Oceanography
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Okeanos Explorer | Expeditions | Mid-Cayman Rise Expedition 2011 | Expedition Purpose

http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/explorations/ex1104/background/edu/purpose.html

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Webmaster, O.E., ed. "Okeanos Explorer." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA, 4 Dec 2012. Web. 3 Nov 2013. <http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/explorations/ex1104/background/edu/purpose.html>.


A general definiton of hydrothermal vents. Explores their history, what they are and why they are important to the oceanography world.

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Manganese deposits of the Devonian Magnitogorsk palaeovolcanic belt (Southern Urals, Russia).

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Brusnitsyn, A, and I Zhukov. "Manganese deposits of the Devonian Magnitogorsk palaeovolcanic belt (Southern Urals, Russia).." Ore Geology Reviews. 47. (2012): 42-58. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6246812&db=a9h&AN=76913855&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

While this article focuses on volcanic activity as a whole, it includes two types of deposits that are a direct result of hydrothermal vents. Even in volcanic areas, there is a large role to be played by hydrothermal vents.

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Bacterial and archaeal phylotypes associated with distinct mineralogical layers of a white smoker spire from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site (9°N, East Pacific Rise)

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Kormas, Konstantinos; et. al. "Bacterial and archaeal phylotypes associated with distinct mineralogical layers of a white smoker spire from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site (9°N, East Pacific Rise).." Environmental Microbiology. 8.5 (2006): 909-920. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6246812&db=a9h&AN=20340314&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

The article specifies the correlation between the mineral groupings around and in white smoker hydrothermal vents and the specific bacteria and phylotypes inhabiting those sections.

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Biomarkers Reveal Diverse Microbial Communities in Black Smoker Sulfides from Turtle Pits (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Recent) and Yaman Kasy (Russia, Silurian)

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Blumenberg, Martin; et. al. "Biomarkers Reveal Diverse Microbial Communities in Black Smoker Sulfides from Turtle Pits (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Recent) and Yaman Kasy (Russia, Silurian).." Geomicrobiology Journal. 29.1 (2012): 66-75. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6246812&db=a9h&AN=67098341&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

This article researches the specific organisms and communities of the black smoker hydrothermal vents. These are apparently quite varied from white smoker vents. 

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The potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents: a new avenue for life in the Universe

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Christopher JM Bell's insight:

Perez, Noel; et al. "The potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents: a new avenue for life in the Universe?." Astrophysics and Space Science346.2 (2013): 327-331. EBSCOhost. Web. 22 Sep 2013. This article finds that the heated water coming out of hydrothermal vents contain ifrared thermal radiation. This is also emitted by sunlight, though in higher quantities. Scientists believe that certain organisms could thrive by the vents using lower amounts of infrared radiation to reproduce photosynthesis. This would mean numerous new possibilities for underwater life.

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Hydrothermal Vent

http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/fieldcourses06/PapersMarineEcologyArticles/HydrothermalVent.html

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Brooks, David. "Hydrothermal Vent." JrScience. JrScience, 5 Jun 2006. Web. 3 Nov 2013. <http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/fieldcourses06/PapersMarineEcologyArticles/HydrothermalVent.html>.


This informal paper goes in depth on the differences between the two types of hydrothermal vents: Black smokers and White smokers. It involves details such as temperature and typical mineral composition.

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Coupled modeling of thermics and hydrogeology with the Cast3M code: application to the Rainbow hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°14 ′N).

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Perez, Florian; et. al. "Coupled modeling of thermics and hydrogeology with the Cast3M code: application to the Rainbow hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°14 ′N).." Computational Geosciences. 17.2 (2013): 217-237. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6246812&db=a9h&AN=86052225&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

In this, the authors discuss a new tool and software developed specifically for hydrothermal circulation, and how they are studying the rainbow hydrothermal field where there is an influx of hydrogen from the vents.

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Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid- Ocean Ridge

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Jaeschke, A; et.al. "Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid- Ocean Ridge.."Geobiology. 10.6 (2012): 548-561. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6246812&db=a9h&AN=82469938&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

 

This paper provides further evidence suggesting the type of vent affects the microbial communities that thrive around the vent. They used geochemical and microbiological methods to study the microbial comunities present in the newly found "Loki's Castle".

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The role of black smokers in the Cu mass balance of the oceanic crust.

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Hannington, Mark D. "The role of black smokers in the Cu mass balance of the oceanic crust.." Earth & Planetary Science Letters.. 374. (2013): 215-226. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. <http://ezproxy.madisoncollege.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6246812&db=a9h&AN=89436818&site=ehost-live&scope=site>.

This paper details the resources of metals that "black smoker" hydrothermal vents provide and how they control much of the metal budget of the seafloor. It even has a role in tectonics, namely subduction and the release of certain metals!

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Microdistribution of Faunal Assemblages at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Ocean

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Marsh, Leigh;et al. "Microdistribution of Faunal Assemblages at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents in the Southern Ocean.." PLoS ONE 7.10 (2012): 1-19.EBSCOhost. Web. 22 Sep 2013.

This articles talks on the fauna surrounding hydrothermal vents. They have found that some vents have more fauna and more nutritional value than others. Ths leads them to believe that some vents, whether it be by size, and or substance are more capable of supporting fauna communities than other.

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