Nuclear Physics
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Cosmic Rays, Neutrons And The Mutation Rate In Evolution

Cosmic Rays, Neutrons And The Mutation Rate In Evolution | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
If background levels of neutron radiation can explain errors in computer memory, then it should also explain errors in DNA replication.
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Nuclear Physics
Selected contemporary works in Nuclear Physics
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Unexpected distribution of v1f7/2 strength in 49Ca

Unexpected distribution of v1f7/2 strength in 49Ca | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
The calcium isotopes have emerged as a critical testing ground for new microscopically derived shell-model interactions, and a great deal of experimental and theoretical focus has been directed toward this region. We investigate the relative spectroscopic strengths associated with $1{f}_{7/2}$ neutron hole states in $^{47,49}\mathrm{Ca}$ following one-neutron knockout reactions from $^{48,50}\mathrm{Ca}$. The observed reduction of strength populating the $7/{2}_{1}^{\ensuremath{-}}$ state in $^{49}\mathrm{Ca}$, as compared to $^{47}\mathrm{Ca}$, is inconsistent with shell-model calculations using both phenomenological interactions such as GXPF1, and interactions derived from microscopically based two- and three-nucleon forces. The result suggests a fragmentation of the $l=3$ strength to higher-lying states as suggested by the microscopic calculations, but the observed magnitude of the reduction is not reproduced in any shell-model description.
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Getting to the Bottom of an Antineutrino Anomaly

Getting to the Bottom of an Antineutrino Anomaly | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
The Daya Bay Collaboration reports that sterile neutrinos probably aren’t behind a puzzling deficit in detected antineutrinos at nuclear reactors.
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The idea of creating a new universe in the lab is no joke

The idea of creating a new universe in the lab is no joke | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Physicists aren’t often reprimanded for using risqué humour in their academic writings, but in 1991 that is exactly what happened to the cosmologist Andrei Linde at Stanford University. He had submitted a draft article entitled ‘Hard Art of th
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Scientists develop synthetic diamond-based detectors

Scientists develop synthetic diamond-based detectors | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
A research team of Tomsk Polytechnic University is participating in the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). The TPU scientists were assigned to analyze operatin
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Ab initio calculation of the neutron-proton mass difference

Ab initio calculation of the neutron-proton mass difference | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Elementary science textbooks often state that protons have the same mass as neutrons. This is not far from the truth—the neutron is about 0.14% heavier (and less stable) than the proton. The precise value is important, because if the mass difference were bigger or smaller, the world as we know it would likely not exist. Borsanyi et al. calculated the mass difference to high precision using a sophisticated approach that took into account the various forces that exist within a nucleon. The calculations reveal how finely tuned our universe needs to be.

Science , this issue p. [1452][1]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.1257050
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Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition: Proceedings of a Workshop

Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition: Proceedings of a Workshop | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Download a PDF of "Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition" by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for free. Description: The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE) is responsible for the safe cleanup of sites used for nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is the most volumetrically significant waste stream generated by the DOE cleanup program. LLW is also generated through commercial activities such as nuclear power plant operations and medical treatments.

The laws and regulations related to the disposal of LLW in the United States have evolved over time and across agencies and states, resulting in a complex regulatory structure. DOE asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to organize a workshop to discuss approaches for the management and disposition of LLW. Participants explored the key physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of low-level waste that govern its safe and secure management and disposal in aggregate and in individual waste streams, and how key characteristics of low level waste are incorporated into standards, orders, and regulations that govern the management and disposal of LLW in the United States and in other major waste-producing countries. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
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Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of
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NUSYM 2017 - 4th to 7th September in GANIL

The 7th edition of the International Symposium on Nuclear Symmetry Energy will be held in GANIL from 4th to 7th September, 2017.
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Activity measurement of 60Fe through the decay of 60mCo and confirmation of its half-life

