Nuclear Physics
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# Nuclear Physics

Selected contemporary works in Nuclear Physics
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## Recent Advances in On-Line Laser Spectroscopy

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## Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

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## Designing a new structure for storing nuclear data

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## Nuclear structure of 140Te with N = 88: Structural symmetry and asymmetry in Te isotopes with respect to the double-shell closure Z = 50 and N = 82

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## ORNL achieves milestone with plutonium-238 sample

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## Study of the 238U(d,p) surrogate reaction via the simultaneous measurement of gamma-decay and fission probabilities

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## The X-Array and SATURN: A new decay-spectroscopy station for CARIBU

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## The High Rigidity Spectrometer for FRIB

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## The Future of Fusion Power

#### **The basics**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/info1-2.jpg "enter image title here")

Fusion works by heating two types of hydrogen gas, known as tritium and deuterium, to 100 million degrees Celsius, causing the atoms’ nuclei to collide and release energy. In theory, it should be possible to turn this process into an incredibly high output power station, but no one has yet managed to generate more energy that in took to heat the atoms in the first place.

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#### **The plan**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/plan.jpg "enter image title here")

Scientists worldwide are confident that with enough research, a commercially viable fusion reactor will be possible. The main focus in this area is building and refining tokamaks: doughnut-shaped chambers that use magnets to control and confine the incredibly hot gas. The world’s biggest tokomak, the Joint European Torus (JET), has already generated 16MW of power – a good start, but not nearly enough to be commercially viable.

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#### **The alternative**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/alt.jpg "enter image title here")

Tokamaks are not the only approach for fusion, as they are potentially unsafe if the magnetic field is disrupted, so an alternative has been created by scientists at the Max Planck Institute named Wendelstein 7-X. It has a flatter doughnut shape, and produces a twisting action rather than a current to control the superheated gas. Whether it’s an improvement is yet to be seen – it won’t be switched on for another few weeks.

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#### **The next step**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/next-step.jpg "enter image title here")

For fans of the tokamak, however, the next step is to build a much larger one, capable of producing 500MW, which is approximately the same as a small fossil fuel power plant. Known as ITER, it is halfway through construction in the south of France. Work has been undergoing for five years, but the tokamak won’t be complete for another four. It is hoped, however that when it’s up and running in 2019 it will demonstrate that fusion really can be commercially viable.

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#### **The move to commercial**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/com.jpg "enter image title here")

If all goes well with ITER, the next step is the construction of DEMO, a fusion power plant hooked up to the main grid. This would be the final demonstration before commercial fusion plants begin to be built, so if all goes to plan we’re looking at around a 20 years wait for commercial fusion. And yes, people have been saying 20 years for commercial fusion for well over 20 year already, but this time really could be it.

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#### **The carbon-free future**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/carb.jpg "enter image title here")

Fusion reactions only produce a small amount of inert helium, so as energy sources go, fusion is one of the better energy forms from an environmental point of view. Add the fact that 1kg of fusion fuel can produce the same as ten million kilograms of fossil fuel, and the technology could put a serious dent in global pollution.

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#### **The high-powered possibilities**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/poss.jpg "enter image title here")

Commercial fusion reactors would be an incredible thing for humanity. There is enough fuel in our environment to keep the power going for millions of years, and we could generate far more than we do at present. Energy-intensive projects that are currently just too demanding to achieve could be built. Infrastructure projects unlike any previously seen would be possible. It could also have remarkable implications for our expansion into space.

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#### **The reality**

![enter image description here](http://factor-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/real.jpg "enter image title here")

Fusion is still some way off, but while it may seem like the technology whose time will never come, it really will arrive in our lifetime. In a few short decades we’ll finally be reaping the benefits of this long-dreamed-of energy source.

