Nuclear Physics
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Nuclear Physics

Selected contemporary works in Nuclear Physics
 Scooped by Theo J. Mertzimekis

IUPAP WG.9

(2017). IUPAP WG.9. Nuclear Physics News: Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 3-4. doi: 10.1080/10619127.2017.1315280
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MSU Distinguished Professor named American Physical Society editor in chief

MSU Distinguished Professor Michael Thoennessen has been named editor in chief of the American Physical Society. The APS editor in chief is responsible for all APS peer-reviewed research journals. Thoennessen assumes the position on Sept. 1, 2017.
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NuPECC - Long-range plan for Nuclear Physics 2017

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The Workings of an Ancient Nuclear Reactor

Two billion years ago parts of an African uranium deposit spontaneously underwent nuclear fission. The details of this remarkable phenomenon are just now becoming clear
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Radiation May Be Required for Life

Deep in the Earth, a series of experiments is revealing how life suffers when it's deprived of background levels of radiation.
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Nuclear bombs trigger a strange effect that can fry your electronics

The EMP caused by a small nuclear weapon can be devastating, though only in certain situations.
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On Closed Shells in Nuclei I and II

The monumental works by Maria Goeppert-Mayer:

Experimental facts are summarized to show that nuclei with 20, 50, 82, or 126 neutrons or protons are particularly stable.

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In the Field Feasibility of a Simple Method to Check for Radioactivity in Commodities and in the Environment

Introduction: Some release of radionuclides into the environment can be expected from the growing number of nuclear plants, either in or out of service. The citizen and the big organization could be both interested in simple and innovative methods for checking the radiological safety of their environment and of commodities, starting from foods. Methods: In this work three methods to detect radioactivity are briefly compared focusing on the most recent, which converts a smartphone into a radiation counter. Results: The results of a simple sensitivity test are presented showing the measure of the activity of reference sources put at different distances from each sensor. Discussion: The three methods are discussed in terms of availability, technology, sensitivity, resolution and usefulness. The reported results can be usefully transferred into a radiological emergency scenario and they also offer some interesting implication for our current everyday life, but show that the hardware of the tested smart-phone can detect only high levels of radioactivity. However the technology could be interesting to build a working detection and measurement chain which could start from a diffused and networked first screening before the final high resolution analysis.
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Niels Bohr: "Neutron Capture and Nuclear Constitution" (1936)

Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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Simulator for Small Modular Reactors - Nuclear Power - IAEA

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New short-lived isotope 223Np and the absence of the Z = 92 subshell closure near N = 126

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A new method for measuring the neutron lifetime using an in situ neutron detector

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Surface composition and structure of divertor tiles following the JET tokamak operation with the ITER-like wall

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Nuclear and Quark Matter at High Temperature

In high-temperature field theory applied to nuclear physics, in particular to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, it is a longstanding question how hadrons precisely transform into a quark-gluon matter and back. The change in the effective number of degrees of freedom is rather gradual than sudden, despite the identification of a single deconfinement temperature. In order to gain an insight into this issue while considering the structure of the QGP we review the spectral function approach and its main consequences for the medium properties, including the shear viscosity. The figure plots a sample spectral density on the left and the effective number of degrees of freedom (energy density relative to the free Boltzmann gas) to the right. Two thin spectral lines result in a doubled Stefan-Boltzmann limit (SB), while any finite width reduces the result down to a single SB. When spectral lines become wide, their individual contributions to energy density and pressure drops. Continuum parts have negligible contribution. This causes the melting of hadrons like butter melts in the Sun, with no latent heat in this process.
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Unexpected distribution of v1f7/2 strength in 49Ca

The calcium isotopes have emerged as a critical testing ground for new microscopically derived shell-model interactions, and a great deal of experimental and theoretical focus has been directed toward this region. We investigate the relative spectroscopic strengths associated with $1{f}_{7/2}$ neutron hole states in $^{47,49}\mathrm{Ca}$ following one-neutron knockout reactions from $^{48,50}\mathrm{Ca}$. The observed reduction of strength populating the $7/{2}_{1}^{\ensuremath{-}}$ state in $^{49}\mathrm{Ca}$, as compared to $^{47}\mathrm{Ca}$, is inconsistent with shell-model calculations using both phenomenological interactions such as GXPF1, and interactions derived from microscopically based two- and three-nucleon forces. The result suggests a fragmentation of the $l=3$ strength to higher-lying states as suggested by the microscopic calculations, but the observed magnitude of the reduction is not reproduced in any shell-model description.
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Getting to the Bottom of an Antineutrino Anomaly

