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Most new infectious diseases of humans come from the animal world. Focus here: research to understand and control zoonotic disease.
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Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008 - Vol. 19 No. 3 - March 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease jour...

Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008 - Vol. 19 No. 3 - March 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease jour... | One health | Scoop.it
Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States.
Marion Koopmans's insight:
interesting study, that should raise interest in plants/vegetables (and sewage contact) as source of viral foodborne illness, in addition to the well known zoonotic bacteria
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Drone could become mosquito weapon - MiamiHerald.com

Drone could become mosquito weapon - MiamiHerald.com | One health | Scoop.it
MiamiHerald.com Drone could become mosquito weapon MiamiHerald.com “You have no idea what the applications are going to be once you get it there.” In the Keys, the potential application is to help the largest and most challenging mosquito-control...
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Emergence and co-infections of West Ni... [Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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1743-422X-10-203.pdf

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Provenance and Geographic Spread of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus

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PLOS ONE: Antibody Responses in Humans Infected with Newly Emerging Strains of West Nile Virus in Europe

PLOS ONE: Antibody Responses in Humans Infected with Newly Emerging Strains of West Nile Virus in Europe | One health | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Eurosurveillance - View Article

Eurosurveillance - View Article | One health | Scoop.it
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Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin - Vol. 19 No. 4 - April 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Hepatitis E Virus and Porcine-derived Heparin - Vol. 19 No. 4 - April 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | One health | Scoop.it
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have been wondering about this potential route of transmission ever since filoviruses were found in pigs used among others for heparin production in the Philippines several years ago. The process is expected to inactivate, although it does produce biologically active protein.

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Veterinary Research | Full text | Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe

Veterinary Research | Full text | Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe | One health | Scoop.it
After the unexpected emergence of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in Europe in 2011 causing a new economically important disease in ruminants.
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Hendra virus: Hendra Virus: A new zoonosis and the race for a vaccine

Hendra virus: Hendra Virus: A new zoonosis and the race for a vaccine | One health | Scoop.it
Katharine Sharon's peer review of Charlie Alex' timeline: This timeline is not only visually stunning, it also clearly and succinctly presents how Hendra virus spread over the nearly two decades since the discovery of the virus ...
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Review: Influenza virus in pigs - Molecular Immunology

Review: Influenza virus in pigs - Molecular Immunology | One health | Scoop.it

Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as “mixing vessels” since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in “influenzology” is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future “gold standard” large-animal model in immunology.


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PLOS ONE: The Genome Sequence of Lone Star Virus, a Highly Divergent Bunyavirus Found in the Amblyomma americanum Tick

PLOS ONE: The Genome Sequence of Lone Star Virus, a Highly Divergent Bunyavirus Found in the Amblyomma americanum Tick | One health | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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An Airborne Transmissible Avian Influenza H5 Hemaggl... [Science. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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WJV-2-57.pdf

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Mosquito Protein Kinase G Phosphorylates Flavivirus NS5 and Alters Flight Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae | Abstract

Mosquito Protein Kinase G Phosphorylates Flavivirus NS5 and Alters Flight Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae | Abstract | One health | Scoop.it
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CDC - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus

CDC - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus | One health | Scoop.it
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Flu Homepage - Information on H3N2 Variant Influenza A Virus.
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Trench Fever: An Ancient Zoonosis

Trench Fever: An Ancient Zoonosis | One health | Scoop.it
Trench fever is an ancient disease with a surprisingly short history. Named after its discovery in the trenches of World War I, its case history is only about a century old. Yet, the louse transmit...
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Hepatitis E virus in Scottish blood donors. [Vox Sang. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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study confirms previous findings, yet HEV rarely cause of illness

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Evolutionary dynamics of west nile virus ... [PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Evolutionary dynamics of west nile virus ... [PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | One health | Scoop.it
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Rabbit and human hepatitis E virus strains belong ... [Virus Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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S0140673613611253.pdf

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Rats, Cities, People, and Pathogens: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Literature Regarding the Ecology of Rat-Associated Zoonoses in Urban Centers | Abstract

Rats, Cities, People, and Pathogens: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Literature Regarding the Ecology of Rat-Associated Zoonoses in Urban Centers | Abstract | One health | Scoop.it
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Genotype 4 Hepatitis E Virus in France: an a... [Clin Infect Dis. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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Goodbye smallpox vaccination, hello monkeypox

Goodbye smallpox vaccination, hello monkeypox | One health | Scoop.it

In 8 May 1980, the World Health Organisation declared that “the world and its peoples are free from smallpox.” Through decades of intense vaccination, this once fatal disease had been wiped out. It was a singular victory and having won it, countries around the world discontinued the vaccination programmes. After all, why protect against a disease that no longer exists, except in a few isolated stocks?

