is op orde, nu moet leren centraal staan. “There is no L in MOOC, but there should be.”"
"Badges have garnered great interest among scholars of digital media and learning. In addition, widespread initiatives such as Mozilla’s Open Badge Framework expand the potential of badging into the realm of open education. In this paper, we explicate the concept of open badges. We highlight some of the ways that researchers have examined badges as part of educational practice and also highlight the different definitions of open-ness that are employed in popular and scholarly thought. By considering badges from three different perspectives (motivation, pedagogy, and credential) and the concept of openness from three different perspectives (production, access and appropriation) we develop a framework to consider the tensions where these competing conceptions meet. This explication illuminates how the ideas of open and badges intersect, and clarifies situations where these concepts come into direct conflict or mutually enhance each other. Our analysis pinpoints and elucidates particular areas where research is needed to better understand the complex phenomenon of open badges, and also offers design considerations for developers, educators, and organizations that are actively involved in open badges."
Via de Open Education Europe website kwam ik bij literatuuronderzoek dat uitgevoerd is door Yousef, Chatti en Schroeder naar het gebruik van Video-Based Learning (VBL). Het hele onderzoek is te downloaden van de website, ik ga hier in op hun conclusies.
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