The Daya Bay Collaboration reports that sterile neutrinos probably aren’t behind a puzzling deficit in detected antineutrinos at nuclear reactors.
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The idea of creating a new universe in the lab is no joke

Physicists aren’t often reprimanded for using risqué humour in their academic writings, but in 1991 that is exactly what happened to the cosmologist Andrei Linde at Stanford University. He had submitted a draft article entitled ‘Hard Art of th
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Scientists develop synthetic diamond-based detectors

A research team of Tomsk Polytechnic University is participating in the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). The TPU scientists were assigned to analyze operatin
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Ab initio calculation of the neutron-proton mass difference

Elementary science textbooks often state that protons have the same mass as neutrons. This is not far from the truth—the neutron is about 0.14% heavier (and less stable) than the proton. The precise value is important, because if the mass difference were bigger or smaller, the world as we know it would likely not exist. Borsanyi et al. calculated the mass difference to high precision using a sophisticated approach that took into account the various forces that exist within a nucleon. The calculations reveal how finely tuned our universe needs to be.

Science , this issue p. [1452][1]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.1257050
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Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition: Proceedings of a Workshop

Download a PDF of "Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition" by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for free. Description: The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE) is responsible for the safe cleanup of sites used for nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is the most volumetrically significant waste stream generated by the DOE cleanup program. LLW is also generated through commercial activities such as nuclear power plant operations and medical treatments.

The laws and regulations related to the disposal of LLW in the United States have evolved over time and across agencies and states, resulting in a complex regulatory structure. DOE asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to organize a workshop to discuss approaches for the management and disposition of LLW. Participants explored the key physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of low-level waste that govern its safe and secure management and disposal in aggregate and in individual waste streams, and how key characteristics of low level waste are incorporated into standards, orders, and regulations that govern the management and disposal of LLW in the United States and in other major waste-producing countries. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
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The nucleon spin explained using lattice QCD simulations

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Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of
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TRIUMF Science Week: Nuclear Physics Workshop (10 July 2017)

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NUSYM 2017 - 4th to 7th September in GANIL

The 7th edition of the International Symposium on Nuclear Symmetry Energy will be held in GANIL from 4th to 7th September, 2017.
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Activity measurement of 60Fe through the decay of 60mCo and confirmation of its half-life

The half-life of the neutron-rich nuclide $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ has been in dispute in recent years. A measurement in 2009 published a value of $(2.62\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.04)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ years, almost twice that of the previously accepted value from 1984 of $(1.49\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.27)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr. This longer half-life was confirmed in 2015 by a second measurement, resulting in a value of $(2.50\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.12)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr. All three half-life measurements used the grow-in of the $\ensuremath{\gamma}$-ray lines in $^{60}\mathrm{Ni}$ from the decay of the ground state of $^{60}\mathrm{Co}$ (${t}_{1/2}=5.27$ yr) to determine the activity of a sample with a known number of $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ atoms. In contrast, the work presented here measured the $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ activity directly via the 58.6 keV $\ensuremath{\gamma}$-ray line from the short-lived isomeric state of $^{60}\mathrm{Co}$ (${t}_{1/2}=10.5$ min), thus being independent of any possible contamination from long-lived $^{60\mathrm{g}}\mathrm{Co}$. A fraction of the material from the 2015 experiment with a known number of $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ atoms was used for the activity measurement, resulting in a half-life value of $(2.72\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.16)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr, confirming again the longer half-life. In addition, $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}/^{56}\mathrm{Fe}$ isotopic ratios of samples with two different dilutions of this material were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the number of $^{60}\mathrm{Fe}$ atoms. Combining this with our activity measurement resulted in a half-life value of $(2.69\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.28)\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{6}$ yr, again agreeing with the longer half-life.
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