The half-life of the neutron-rich nuclide $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ has been in dispute in recent years. A measurement in 2009 published a value of $(2.62\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.04)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ years, almost twice that of the previously accepted value from 1984 of $(1.49\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.27)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr. This longer half-life was confirmed in 2015 by a second measurement, resulting in a value of $(2.50\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.12)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr. All three half-life measurements used the grow-in of the $\ensuremath{\gamma}$-ray lines in $^{60}\mathrm{Ni}$ from the decay of the ground state of $^{60}\mathrm{Co}$ (${t}_{1/2}=5.27$ yr) to determine the activity of a sample with a known number of $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ atoms. In contrast, the work presented here measured the $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ activity directly via the 58.6 keV $\ensuremath{\gamma}$-ray line from the short-lived isomeric state of $^{60}\mathrm{Co}$ (${t}_{1/2}=10.5$ min), thus being independent of any possible contamination from long-lived $^{60\mathrm{g}}\mathrm{Co}$. A fraction of the material from the 2015 experiment with a known number of $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ atoms was used for the activity measurement, resulting in a half-life value of $(2.72\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.16)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr, confirming again the longer half-life. In addition, $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}/^{56}\mathrm{Fe}$ isotopic ratios of samples with two different dilutions of this material were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the number of $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ atoms. Combining this with our activity measurement resulted in a half-life value of $(2.69\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.28)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr, again agreeing with the longer half-life.
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Does Nuclear Physics Hold the Key to Finally Unfolding the Standard Model?

Does Nuclear Physics Hold the Key to Finally Unfolding the Standard Model? | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
So far to date, scientists have found that the best way to unfold new secrets about the fundamental Universe is to collide particles with one another with
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Nuclear reactions in exploding stars

Nuclear reactions in exploding stars | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Astrophysical reactions that are almost impossible to measure can now be studied in the laboratory The field of Nuclear Astrophysics is an exciting field that brings together scientists from many different communities: Stellar Observers, astrophysics modellers, meteorite experts, nuclear experimentalists and theorists, atomic physicists...and the list goes on. We all come together to answer some…
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NuPECC - Long-range plan for Nuclear Physics 2017

NuPECC - Long-range plan for Nuclear Physics 2017 | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
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The Workings of an Ancient Nuclear Reactor

The Workings of an Ancient Nuclear Reactor | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Two billion years ago parts of an African uranium deposit spontaneously underwent nuclear fission. The details of this remarkable phenomenon are just now becoming clear
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Radiation May Be Required for Life

Radiation May Be Required for Life | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Deep in the Earth, a series of experiments is revealing how life suffers when it's deprived of background levels of radiation.
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Nuclear bombs trigger a strange effect that can fry your electronics

Nuclear bombs trigger a strange effect that can fry your electronics | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
The EMP caused by a small nuclear weapon can be devastating, though only in certain situations.
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On Closed Shells in Nuclei I and II

On Closed Shells in Nuclei I and II | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it

The monumental works by Maria Goeppert-Mayer:

1. https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.74.235

2. https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.75.1969


Experimental facts are summarized to show that nuclei with 20, 50, 82, or 126 neutrons or protons are particularly stable.

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In the Field Feasibility of a Simple Method to Check for Radioactivity in Commodities and in the Environment

In the Field Feasibility of a Simple Method to Check for Radioactivity in Commodities and in the Environment | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Introduction: Some release of radionuclides into the environment can be expected from the growing number of nuclear plants, either in or out of service. The citizen and the big organization could be both interested in simple and innovative methods for checking the radiological safety of their environment and of commodities, starting from foods. Methods: In this work three methods to detect radioactivity are briefly compared focusing on the most recent, which converts a smartphone into a radiation counter. Results: The results of a simple sensitivity test are presented showing the measure of the activity of reference sources put at different distances from each sensor. Discussion: The three methods are discussed in terms of availability, technology, sensitivity, resolution and usefulness. The reported results can be usefully transferred into a radiological emergency scenario and they also offer some interesting implication for our current everyday life, but show that the hardware of the tested smart-phone can detect only high levels of radioactivity. However the technology could be interesting to build a working detection and measurement chain which could start from a diffused and networked first screening before the final high resolution analysis.
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Niels Bohr: "Neutron Capture and Nuclear Constitution" (1936)

Niels Bohr: "Neutron Capture and Nuclear Constitution" (1936) | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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New short-lived isotope 223Np and the absence of the Z = 92 subshell closure near N = 126

New short-lived isotope 223Np and the absence of the Z = 92 subshell closure near N = 126 | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
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A new method for measuring the neutron lifetime using an in situ neutron detector

A new method for measuring the neutron lifetime using an in situ neutron detector | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
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Surface composition and structure of divertor tiles following the JET tokamak operation with the ITER-like wall

Surface composition and structure of divertor tiles following the JET tokamak operation with the ITER-like wall | Nuclear Physics | Scoop.it
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The Manhattan Project, Part 1

The first of two episodes that tell the story of an unprecedented, U.S. government effort to beat Nazi Germany in the race to construct a nuclear weapon
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