 

Unfortunately, this is not a rhetorical question. The smallpox vaccine did more than protect against smallpox. It also reduced the risk of contracting a related illness called monkeypox, which produces the same combination of scabby bumps and fever. It’s milder than smallpox but it’s still a serious affliction. In Africa, where monkeypox originates from, it kills anywhere from 1-10% of those who are infected. And more and more people are becoming infected.

 

Anne Rimoin from the University of California, Los Angeles compared data on the virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo over the last three decades. She found that, during those years, monkeypox has become 20 times more common in humans. In one particular area, 72 people out of every million were infected each year between 1981 and 1986. Between 2005 and 2007, that figure rose to 1442 per million. Rimoin thinks that we eased up the pressure on smallpox vaccination too soon. Between 1981 and 1985, only 404 cases turned up in all of Africa, and simulations predicted that the disease was unlikely to spread too far in a human population before dying out. This was no public health threat. In 1986, even the monitoring programme was stopped. In 2005 however, Rimoin’s group, together with the DRC Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization set up a new round of monkeypox surveillance and they spent two years collecting data. Their research showed that the disease is gaining ground.

 

Rimoin found that monkeypox was disproportionately affecting children and almost all of those who fell sick were born after 1980, when the smallpox vaccination programme was halted in the DRC. The vaccine wasn’t a perfect defence against monkeypox but it was still around 85% effective. Among people who were born during the vaccination era, those who were immunised were 5 times less likely to develop monkeypox than their protected peers. And this protection is clearly long-lasting; even 25 years on, they could still ward off the related virus.

 

These figures are probably underestimates too. The region’s inconsistent healthcare isn’t exactly conducive to accurate disease monitoring and Rimoin says that her team had word of many more cases, but couldn’t always check them out because of their remote location.

 

Monkeypox is spread by animals including squirrels and, fairly obviously, monkeys. As humans encroach upon the DRC’s tropical rainforests, the risk of being exposed to an infected carrier grows. Indeed, Rimoin found that the odds of contracting monkeypox were higher for people living near forested areas, and for men. As civil strife continues to affect the DRC, locals are being forced to rely more on hunting to get enough food and that brings men in close contact with furry viral reservoirs.

 

It’s an emerging threat, but Rimoin isn’t calling for smallpox vaccination to resume. Doing so would be logistically difficult in an area where even collecting data can be fraught. It might be better to take a more targeted approach, vaccinating only health workers who treat infected patients, and people who come into frequent contact with animal carriers. It may also be worth educating local people about the dangers of handling carrier species and the benefits of isolating people who show the very obvious symptoms, until they can be treated.

 

But most importantly, Rimoin wants active surveillance in regions where the virus circulates, especially since there are still so many unknowns about the virus. We need to better understand how it moves from human to human (and from animal to human), how often it’s fatal, or what the complications are.

 

It’s a good opportunity to take action now, at a time when the monkeypox is still confined to specific areas. Things might not stay that way. In 2003, there was a bizarre outbreak in the United States, as rodents from Ghana brought the disease to American prairie dogs, who handed it over to humans. All sorts of rodents the world over might become reservoirs for the disease and Rimoin writes, “If monkeypox were to become established in a wildlife reservoir outside Africa, the public health setback would be difficult to reverse.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Chris Upton + helpers
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H5N1 Hybrid Viruses Bearing 2009/H1N1 Virus Genes Tr... [Science. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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Avian influenza A virus H7N9 on VDU

Avian influenza A virus H7N9 on VDU | One health | Scoop.it
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