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## High-K isomerism in rotational nuclei

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## Lifetime measurements of 17C excited states and three-body and continuum effects

We studied transition rates for the lowest $1/{2}^{+}$ and $5/{2}^{+}$ excited states of $^{17}\mathrm{C}$ through lifetime measurements with the GRETINA array using the recoil-distance method. The present measurements provide a model-independent determination of transition strengths giving the values of $B(M1;1/{2}^{+}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}3/{2}_{\mathrm{g}.\mathrm{s}.}^{+})=1.{04}_{\ensuremath{-}0.12}^{+0.03}\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{\ensuremath{-}2}{\ensuremath{\mu}}_{N}^{2}$ and $B(M1;5/{2}^{+}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}3/{2}_{\mathrm{g}.\mathrm{s}.}^{+})=7.{12}_{\ensuremath{-}0.96}^{+1.27}\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{\ensuremath{-}2}{\ensuremath{\mu}}_{N}^{2}$. The quenched $M1$ transition strength for the $1/{2}^{+}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}3/{2}_{\mathrm{g}.\mathrm{s}.}^{+}$ transition, with respect to the $5/{2}^{+}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}3/{2}_{\mathrm{g}.\mathrm{s}.}^{+}$ transition, has been confirmed with greater precision. The current data are compared to importance-truncated no-core shell model calculations addressing effects due to continuum and three-body forces.
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## Toward complete spectroscopy of 167Lu

Excited states in $^{167}\mathrm{Lu}$ were populated in the $^{123}\mathrm{Sb}(^{48}\mathrm{Ca},4n)$ reaction at 203 MeV and decay $\ensuremath{\gamma}$ rays measured using the Gammasphere spectrometer array. Two triaxial strongly deformed bands were identified previously and interpreted as zero- and one-phonon wobbling excitations. As a result of more extensive band search, the level scheme has been considerably extended to include ten new rotational bands and some $630\ensuremath{\gamma}$-ray transitions. A number of interband linking transitions were revealed, so that all but two bands could be connected with each other. Configurations are proposed for all new bands based on measured observables, with the help of cranked shell model calculations. A $\ensuremath{\gamma}$-ray sequence, previously suggested as a triaxial strongly deformed band based on quasiparticle excitations coexisting with the wobbling excitation in the triaxial potential well, has now been determined to be a signature partner of a coupled band, associated with a normal deformed five-quasiparticle configuration. The possibility of two new bands being associated with triaxial deformation is discussed.
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## Development of a low-mass and high-efficiency charged particle detector

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## The Second Beam-Line and Experimental Area at n_TOF: A New Opportunity for Challenging Neutron Measurements at CERN

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## Transfer-induced fission in inverse kinematics: Impact on experimental and evaluated nuclear data bases

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## Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation

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## Topical issue on perspectives on #nuclear data for the next decade

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## Forging the Link between Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure

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## γ-soft 146Ba and the role of non-axial shapes at N~90

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## Collective excitations of 96Ru by means of (p,p'γ) experiments

Background: One-phonon mixed-symmetry quadrupole excitations are a well-known feature of near-spherical, vibrational nuclei. Their interpretation as a fundamental building block of vibrational structures is supported by the identification of multiphonon states resulting from a coupling of fully-symmetric and mixed-symmetric quadrupole phonons. In addition, the observation of strong $M1$ transitions between low-lying ${3}^{\ensuremath{-}}$ and ${4}^{+}$ states has been interpreted as an evidence for one-phonon mixed-symmetry excitations of octupole and hexadecapole character.
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## Development of the NPL gamma-ray spectrometer NANA for traceable nuclear decay and structure studies

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## N = Z nuclei: a laboratory for neutron–proton collective mode

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## Effect of noble gas ion pre-irradiation on deuterium retention in tungsten

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## December 17, 1938: Physicist Otto Hahn Discovers Nuclear Fission

On this day in 1938 Otto Hahn discovered the nuclear fission, the process by which the nucleus of an atom is broken apart to produce enormous amounts of energy.
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